Content Area: Science

unevenechoSoftware and s/w Development

Oct 30, 2013 (3 years and 1 month ago)

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Content Area:

Science


Biology


Topic of lesson:
Cell structures and functions in animal versus plant cells


Rationale of lesson:
Understanding of this topic is fundamental to understanding the
makeup of living organisms and ultimately how the human bo
dy works. Cell structures and
functions enable cells to function independently or as part of multicellular organisms. The
interdependence of cell structures within a cell mirror the interdependence of organs to the
well
-
being of the human body.


Acknowled
gment of Content Expert and Consultants:

Carlye Mascorro, Ladimae M. T.
Daoayan, and Dr. Anila Asghar


Type of strategy/approach:

Mnemonic keywords


Purpose of using strategy/approach:
Using mnemonic strategy of keywords to link known
word usually with a

visual to the word being taught


How to implement strategy
:


Materials needed:
copies of pictures below for each student that can fit on an index
card, index cards
,
glue sticks,
pens/pencils,
overhead projector or via computer


Step
-
by
-
step instructions:



1.

In preparation for lesson, identify concepts and vocabulary to be learned by
students including cell, cell membrane, chloroplast, chromosome, cytoplasm,
endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes, nucleous, organelle,
ribosome, transport vesicles, a
nd vacuole.

2.

Note below three words to be taught and how their definitions build upon each
other. Accordingly, teach them in the order cited below.

3.


Examples of mnemonic keywords for lesson on cell structures
and functions:

First word to be taught:
Cell

St
ep
-
by
-
step instructions:

1.

Display the word ‘cell’ on a whiteboard or via an overhead
灲潪ect潲 潲⁣潭灵ter 摩s灬ay⸠



Ask the students if they can tell what a ‘cell’ is.

3.

Introduce picture of small room as in a prison or convent,
such as shown below.


4.

Discuss wit
h students the picture and what it displays.

5.

Create and record on an overhead projector what the
definition of ‘cell’ is near the word: “
microscopic
structural unit of all organisms
.”


6.

Have students create index cards with the word and its
definit ion on on
e side and with the picture of it on the
other. Direct students to use glue sticks to attach pictures
to cards. Please note you may want to provide the
definit ions already typed to the students if a student’s fine
motor skills significant ly impact her or h
is abilit y to write.
Then the student can glue the definit ions rather than write
them out on the index card.

7.

Encourage and set aside time for students to review index
cards until they know them.

8.

Guide students to associate this picture with the word
‘cell’

and its meaning,

9.

Fade out students’ use of index cards once the students
demonstrate they have learned that word.


Second word to be taught:
Organelle

Step
-
by
-
step instructions:

1.

Display the word ‘organelle’ on a whiteboard or via an
overhead projector o
r computer display.

2.

Ask the students if they can tell what an ‘organelle’ is.

3.

Along side the picture of small room as in a prison or
convent, introduce a picture of an organ such as shown
below.


+





4.

Discuss with students the pictures and what they display.

5.

Create and record on an overhead projector what the
defi
nition of ‘organelle’ is near the word: “cell organ.”


6.

Have students create index cards with the word and its
definition on one side and with the picture of it on the
other. Direct students to use glue sticks to attach pictures
to cards. Please note you ma
y want to provide the
definitions already typed to the students if a student’s fine
motor skills significantly impact her or his ability to write.
Then the student can glue the definitions rather than write
them out on the index card.

7.

Encourage and set asi
de time for students to review index
cards until they know them.

8.

Guide students to associate these pictures with the word
‘organelle’ and its meaning,

9.

Fade out students’ use of index cards once the students
demonstrate they have learned that word.


Third
word to be taught:
Ribosomes

Step
-
by
-
step instructions:

1.

Display the word ‘ribosome’ on a whiteboard or via an
overhead projector or computer display.

2.

Ask the students if they can tell what a ‘ribosome’ is.

3.

Along side the picture of small room as in a pri
son or
convent and a picture of an organ, introduce a picture
of a small mitten such as shown below.



+



+


4.

Discuss with students the pictures and what they
display.

5.

