CHC08 Disability Care Skill Set Trainer Guide

undesirabletwitterAI and Robotics

Oct 25, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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TRAINER GUIDE




CHC08 Disability Care Skill Set

Trainer Guide

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TRAINER GUIDE


Contents



Purpose
o
f
t
he
T
rainers
G
uide



Learning p
rinciples



How
t
o u
se
t
he
Trainers

Guide



Key learning p
oints



Relevant topic p
oints



P
resentation



Training d
elivery



Workbook e
xercises



Suggested training videos, y
ou

tubes and DVD’s resource list



Training p
reparation



Evaluation f
orm




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TRAINER GUIDE


PURPOSE OF THE TRAINERS GUIDE


The

packa
g
e

has

been

designed

to

be

a

comp
r
ehensive

tr
a
ining

res
o
urce

for

support workers

involved

in

the

delivery

of

services

for

people

with

disabilities

in
the disability care
environment
.

Sp
e
c
ific
a
lly, the package

aims

to:



f
acilitate

a

sound

unde
r
standing

of

c
lient
-
d
irected
c
are




s
upport and empower clients with disability in the area of choice and control





d
evelop support workers self
-

awareness and skills related to communication, negotiation,
advocacy, management of risk duty of care and client choice


LEARNING PRINCIPLES

Experiential learning is the most effective way for adults to learn. It is actively encouraged
throughout this
t
rainers
g
uide by providing opportunities for learning by think
ing, doing and
reflecting.

Active participation does not just happen. It needs to be supported by creating a relaxed
learning environment.


Ground rules for participation include:



m
ake sure the activities involve no risk or embarrassment



p
rovide clear,
simple instructions



e
nsure all physical material
are

available



e
ncourage participants to have fun


The
trainers g
uide is designed to provide information and knowledge required to adequately
understand the relevance of client directed care
. It also allows

the opportunity to explore values
and attitudes,
communication
and practise ski
lls required to implement client
-
directed care

in
order to deliver a quality service.


Examples
are included for comparison and discussion. Practical activities, rol
e
-
plays, problem solving
activities and case scenarios are all used to support the learning outcomes.


HOW TO USE THE TRAINERS GUIDE

The t
rainers

g
uide

is

designed

to

be

accompanied

by

the

w
orkbook

t
hat contains only

key

information,

practical

exercises

and

c
a
se

scenari
o
s.

Each

secti
o
n

in

the

t
rainers
g
ui
d
e

relates

di
r
ectly

to

a

powerp
oint

slide/s.


KEY

LEA
R
NING POINTS

Key

learni
n
g

points

have

been

identified at

the

beginning

of

each

secti
o
n

to

highlight the

main

m
e
ssages

to

b
e

covered.


REL
E
V
A
NT

TOPIC

PO
I
N
TS

Each

of

the main

points

on

the

powerp
oint

slide

correspon
d
s

direc
t
ly

to

the

headin
g
s used

within

the

relevant

secti
o
n.

E
ach

point

will

i
n
clude

p
r
esentation

material

and s
upporting

i
nformation

if

relevant.


PRESEN
T
A
T
ION

This

is

t
he

material

to

be

used

for

t
h
e

actual

pr
e
s
entation

by

the

train
er.


TRAIN
I
NG

DELI
V
ERY

The training package comprises Trainer Guide, a Participant Workbook and a series of PowerPoint
slides for use during training
.
The

training

has

been

desi
g
ned so

that

it

can

be

delivered by
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TRAINER GUIDE


individuals who

have

experience in

traini
n
g

delivery,

as

well

a
s

k
n
owledge

a
n
d experience

of

the

s
tandards

m
onitoring

and/or

self
-
assessment processes. Accordingly,

it

is

expected

that

the

trai
ni
ng

packa
g
e

could

be

delivered

by P
rogramme

S
upervisors,

Coordinators

and

Managers.


Key to the delivery of this training is the involvement of people


with disabilities in the training sessions.



It is important to identify various people with disability who would be suitable to participate in thes
e
training sessions in your regions. There are various points within each section where a client with
disability can help present or participate in the experiential learning activities and provide a real and
nuanced response to aspects of support and care
.

Having clients involved in training teams, panels,
as guest speakers or interviewees, or even using a pre
-
recorded DVD with client stories can be a
great way of enhancing the support workers learning experience.

This will also facilitate a greater
under
standing of how disability is ‘lived’ for each individual client and why good communication,
self
-
awareness, advocacy and empowerment are necessary skills and traits

for an effective support
worker in a client
-
directed environment.

To be truly ‘client
-
dire
cted’, the voice, insight and real life
experiences of clients with disability should be present in these training sessions.


Guest speakers and accompanying resources can be sourced from organizations including MS,
Paraquad and Dementia Australia.


The i
nvolvement of
effective and experienced
disability support workers is also important to enhance
the learning experience of the

class
. Relating the conceptual aspects of this learning package to the
‘real life’ experiences and challenges in the practical
environment, is likely to enhance the
understanding and practical implications of c
lient
-
directed care to the learners
.
There are various
opportunities within this learning package to invite disability support workers to participate and
encourage question
s from the learners.


The

packa
g
e

has

been

designed

wi
t
h

a

view

to

flexible

delivery,

for

ex
am
ple:



a
s

a

complete

package,

which

will

i
n
volve

a minimum

of

120

h
o
urs

delivery



i
n

smaller

i
n
stalments

comprising

2

hour

sessi
o
ns

over

a

series

of

weeks



a
s

a

self
-
paced

training

resource,

where

staff

read

and

work

through

the

material at

their

own

pace

with

access

to

t
h
e

support

of

a

trainer

at

key

points to

review and

disc
u
ss

progress


It

is

sugges
t
ed

that

the

training

material

be

pr
e
s
ented

as

four
key

components as follows:



Introduction to disability support w
ork and an overview of
individual abilities and
disabilities


Section 1 and 2
.



