characterization for planetary

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Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

1

In
-
situ materials
characterization

for planetary
exploration

Eng Keong Chua

echua@andrew.cmu.edu

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

2

Outline

Motivation

Instruments on
lander

Working principle

Recent development

XRD/XRF (
CheMin
)

Portable XRD/XRF (Terra)

Instruments on orbiter

Working principle

Recent development

Portable FT
-
IR



In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

Mars

Pathfinder

Mars Express

3

Motivation


In situ analyses of surface rocks and soils

Investigation the structure and composition at
the site by
a
nalysis tools integrated into
tele
-
operated robot

Benefits:

Survey before planning human to a site of
interest


Acquire information for decisions in real time
at the site with remote control

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

4

Instruments deployed by space
agency

Lander

Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

X
-
Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Alpha Proton X
-
Ray Spectrometry

X
-
Ray Spectroscopy



In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

Viking 1

Beagle 2

Mars

Pathfinder

I
dentify

organic molecule


or atmosphere composition


(NASA Viking 1
-

1976)

GCMS

setup

Gas chromatography (GC) separates
chemical mixture into pure chemicals

Mass spectrometer (MS) identifies and
quantifies the chemicals

Data from mass
spectometer

is sent to a
computer to plot mass spectrum

5

Gas Chromatography Mass
Spectrometry

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

Principle of GCMS

Decomposition of the pure molecules in MS,
data is plot as mass spectrum

This observed spectrum is compared with published


patterns of known


decomposition that is


stored in a fragmentation


library to identify the


organic molecule

6

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

Identify and determined concentration of
elements: (NASA Viking 1
-

1976)

solid,powdered

and liquid samples

XRF setup





X
-
Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

7

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

Viking 1

Principle of XRF

Measures characteristics X
-
rays of fluorescent
emission produced by a irradiated sample




8

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

Analyses the chemical element
composition of a sample (NASA Mars
Pathfinder
-

1996)

APXS set up

Alpha particles sources


irradiated on sample

Detector:

Scattered alpha particles

Emitted protons

Fluorescent X
-
rays





Alpha Proton X
-
Ray Spectrometry

9

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

Mars

Pathfinder

Principle of APXS

Principle:

Based on interactions of


alpha particles with matter:

Collision of alpha particles with


nuclei

Elastic scattering of alpha


particles by nuclei

Alpha particles absorbed by nuclei produce proton of
certain energy by alpha
-
proton nuclear reactions

Collision of alpha particles with electrons of the
atoms

Excitation of the atomic structure of atoms leading to the
emission of characteristic X
-
rays




10

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

Detector used for the 3 methods

Scintillation counter


Measures ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation

Charged radiation
-

eg

ions, alpha particle, proton

Uncharged radiation
-

eg

characteristics X
-
ray

Scintillator

sensor

Consists of a transparent crystal, usually phosphor,
plastic that luminance when struck by ionizing radiation

Photomultiplier tube (PMT) measures the light from
the crystal.


11

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

X
-
Ray Spectroscopy

XRS the most comprehensive tool to
identify crystal structure (ESA Beagle 2
-

2003 )

Examine reflection of X
-
rays from a material at
various angles.

X
-
rays were passed through slits to produce narrow
beam, which fell on a


material at centre of the


spectrometer

Reflected (Diffracted) beam


was measured in an charge


coupled device (CCD)

12

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

Beagle 2

Principle of XRD

13

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

14

Recent Development

To characterize a material completely,
need to identify the composition and
structure of a material

GCMS, XRF and APXS

can determine the
composition of the element

XRS can determine the structure of the
material

Integration of XRD and XRF

XRD/XRF (
CheMin
)

Portable XRD/XRF (Terra)

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

15

XRD/XRF (CheMin)


CheMin

developed (NASA Mars Science
Laboratory rover to be launched in 2011)

Both capable of getting the composition and
the structure of the sample

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

16

XRD/XRF (CheMin)

Enabler for
CheMin

integration

Same source (X
-
ray)

An electronic area array detector

Charge coupled device(CCD)
sensitive to X
-
ray

Records fluorescent X
-
rays (
characteristics X
-
rays)

Records diffracted X
-
rays that are scattered from sample

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu 16722 20090427


Bright rings
correspond to
diffraction bands;
fluoresced pixels
have no spatial
correlation.

17

XRD/XRF (CheMin)


Architecture

X
-
ray generated by


microfocus

X
-
ray tube

Combined with pinhole



collimator

Material loaded in sample holder

CCD detector collects the X
-
ray signal of
sample in term of energy and position

CCD is cooled to
-
100
°
C to limit dark current

Weighs 30 kg


In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu 16722 20090427

18

Portable XRD/XRF (
CheMin
)

Parties involves:

inXitu

(USA)

NASA Ames Research
Center

(USA)

Los
Alamos

National

Laboratory

(USA)

Indiana University (USA)

Detector Advanced Development, Jet
Propulsion Laboratory (USA)

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

19

Portable XRD/XRF (Terra)


Terra developed based on
CheMin

technology to provide a field deployable
instrument

T
emperature or humidity sensitive minerals
can experience phase transitions during
transport to the laboratory.

Capability to analyze these


materials
in
-
situ allows


determination
of native


mineralogical compositions

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

20

Portable XRD/XRF (Terra)

Architecture developed based on
CheMin

Redesigned around a smaller CCD to save
cost, mass and power.

CCD is cooled to
-
45
°
C using a
Peltier

cooler.

Collimation with miniature slits in place of pinhole to
maximize throughput.

System includes an embedded computer to control
the instrument, acquire and process data in real
time, and offer a graphical user interface through a
wireless link.

Li
-
ion batteries ~4 hrs of autonomous operation.