Crea
te and record on an overhead projector what the
definition of ‘ribosome’ is near the word: “small,
mitten
-
shaped organelle where protein is
manufactured.”


6.

Have students create index cards with the word and its
definition on one side and with the picture o
f it on the
other. Direct students to use glue sticks to attach
pictures to cards. Please note you may want to provide
the definitions already typed to the students if a
student’s fine motor skills significantly impact her or
his ability to write. Then the

student can glue
or tape
the definitions rather than write them out on the index
card.

7.

Encourage and set aside time for students to review
index cards until they know them.

8.

Guide students to associate these pictures with the
word ‘ribosome’ and its meanin
g,

9.

Fade out students’ use of index cards once the students
demonstrate they have learned that word.

Sites from which pictures were
retrieved:

Picture of lion in cell retrieved September 14, 2010, from
http://bellylorna.blogspot.com/2007_
11_01_archive.html

Picture of organ retrieved September 14, 2010, from
http://www.stgabrielsparish.ca/Images/New_Church/organ.jpg


Picture of mitten retrieved September 14, 2010, from
http://www.sewingpatterns365.com/uploaded_images/mitten
-
sewing
-
patterns
-
745768.jpg





4.

View the index cards as a

temporary framework that is put up for support

and access to
meaning and take them

away as needed when the child
demonstrated she or he learns
the words.
.


Accommodations and modifications that may be provided for activity:


1.

The teacher will group student with special needs with a regular education student to
encourage a peer
-
assisted learning environment.


2.

Teacher c
an modify the activity by providing both the pictures and the definitions
already typed so that if a student’s fine motor skills significantly impact her or his
ability to write. Then the student can glue or tape the definitions rather than write them
out
on the index card.


References for exemplar:

Ellis, Edwin (1993). Integrative strategy instruction: A potential model for teaching content
area subjects to adolescents with learning disabilities.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26
,
358
-
383.

Foil, C. R.
, & Alber, S. R. (2002). Fun and effective ways to build your students’ vocabulary.
Intervention in School and Clinic, 37
, 131
-
139.

Fontana, J. L., Scruggs, T., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2007). Mnemonic strategy instruction in
inclusive secondary social studie
s classes.
Remedial and Special Education
, 28, 345
-
355.

Jitendra, A. K., Edwards, L. L., Sacks, G., & Jacobson, L. A. (2004). What research says about
vocabulary instruction for students with learning disabilities.
Exceptional Children, 70
,
299
-
322.

Lloyd,

J. W., Forness, S. R., & Kavale, K. A. (1998). Some methods are more effective than
others.
Intervention in School and Clinic, 33
, 195
-
200.

Merrill, M. C., Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2004). SAT vocabulary instruction for
high school students wi
th learning disabilities.
Intervention in School and Clinic, 39
, 288
-
294.

Uberti, H. Z., Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2003). Keywords make a difference!
Mnemonic instruction in inclusive classrooms.
TEACHING Exceptional Children, 35
, 56
-
61.


Wolge
muth, J. R., Cobb, R. B., & Alwell, M. (2008). The effects of mnemonic interventions on
academic outcomes for youth with disabilities: A systematic review.
Learning Disabilities
Research & Practice, 23
(1
-
10).


Websites for exemplar:


Brigham, R. & Brigha
m, M. (2001). Current practice alert 5: A focus on mnemonic instruction.
Arlington, VA: Division for Learning Disabilities (DLD) and Division for Research
(DR) of the Council for Exceptional Children. Retrieved September 20, 2010, from
http://www.teachingld.org


Ehren, Barbara J. (2005).
Mnemonic

Devices.

University of Kansas Center for Research on
Learning.
Retrieved September 20, 2010, from
http://itc.gsu.edu/academymodules/a304/support/xpages/a304b0_20600.html


Scruggs, T.E., & Mastropieri, M. A.
Teaching Tutorial: Mnemonic
Instruction.
www.teachingld.org


U.S. Department of Education’
s Office of Special Education Programs (2005)
.

Using
mnemonic instruction to teach reading
. Retrieved September 20, 2010, from
http://www
.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/documents/Mnemonicinstructio
n
-
reading
-
4
-
20
-
05_000.pdf

or
from

http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/resources.html