E
ffective communication, conflict

resolution

and negotiation


Section 3
.




Client
-
directed care and community access
and social inclusion

-

Sections 4
and 5
.



You and The disability care e
nvironment


Section
6
.


Workbook Exercises

Each section contains a number of Workbook Exercises to ensure that participants have the
opportunity to actively participate in the discussion and application of the material. All of the
exercises
should
to be completed
.

Furthermore, the scenarios used
in the workbook exercises may
be modified and adapted to ensure relevance to the participant

s
, answers have been provided in
red text
. All the exercises are also contained in the accompanying
p
articipant

s
w
orkbook.


SUGGESTED TRAINER RESOURCE LIST

Websites



suggested websites are also contained within the workbook

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TRAINER GUIDE



Hand Hygiene Australia

www.hha.org.au/




What is hand hygiene



Online learning


hand h
ygiene



Hand care i
ssue


Scope Victoria



http://www.scopevic.org.au/



Access and inclusion



Aids and equipment



Behaviours of concern/challenging b
ehaviour



C
ommunication



Disability awareness and rights



Health and well
-
being



Links



Research reports



Sensory participation




Transportation


People with disability

-

http://www.pwd.org.au/



Human Rights



The social model of disability



Advocacy




Legislation



Education and t
raining


ParaQuad

-


http://paraquad.org.au/



Spinal cord i
njuries



Holidays



Aids and equipment


DVD’S, VIDEOS AND YOU TUBE CLIPS

Training DVD’s

Reading, Reporting Recording

Just Like You


Communication Resources

Ideas that Work



Manual Handling



Duty of Care Series



Hazards and
Risks



Communicate and Connect



Respite helps you find balance



Time for you



Balance the Care


Videos

and DVD’s

The Intouchables


The Black Ball
o
on

Never Tell
M
e
N
ever

The Sessions


Helen Hunt

Temple Grandin


Claire Danes

Mask

The Elephant Man


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TRAINER GUIDE


You Tube

Disability Care coming to Australia

Disability Overlooked

Building Australia’s Workforce Success stories: Employees with disabilities

No Arms No Legs No Worries !!


Nick Vujicic

Disability Dating

Making Sex work legal

What people with disability can do


B
ooks

Looking in the eye

Be different

Freeks

Geeks and Asperger Syndrome



John Elder Robisen

The Disability Support
Worker
-

Geoff Arnott

Caring in the Community


Helen Croft

Golden Girl
-

Betty Cuthburt

Never tell me never


P
RE
P
ARA
T
I
O
N

F
O
R

TRAINING

T
h
e

s
u
cc
e
ss

o
f

t
h
i
s

w
o
r
ks
ho
p

r
e
l
i
e
s

o
n

t
h
e

t
r
a
i
n
e
r

ha
v
i
n
g

e
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
t

t
r
a
i
n
i
n
g skil
l
s

an
d

t
h
o
r
o
u
g
h

k
no
w
l
e
d
g
e

o
f

workplace

h
ea
l
th

an
d

s
a
f
e
ty
i
ss
ue
s
i
n

t
h
e c
o
mm
un
i
ty

s
e
ct
o
r
.

P
r
i
o
r

to

t
h
e

t
r
a
i
n
i
ng
,
f
a
m
i
l
i
a
r
i
s
e

y
o
u
r
s
e
l
f

w
i
th t
h
e
pa
r
t
i
c
i
p
an
t
workbook (a copy is in the guide)
an
d

t
h
e

powerp
oints
relating to each topic.


R
oo
m

L
a
y
o
u
t

E
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

y
o
u

o
r
ga
n
i
se

f
o
r

t
h
e

r
oo
m

to

b
e

s
e
t

u
p

a
s

t
a
b
l
e
s

o
f

s
m
a
l
l

g
r
oup
s

to
en
c
ou
r
a
g
e

d
i
sc
u
s
s
i
o
n

an
d

p
r
o
b
l
e
m
-
s
o
l
v
i
ng
.

All training venues are non
-
smoking and must be left in a clean and
organised
manner
.


A
u
d
i
o
v
i
s
u
a
l

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t
s

T
h
e

t
r
a
i
n
e
r

w
i
l
l

r
eq
u
i
r
e

a

l
ap
t
o
p

c
o
m
pu
t
e
r
,

D
V
D,

da
ta

p
r
o
j
e
ct
o
r
,

sc
r
ee
n

a
n
d
w
h
i
t
eboa
r
d
.


T
r
a
i
n
i
n
g

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
ls

T
h
e

p
a
r
t
i
c
i
pan
t

workbooks
, pens, pencils

and white board markers.


Participant guidelines while training

Setting a few ground rules at the start of a training session ca
n make the day go more smoothly.



Please sign attendance sheet each day
.



Explain there is no need to rush or interrupt everyone

will have a turn to speak
.



Use ea
ch other's first names, not
"he" or "she."



If something is not working for you, speak up
.



Please keep mobile phones on silent
.



Be on time every time!



Respect other’s cultural and religious traditions, beliefs, values and l
anguages
.



Breaks will be after every two hours or as the trainer sees necessary
.



This is a non
-
smoking environment
.



Please remove all your rubbish
.



Complete the evaluation form at the end of the training session, your feedback is valuable


TRAINING
E
VA
L
U
AT
I
ON

FO
R
M

TEMPLATE

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1
.