Complete instrument weights less than 15 kg

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

21

Portable XRD/XRF (Terra)

Parties involves:

InXitu

(USA)

Chesapeake Energy Corporation (USA)

NASA Ames Research Center (USA)

Earth &
Env
. Sciences, Los Alamos National
Laboratory (USA)

NASA Johnson Space
Center

(USA)

TECSEN,
Univ
. Paul Cézanne (France)

Dept
. of
Geological

Sciences, Indiana
Univ
. (USA)

Dept. of Geosciences, Univ. of Oslo (Norway)

Earth

and Planetary Exploration Services, Univ. of
Oslo (Norway)

Dept. of Geological Sciences and Geological
Engineering, Queen’s Univ. (Canada)

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

22

Instruments deployed by space
agency

Orbiter

Infrared Spectrometry



In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

Viking 1

Beagle 2

Mars

Pathfider

Mars Express

SPICAM
-
IR Atmospheric Spectrometer
(ESA Mars Express
Orbiter
)

Determining composition of atmosphere from


wavelengths absorbed by constituent gases




Infrared Spectrometer

23

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

Record amount of
energy absorbed
when the
frequency of the
infrared
light is
varied to form
infrared spectrum

Photo

Detector

Infrared spectrum represents sample’s
fingerprint

Absorption peaks
correspond to

frequencies of
vibrations between bonds of atoms

Different material has unique combination of
atoms, no two compounds produce same infrared
spectrum.

Range of this photo detector (1.0
-
1.7 μm)

Carbon dioxide (absorption at 1.43
μ
m and 1.57
-
1.6
μ
m bands)

Water vapor (absorption at 1.38
μ
m)



24

Principle of IR

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

25

Recent Development

Portable FT
-
IR

Advantages of Portable FT
-
IR

Disadvantages of
Michelson interferometer

Solution with
Rotary scanning interferometer



In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

26

Advantages of Portable FT
-
IR

Provide a rapid on
-
site spectroscopic
information to identify the composition of
sample

Faster measurement technique for collecting
infrared spectra

IR light is guided through an
interferometer

(
Michelson)
and pass through the sample, the
measured signal is
interferogram

Performing a mathematical Fourier transform on this
signal results in a spectrum

Portable instrument allows an analyst to take
the lab to the field


In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

Disadvantages of
Michelson
interferometer









Mirror alignment sensitive to
vibration, shock, temperature,
and component fatigue

Tilt of 1 micrometer will change
interferogram

by >10%

Maintaining constant alignment
is a routine and costly process










Mirrors are fixed

Stable performance

Repeatable rotary scan
mechanism


27

Michelson interferometer

Rotary scanning interferometer


In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

28

Portable FT
-
IR

Specifications of portable FT
-
IR

Resolution:

From 4 cm
-
1

for routine analysis up to 0.5 cm
-
1

for
high resolution work such as gas and multi
-
component analysis

Higher energy near
-
IR (0.8
-
2.5

μm), wave number
~14000
-
4000

cm
-
1

Dimensions: 49x39x19 cm

Power consumption: 40 W

Input voltage:12 V

Weight: 18 kg

Portable FTIR

spectrometer

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

29

Portable FT
-
IR

Parties involves:

Tallinn Tech. Univ. (Estonia)

Monash

Univ. (Sydney)

Interspectrum

(Estonia)

Thermo Scientific (USA)

ABB (Germany)

A2 Technologies (USA)

Bruker

AXS (Germany)


In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

assignment

Name:

2 types of wave that has heat effect

3 types of radiation that has reaction with a
photographic film


2 types of radiation that has ionisation and
kill living cell


30

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

assignment

Determine the 4 characteristics that all
the radiation share with the 4 hints
given:

Speed of all the radiation?

What do all the radiation carry from place to
place?

Could all the radiations travel from the Sun to
Venus? Is there a need for a medium to enable
travelling?

Is all the radiation
longitudinal or transverse
type of wave?


31

In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

32

References

http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/2005
0205037_2005206851.pdf

http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMUC75V
9ED_0.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viking_1

http://www.unsolvedmysteries.oregonstate.edu/MS_05

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_spectrometry#Gas_chro
matography

http://cmapsnasacmex.ihmc.us

http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/V/VikingGCMS.

http://marstech.jpl.nasa.gov/content/detail.cfm?Sect=MTP
&Cat=base&subCat=SSA&subSubCat=&TaskID=2256










In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

33

References

http://serc.carleton.edu/research_education/geochemshe
ets/techniques/XRF.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X
-
ray_fluorescence

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/APXS

http://mpfwww.jpl.nasa.gov/MPF/mpf/sci_desc.html

http://www.nasaimages.org/luna/servlet/view/all/what/Alph
a+Proton+X
-
ray+Spectrometer

http://www.physics.pdx.edu/~pmoeck/phy381/Topic5a
-
XRD.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scintillation_counter

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photomultiplier

http://www.mcswiggen.com/FAQs/FAQ_EF
-
6.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_Science_Laboratory







In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

34

References

P.
Sarrazin
, et. al., International Centre for Diffraction
Data, Advances in X
-
ray Analysis, Volume 48 (2005)

P.
Sarrazin

et. al., 39th Lunar and Planetary Science
Conference (2008)

S. M.
Chemtob

et. al., 40th Lunar and Planetary Science
Conference (2009)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrared_spectroscopy

http://www.wooster.edu/chemistry/is/brubaker/ir/ir_works_
modern.html

T.
Tonnisson
, IEEE Electronics Conference, 2008

http://www.thermo.com/

http://www.abb.com/

http://www.a2technologies.com/

http://www.bruker
-
axs.de/






In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427

35


THE END





In
-
situ materials characterization

for planetary exploration

echua@andrew.cmu.edu
16722
20090427