W
h
a
t

s
e
c
t
i
on
s

o
f

t
h
e
da
y

w
e
re
u
s
e
f
u
l
t
o y
ou
?



E
xce
ll
e
n
t

G
o
o
d

F
a
i
r

P
oo
r

U
n
cer
t
a
i
n

S
ections

1 & 2
:

Introduction to disability
support w
ork and an overview
of individual abilities and
disabilities






S
ection

3:

Effective
communication, conflict

resolution

and negotiation







Sections 4 &
5
:

Client
-
directed care and
community access and social
inclusion







S
ection 6
:

You and the disability c
are
e
nvironment








V
id
e
o

c
l
ip
s
,

pictures
,

p
h
o
t
o
g
ra
ph
s

and powerpoint
.


2
.

D
i
d y
o
u

f
i
n
d

t
h
e
D
VD

c
l
i
p
s

he
l
p
f
u
l
i
n

i
ll
u
s
t
r
a
t
i
n
g
t
h
e

i
ss
u
e
s
?








3
.

D
i
d y
o
u

f
i
n
d

t
h
e
pho
t
og
r
aph
s

he
l
p
f
u
l
i
n

il
l
u
s
t
r
a
t
i
n
g

t
h
e

i
ss
u
e
s
?








4.

D
i
d y
o
u

f
i
n
d

t
h
e
p
ower
p
oint
/s

he
l
p
f
u
l
i
n

il
l
u
s
t
r
a
t
i
n
g

t
h
e

i
ss
u
e
s
?







5
.

P
l
ea
s
e r
a
t
e
t
h
e
e
ff
e
c
t
i
v
ene
s
s

o
f

t
h
e

t
r
a
i
ne
r



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E
xce
ll
e
n
t

G
o
o
d

F
a
i
r

P
oo
r

U
n
cer
t
a
i
n

Pr
epa
r
a
t
i
o
n &

o
r
gan
i
s
a
t
i
o
n







K
no
w
l
edg
e
o
f

t
op
i
c







T
r
a
i
ne
r

w
a
s

engag
i
n
g








6
.

Did you find the facilities

and training room appropriate.








7
.

Co
m
m
en
t
s

f
o
r

i
m
p
r
o
v
e
m
en
t

o
r

addi
t
i
o
n








T
han
ky
o
u



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ATTENDANCE RECORD

TEMPLATE


DATE

NAME

TIME IN

TIME
OUT

SIGNATURE





































































































































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GENERIC LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE


T
im
e


T
op
i
c


Se
ss
i
o
n

1









MORNING TEA




LUNCH BREAK





AFTERNOON TEA BREAK





SUMMARISE THE DAY



E
v
a
l
u
a
t
i
o
n

&
c
l
o
s
e

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INTRODUCTION TO TRAINING

W
e
lc
o
m
e

t
h
e

pa
r
t
i
c
i
p
a
n
ts to

t
h
e

t
r
a
i
n
i
n
g

an
d

a
sk
pa
r
t
i
c
i
p
a
n
ts to

i
n
t
r
odu
c
e t
he
m
s
e
l
v
e
s,

t
h
e
i
r

o
r
ga
n
i
s
a
ti
on
,

t
h
e
ir

m
a
i
n

w
o
r
k
an
d

t
h
e
ir

e
x
pe
r
i
en
ce

i
n
the community services sector
.


D
i
sc
u
ss
w
i
th

pa
r
t
i
c
i
p
a
n
ts t
h
e

f
o
l
l
o
w
i
ng
:



t
h
e

l
e
a
r
n
i
n
g

o
u
tc
o
m
e
s f
o
r

t
h
e

t
r
a
i
n
i
ng




t
h
e

p
r
og
r
a
m

f
o
r

t
h
e

da
y



m
a
ke

pa
r
t
i
c
i
pan
ts

a
w
a
r
e

o
f

t
h
e

to
i
l
e
ts,

b
r
ea
ks

an
d

e
m
e
r
gen
cy
a
rr
an
g
e
m
en
ts



g
round rules for the training room



r
e
f
e
r

t
h
e

pa
r
t
i
c
i
p
an
ts to

t
h
e


R
e
s
ou
r
c
e
s

.

B
r
i
e
f
l
y

de
sc
r
i
b
e

t
h
e

r
e
s
ou
r
c
e
s
an
d

w
ha
t

t
he
y
c
o
v
e
r
.

E
n
s
u
r
e

t
ha
t

pa
r
t
i
c
i
p
a
n
ts

k
no
w

ho
w

to

ob
t
a
i
n

t
h
e
r
e
s
ou
r
c
e
s
m
en
t
i
oned
.



Getting

to k
n
o
w

y
ou



ask each participant to complete the follow and openly discuss each
question. You can print this out if easier.


What

is

your
name?

Where

do
you

work?

What

do

you
like

about
your

job?

What

do
you

love
about

your
job?

What

do

you
want

to
change

ab
o
ut
your

job?












Note

-

this

part

of

the

exercise may

be

o
m
itted

for

groups

who

already

know

ea
c
h
other.


Learning Outcomes for the Training Package

Now we have some information about each other and what you would like to get out of
this training
package, let’s look more closely at the overall learning outcomes.


When you have completed this training package, you will have:



Greater understanding and skills in the areas of:

o

c
lient di
rected
-
care

o

s
upport and empowerment of clients with
disability in the area of choice and control

o

y
our own self
-
awareness and skills related to

communication, conflict

resolution
,
advocacy,

negotiation
and client choice


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Section 1: Welcome to Disability Support
Work

-

Empowering Clients with Disability


We
lcome to the Disability Care Skill Set Learning Package and Participant Workbook! This is an
exciting part of a journey that will introduce you to some of the opportunities and challenges of
working in this growing sector. Our aim is to help improve you
r knowledge, skills and understanding
to enable you to support client choice and empowerment in the area of disability care.


This training package has been created in conjunction with clients with disability. Those with
disability

who will be

most impact
ed upon by this new environment guided us with their views,
experiences and opinions. Throughout this training package you will see comments from people with
disability to give a greater sense of connection and understanding of their situations. This
conn
ectedness with those who are have disabilities

as well as the people who support and enable
them in their homes and communities is vital for real choice and empowerment to occur.

Let’s look at some startling facts to get us started:

Facts:

Ӿ

O
ne in five
Australians has a disability
.

Ӿ

Every week, five more Australians sustain a spinal cord injury and 10 to 15 sustain a severe
traumatic brain injury.

Ӿ

Every two hours, an Australian child will be diagnosed with an intellectual disability.


Today, over three mi
llion Australians are living with some form of disability. People with disabilities
come from all sectors of the community. They have the same hopes and dreams as everyone, and
the same rights to live their daily life in a welcoming community.


People with

disabilities are rarely portrayed as living an average daily life. Yet they remain people
first, and just want to be treated as equals in a welcoming and inclusive community. Actions and
words have the ability to enhance or corrupt the way in which member
s of the community treat or
view people with a disability


So, you want to contribute to someone’s life by enabling them in their homes
and communities, read on.


Do you have the attributes and personality we are looking for in a good disability support wo
rker?


Do you want to:



contribute to someone’s life and enable choice and empowerment?



put your life experience to good use?



feel valued and good about yourself?



make a difference to someone’s day?



support a person achieve

to

their goals?



want flexible
working hours?

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Do you have:




good communication skills
?



a genuine interest in people
?



a positive outlook on life
?



respect for differences
?



pleasant personality
?



a sense of humour
?



a good sense of reliability?




A sense of honesty?



a sense of
responsibility?


If you answered ‘yes’ to all of these questions then you could
be

a
great disability support worker
!


What will you do as a d
isability
support worker
?



It is a brilliant job and I love it but I’d say to people ‘get real’ and be
prepared to get your hands
dirty.’

Anonymous



I don’t expect to move jobs after this as I really enjoy what I do. For me,
the next stop will be retirement!



Anonymous



Nothing pleases me more than to see my clients happy and
comfortable ...
On some occasions I’ve had the honour of accompanying them to special family
functions where I’m treated with such high respect and regard. This has to be
one of
the great highlights
of my job.’

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Anonymous



The best aspects about my job are being able to help people and have a
positive influence on their lives. I enjoy meeting lots of different people and it
is really rewarding when somebody manages to turn their life around.


Anonymo
us

The main role of a disability
support worker

is to
enable

a person with a disability
to live as
independently as possible with as much choice and control over their current and future decisions. A
large part of this role is to assist the person with dis
ability
in
some aspect of their daily life,
including
home, work and/or their social life.


Some people with disabilities need assistance with everyday

daily living tasks. Others

need assistance
with acce
ssing recreation and leisure and
others with finding and maintaining employment.
The

great diversity of jobs within the disability sector allows you to utilise your skills in a variety of
settings with a variety of people.


Working in the disability sector is an enjoyable and satisfying c
areer. Just like all of us, each person
with a disability is different, with their own personalities, dreams, aspirations and abilities. People
with a disability may require assistance in one or more areas of their life to enable them to maximise
their ful
l potential.


Working to assist people in their daily lives also means that your
working hours
can b
e flexible and
may

cover a 24 hour period. Depending on your chosen area of employment, you are able to work
around your own life, including family and study.


Part of being a

d
isability
support worker

is being able to relate to different people in different stages
of their

lives and disabilities. People with disabilities come from diffe
rent cultures, faith traditions
and

lifestyle preferences
. W
e need to respect their choices with regards to these areas. Our
attitudes
towards these differences

and our own personal values
wil
l impact upon how the client
feels empowered and valued.


When you hold a particular attitude towards a person this is often reflected in the way you behave in
toward that person
.
As human beings, we all have our own values, beliefs and attitudes that w
e have
developed throughout the
course of our lives.

The attitudes that we feel very strongly about are
usually called values. Sometimes our own attitudes can make us blind to other people’s values,
opinions and needs.

Values can influence many of the judg
ments we make as well as have an impact
on the support we give clients. It is important that we do not influence client’s decisions based on
our values. We should always work from the basis of supporting the client’s values.



Our family, friends, communit
y and the experiences we have all contribute to our sense of who we
are and how we view the world. As
support workers
, we are often working with people who are
vulnerable and/or who may live a lifestyle that mainstream society views as being different
.
If, as
support worker
s, we are to provide a service that meets the need
s of our target groups and help

them to feel empowered, we need to be aware of our own personal values, beliefs and attitudes and
be prepared to adopt the professional values of our ind
ustry
.
We will discuss this a little later in the
training package.



Values a
re closely related to attitudes’

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Requirem
ents and checks for becoming a d
isability
support worker

We want to make sure the environment is as safe as possible for both
support
workers and clients
with disabilities. P
art of this is ensuring our potential SW’s have the necessary checks that the
legislative environment requires. These may include the following:



a

satisfactory
n
ational
c
riminal history check



a
n Australian motor ve
hicle driver’s licence



a

c
urrent First Aid certificate or the willingness to attain one


Benefits of working as a d
isability
support worker

Besides having that sense of purpose or feeling that you are making a di
fference to

ma
n
y in our
community, other
benefits occur in the following areas:


Working h
ours

Disability work offers flexibility. Hours of work may include weekdays, evenings, overnights and
weekends, or a combination of these. The duration of work
time can vary from a few hours

up to 24
hours.
Work can also be Monday to Friday during office hours. The options of work include full time,
part time and casual work.


Salary and wages

Salary
and wage
rates and levels vary across agencies and depending on the nature/level of work you
are engaged in.

Attractive salary sacrificing options are possible with most agencies.


Other Conditions and Benefits

On the job induction and training

High level of job satisfaction

Training in Certificate III and IV in Disability Work

can be
offered.



Qualifications

The qualification required depends on what type of work you are doing. Past experience and relevant
qualifications will be considered relating to the job you want.

The entry level
qualification
for a
disability services
support worker

is
generally
the Cert
ificate I
II

in Disab
ility Work or similar
qualification or working towards a qualification.


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What are my career prospects?

You will develop a strong foundation from which to develop a career in disability services.
Some of
the career pathways for
disability support workers

after gaining experience and/or

qualifications
include senior disability support worker

roles, Team Leader

roles
, Coordinat
ion and
or Workplace
Trainer.


Helpful links which may provide you with background information helpful for

a career in Disability
Support work.


1. Disability Service Standards
-

The nine standards have a primary focus of ensuring results for
consumers of Disability Services that are consistent with the principles and objectives of the State
legislation. The em
phasis is on using the standards to encourage continuous improvement of
services. Click on this link to find out more about the standards.
Disability S
ervice Standards Booklet


2. Duty of Care
-

A duty of care is a duty to take reasonable care of a person. A disability support
worker has a duty of care to anyone who is reasonably likely to be affected by their work activities.
These are likely to include

the person with a disability that they are the support worker for, the
families and carers of clients other support workers and the general community when working within
a community environment. Click on this link for further information.

http://www.qla.org.au/PDFforms/Procedures/Duty%20of%20Care%20Procedure%20Mar07.pdf


3. Understanding Disability
-

It is helpful to understand disability and how it affects p
eople. There are
many different types of disabilities such as intellectual disability, cerebral palsy and autism. Click on
this link for further information.
http://www.adcet.edu.au/Cats/Understanding_Disability.chpx




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Section 2: Individual Abilities and Disabilities



Disability is not a brave struggle or ‘courage in the face of adversity.
Disability is an art. It’s an ingenious way to live
.’
Neil Marcus




A disability may be visible or hidden, permanent or temporary
,

and may have a minimal or
substantial impact upon a person’s abilities. Focusing on the ability of the individual person, who may
be constrained at times by their physical, social, and psych
ological disability, is an important way
forward to help enable them to be meaningful participants in the wider society. As
support worker
s
we are there to enable them and support the client in areas in which their disability exists, but need
to be aware t
hat many of clients with disabilities possess strong abilities in other areas which are less
visible. This is part of enabling choice and control and giving our clients the capabilities and support
needed to fulfil their potential.



S
ometimes they just
see the wheelchair and don’t realise that you may
not have been in it all your life

... you might be a lawyer, eng
ineer,
paramedic or pharmacist.’



I want to be treated as an individual, not just one of m
any or a thing
to be processed.’


1 in 5 Australian
s has one or more disabilities and this proportion is increasing with the ageing of the
population. This means that sometime in our life we are all likely to have a disability and/or have a
friend, family member, class mate and/or work mate with a disabili
ty.



The term disability also refers to people who have a mental illness or medical condition, such as
diabetes, epilepsy or HIV/AIDS.
Furthermore,
88% of disabilities are invisible
.
T
here is a tremendous
variety of specific causes, as well as combinatio
n
s and severity of disabilities.




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IN THIS SECTION WE WILL LOOK AT:




Defining a disability

o

Developmental disability

o

Acquired disability



Looking at the various types of disability

o

Chronic medical conditions

o

Intellectual disabilities

o

Learning disabilities

o

Mental health issues

o

Neurological conditions

o

Physical disabilities

o

Hearing impairment

o

Vision impairment



Resources for further research


There are a number of key issues that people with disabilities are faced with

on a daily basis. These
include
legal, social, philosophical and legislative issues that guide and affect the provision of services
to the disabled.


People with disabilities require a range of supports and the ability to access mainstream community
services and facilities in order to
have a full life in the community. This should be underpinned by
individual planning and support, with the ability for the person to be as self
-
directed as possible and
have the availability of facilitation and co
-
ordination where required.

Human rights fo
r people with disabilities have been incorporated into Australian law in several ways.
The Commonwealth Disability Services Act 1986 gave the Commonwealth the power to disburse
money for services for people with disabilities and to provide grants to the st
ates and territories for
the provision of services. It also enables the Commonwealth to make regulations that specify the
aims and principles when providing these services. All states and territories receiving money under
this act are required to pass comp
lementary legislation confirming the aims and principles of the
Commonwealth law. The objective of this was to unify the intent of all the disability services in
Australia so as to keep its international treaty obligations.


To say that ‘people with disabi
lities are individuals’ may seem obvious but for a very long time they
have been regarded as part of a group and not as an individual. This has led to stereotyping and large
numbers of people being categorized and cared for in the same way with no focus on

individual
needs and expectations. People with disabilities are entitled to be treated with dignity and respect.
They have their own likes and dislikes, feelings, attitudes, interests and talents. Like every human
being a person with a disability means be
ing a unique individual who has more in common with a
non
-
disabled people than he or she has different.


Disabled people have legal rights and human rights and there should be no differentiation between
their rights and the rights enjoyed by the rest of th
e population of Australia. Disabled people have
the right to:




the fullest possible development



be treated just like able bodied members of society

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a reasonable quality of life



participate in decisions affecting the person



pursue grievances

People with dis
abilities are mothers, fathers, friends, neighbours, employees, bosses, customers,
and community leaders. They are just like you and expect to be treated just as you would like to
be treated. One of the ways that you can contribute to helping the disabled
achieve this is
through effective communication. Some of the ways that this can be achieved are:




ensuring people with a disability have equal access to information about services,
activities, events, and issues affecting their lives



interacting with
people with a disability in such a way that shows that we value their
contribution and respect their rights



using appropriate language when speaking and writing about people with a disability


Research undertaken in Australia has identified the following i
ssues of people with a disability:




Accessibility to their community and surroundings. This relates to facilities and
services, information, infrastructure, transport and opportunities for raising
awareness with local businesses and organisations.




Accom
modation and housing : people with
disabilities have the right to the same range of housing choices as the rest of the
community. There are barriers however that limit the extent to which this right can
be achieved. Availability of accessible, affordable h
ousing and transition and
supported accommodation are areas that are developed and planned for by local
councils in consultation with all members in the community.




A sense of belonging in the community which goes beyond having a home in a street
with othe
r people . It is about rights and opportunities, employment opportunities,
participation in volunteer activities, programs which address social isolation,
accessibility for participation in local cultural and festival events. These all assist the
disabled
person to feel as though they are part of the community.




Provision of services such as a service provider network, providing such services as
respite care, vacation care programs (for children with a disability) and adequate and
accessible health care pro
viders.




Culturally specific and linguistic issues.




Financial vulnerability.


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Carer/family burnout.




Financial support for carers e.g. income support from Centrelink, carer’s allowances.




Freedom from discrimination: discrimination occurs when people with a disability are
treated less fairly than people without a disability.




Peer support for carers.




Mutual support and self
-
help groups.


There are a number of misconceptions in our society

in respect to people with disabilities. These
ultimately impact on the disabled person and how they feel about themselves and their place in
society. When the community in which you live brands you as a ‘menace to society’ or sees you as an
‘object of dre
ad and pity’ the effect that this can have on an individual can be extremely detrimental.


Some of the most common failings that are felt by people with disabilities are:



being seen as having little or no worth in society



being the object of pity and
charity



fear of rejection on all levels
-

personal , social and employment



being seen as a burden on society



being isolated and segregated form society



having their life wasted



social relationship discontinuity



loss of control over one’s life



being seen as

belonging to a group and not as an individual



being unable to support oneself financially


Many people with disabilities spend their whole lives being told that they are not like other people or
in the extreme that they are worthless. The result of this c
onstant berating is that a great percentage
of disabled people have low self
-
esteem and feel that they are a source of anguish to those around
them. Society’s values and attitudes towards disabled people are changing and through the
implementation of gover
nment regulations/acts and education to the rest of the community on
disabled people there will be even more changes and improvements.



What is disability
?


‘You only live with my disability for 1 hour


I live with it 24 hours a
day.’



Understand my
needs that are individual to me. Do treat me as a
person with needs. I’m no different to you. It’s just that my body

doesn’t work as well as yours.’


A
disability

is an impairment that may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional,
developmental,

or some combination of these. A disability may be present from birth, or occur
during a person's lifetime.

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World Health Organisation define disabilities as an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity

limitations, and participation restrictions.




A
n impairment is a problem i
n body function or structure.



An activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individua
l in executing a task or action.




A

participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life
situat
ions.


A
disability

may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, and developmental or some
combination of these. A disability may be present from birth, or occur during a person's lifetime,
while the
degree of disability may range from mild to moderate, severe, or profound. A person may
also have multiple disabilities.


DISABILITY CAN BE DEVELOPMENTAL OR ACQUIRED.

Developmental disability:

Developmental disability is a term that refers to a permanent

impairment usually occurring early in
life.

Mostly result from dam
age caused;




before birth (prenatal stage) by factors including genetics, developmental malformation
and diseases



around birth (peri natal stage) by factors including low weight, prematur
ity and obstetric
complications



after birth (neonatal and postnatal stages) by factors including infections, diseases,

malnutr
ition and environmental factors


Acquired disability:

Acquired disability

or acquired brain injury
-

or ‘ABI’
-

refers to any
damage to the brain that occurs
after birth. That damage can be caused by an accident or trauma, by a stroke, a brain infection, by
alcohol or other drugs or by diseases of the brain like Parkinson's disease.


U
nder

the Disability Discrimination Act (1992)

e
xamples of conditions that may be considered
disability include:



chronic medical c
onditions
-

(asthma, diabetes, cancer, crohn’s disease, a
rthritis)



i
ntellectual disabilities
-

(down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, foetal alcohol s
yndrome)



l
earning disabil
ities
-

(dyslexia, d
ysgra
phia, scotopic s
ensitivity)



mental health c
onditions
-

(depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar d
isorder)



n
eurological conditions
-

(multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, a
sperger’s)



p
hysical disabilities
-

(spinal cord injur
y, cerebral p
alsy)



s
ensory disabilities
-

(hearing, v
ision)


What

are chronic medical conditions and some associated facts.



Chronic medical conditions are health c
ondition

that have been or likely to have been
present for at least 6 months.



Leading causes
of death and disability in Australia.



Require high use of health services, contributing to health funding pressures.



Increasing prevalence in Australia, often linked to lifestyle.



Complex and varied in terms of their nature and impact.



Increasing ageing of

population played a key role in rise in prevalence.



2010 leading cause of death in Australia

o

Asthma

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o

Cancer

o

Diabetes mellitus

o

Cardiovascular disease

o

Arthritis


What is an intellectual disability and some associated facts.



An intellectual disability is a
disability affecting cognition
.



P
eople with intellectual disability may have difficulties with learning, communication, daily
living skills, information processing, social functioning and problem solving
.



A
round 3% of Australians have an intellectual disab
ility
.



Approximately

1.8% of Australians have an intellectual disability which leads to severe or
profound activity limitations
.



I
ntellectual disabilities are life
-
long, and must be identified before the age of 18
.



E
xamples of intellectual disabilities inc
lude Down syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, Prader
-
Willi
Syndrome, and Angelman Syndrome
.


What is learning disability and some associated facts.



A learning disability refers to a

varied group of conditions which impact on the development
and use of listening,

spelling, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical skills
.



H
as a significant effect on learning but is NOT an indicator of intelligence
.


L
earning disabilities include:

o

Dyslexia


difficulty with language processing

o

Dyspraxia


difficulty with fine
motor skills or coordination

o

Dysgraphia


difficulty with writing, spelling or composition

o

Visual processing disorder, e.g. Scotopic sensitivity

o

Auditory processing disorder



What is mental illness and some associated facts.



Mental illnesses are a

varied
group of conditions that significantly affect how a person feels,
thinks, behaves, and interacts with other people
.



C
lose to 1 in 5 Australians will have a mental illness in any year
.



M
ental illnesses are diagnosed according to standardised criteria
.



T
hey
are different from temporary mental health problems that may be experienced
following stressful life events
.



S
ome major types of mental illness include:

o

anxiety disorders


most common at 9.7% of Australian adults in any year



post traumatic stress d
isorder (3.3%)



generalised anxiety d
isorder (3.1%)



social p
hobia (2.7%)



obsessive compulsive d
isorder (0.4%)

o

substance use disorders


7.7% of Australian adults in any year



d
ependence on alcohol or a drug, leading to problems at work or home,
and/or causing damage to health

o

depression


5.8% of Australian adults in any year

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o

psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia and b
ipolar disorder (much less
common at 0.4
-
0.7%)


What

is a

neurological condition

and some associated facts.



Neurological conditions are d
isorders of the brain
, spine and the nerves that connect them.



The associated structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities can result in a range of
symptoms.



Interv
entions may include preventative, lifestyle changes, physiotherapies or other
therapies, rehabilitation, pain management, medications or surgery.



Causes vary but may be genetic, congenital abnormalities, infections, lifestyle, and
environmental health issu
es.



There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system.



Some
common neurological disorders include:

o

brain tumours

o

Parkinson’s disease

o

epilepsy

o

stroke

o

multiple Sclerosis

o

Alzheimer’s disease


What is a
physical disa
bility and some associated facts.



P
hysical disabilities affect a person's physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina
.



A

person may be born with a physical disability, or acquire it later in life
.



E
xamples include:

o

cerebral p
alsy

o

spinal cord i
njury

o

a
mputation

o

spina b
ifida

o

m
usculos
keletal injuries (e.g. back injury)


What is a hearing impairment and some associated facts.



Hearing impairments range

from mild hearing loss to profound deafness
.



C
an be caused by a genetic condition, illness, trauma, or natural aging
.



P
eople with hearing

impairment may use hearing aids, lip
-
reading, Auslan (Australian sign
language) or a combination to assist with communication
.



What is a vision impairment and some associated facts.



Vision impairment
refers to some degree of sight loss
.



A
person is
considered
legally blind if:

o

they cannot see at six metres what someone with normal vision can see at 60
metres, or

o

their field of vision is less than 20 degrees in diameter (normal vision 180 degrees)



A

person may be born with a vision impairment, or acq
uire it through an accident, disease or
the aging process
.


E
xamples include:

o

c
ataracts


clouding of the clear lens in the eye

o

g
laucoma


damage to the optic nerve associated with pressure in the eye

o

macular d
egeneration


deterioration of central vision

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o

retinitis p
igmentosa


genetic condition causing retina to progressively degenerate



CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS

A
sthma




Asthma is a chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows airways.



Causes recurring periods of wheezing, chest tightness, shortness

of breath and coughing.



Affects people of all ages, mostly starts in childhood.



Pollen, cigarette smoke, colds and flu can cause an asthma attack. One in ten Australians has
asthma.




Asthma cannot be cured, requires good management which enables people
to lead normal
lives.



Treatment includes relievers (act quickly and relax muscles around airways)


taken when
having an attack.



Preventers make airways less sensitive to triggers and reduce inflammation.



Symptom controllers slowly relax muscles around air
ways, taken with a preventer.



Combinations of the above in one inhaler.


An asthma attack can be life threatening. If you are not sure what to do, call an ambulance


D
iabetes




Diabetes is a chronic condition where the levels of glucose (sugar) in the
blood are too high.



Blood glucose levels are normally regulated by insulin (a hormone) made by the pancreas
.



In people with diabetes the pancreas does not make enough insulin
.



Two main types of diabetes Type 1 & Type 2
.

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About 7.4.% of Australians aged 25
years or older have diabetes
.



Risk increases with age
.



There is no cure for diabetes
.



Aboriginal people have one

of the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world
.



Type 1 Diabetes



Auto immune destruction of insulin making cells in the pancreas, insuli
n is no longer made
.



One of most c
ommon chronic childhood illness.



M
ost common in under 30 years

of

age
.



Was ca
lled insulin dependent diabetes. This

term
is
no longer used
.


Type 2 Diabetes



Inadequate levels of insulin or failure of body cells to respond
properly to insulin
.



Most common over 40 years of age
.



Known to have been diagnosed in overweight children and teenagers
.



May be brought on by unhealthy diet or lack of exercise
.



More common where close relatives and certain ethnic groups have diabetes
.



Wa
s called non
-
insulin dependent diabetes. This

term is no longer used


Treatment

Type 1



i
nsulin injections



b
alanced healthy diet



m
onitoring blood glucose



p
hysical activity



r
egular check ups


Type 2



h
ealthy eating



p
hysical activity



m
edications and (perhaps)

insulin



w
eight management



m
onitoring blood glucose



c
ease smoking



r
egular check ups


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Untreated diabetes



k
idney damage



e
ye damage



n
erve damage to feet and other parts of body



h
eart disease, stroke and circulation problems



s
exual problems



f
oot ulcers or
infections, due to circulation and nerve problems




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C
ardiovascular Disease
-

Leading cause of death in Australia



heart, stroke and blood vessel disease



kills one Australian every 12 minutes



affects one in six Australians



31.7% of deaths (45,500) in
2010


deaths that can largely be prevented



high prevalence and hospitalisation in lower socio economic groups, Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islanders people and those living in remote areas


Coronary heart disease or heart disease



affects 1.4 million
Australians



15.1.% ( 21,700) of deaths in 2010



kills 59 Australians each day


Heart Attack



estimate over 380,000 Australians have had a heart attack at some stage



about 55,000 Australians each year suffer a heart attack



average 27 Australians die each day



Risk Factors



high blood pressure



high cholesterol



overweight and obesity



physical inactivity



poor diet



alcohol

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smoking



nine out of ten Australians have at least one risk factor



one in four (25%) have three or more risk factors


Warning signs



Vary from
person to person


may not always be sudden or severe.



Chest pain/discomfort most common sign


not all people have pain.



Symptoms may be


pain, pressure, tightness in the upper body including chest, neck, jaw,
arms, and shoulders or back in combination w
ith nausea, shortness of breath, dizziness or a
cold sweat.



Quick response and calling triple 000 can reduce damage to the heart and increase survival.




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A
rthritis



General term describing pain, stiffness and inflammation (heat and swelling) in the joints.



Group of conditions affecting joints.



Over 100 types of arthritis and there is no cure.



Most common osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout and ankylosing spondylitis.



Arthritis affects people of all ages, lifestyles and backgrounds.



No cure for arthri
tis.



Medication, physiotherapy and exercise are used in treatment.


Symptoms

include;



pain, swelling in joints



redness and warmth in joints



stiffness or reduced movement of a joint



general symptoms such as fatigue and feeling unwell


Osteoarthritis



Osteoarthritis is a disease of the joints.



The two bones of a joint are normally protected by smooth, cush
ioning material called
cartilage.



In osteoarthritis, cartilage breaks down, causing pain and stiffness in the joint
.



Osteoarthritis is one of the most

common forms of arthritis.



A joint is the meeting point of two bones to allow movement.


Symptoms
:


The symptoms vary from one person to the next. More common symptoms include:



stiffness



joint pain



muscle weakness


Common sites

The most common joints
that develop osteoarthritis include:



hands


usually the end finger joints



spine


in the neck or lower back



hips


older people are most at risk



knees


might be caused by an old injury


Risk factors

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The cause of is unclear


risk factors for its
development have been identified. These include:



family history of osteoarthritis



previous injury or overuse of the joint



being overweight



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Managing osteoarthritis



Education


Arthritis Australia can provide you with information and self
-
management
courses that support you with your management.



Weight management


controlling weight is important for those who are overweight and
have osteoarthritis affecting the weight
-
bearing joints.



Medication



pain
-
relieving and anti
-
inflammatory medications.



Rel
axation techniques



for example muscle relaxation, meditation or visualisation.



Support


A support or self
-
help group may be another option


contact Arthritis Victoria for
details of support groups.



Surgery



to replace hip and knee joints, in cases of
advanced osteoarthritis.



Equipment that promotes independence



there are many specially designed aids and types
of equipment available to assist people with painful joints.


Rheumatoid Arthritis



Autoimmune disease causes pain & inflammation of joints.



Other body parts may be affected.



Stiffness in the joints is common, especially in the morning.



The inflammation caused by rheumatoid arthritis can result in damage to the joints.



Usually starts in middle life, with onset generally occurring between the a
ges of 35 to 64, and
affects 1 per cent of Australia’s population.



Estimated 57 per cent of people with rheumatoid arthritis are women.


Symptoms

The most common symptoms include;




swelling, pain and heat in the joints



stiffness in the joints, especially
in the morning



persistent fatigue



sleeping difficulties because of the pain



weak muscles



the same joints on both sides of the body are usually affected


Cause



The cause or causes of rheumatoid arthritis are not yet fully understood.



Rheumatoid arthritis is

an autoimmune disease, when a person has an autoimmune disease,
the immune system starts attacking the body’s healthy tissues.



The immune system targets the lining of the joints, causing inflammation and joint damage.

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Some people may be more at risk of de
veloping rheumatoid arthritis due to heredity factors.



There is no cure for rheumatoid arthritis.




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Management



Medication



Non
-
steroidal anti
-
inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed to
reduce pain and inflammation. The disease
-
modifying anti
-
rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are a
special group of medications used to treat inflammatory arthritis. Biological DMARDs are th
e
newest class of arthritis medication and work to stop the disease progressing and causing
structural damage to joints
.



Aids and equipment



supports such as walking aids and specialised cooking utensils reduce
joint strain
.



Relaxation techniques



muscle

relaxation, distraction, guided imagery and other techniques
can help manage pain and anxiety
.



Exercise



some physical activity helps maintain muscle strength and joint flexibility and
assist in managing pain. Exercising in warm water, strength training
and Tai chi may help
.



Rest



rest can help manage fatigue and is im
portant when joints are swollen.



Nutrition



healthy, balanced diet to maintain general health and

prevent other medical
problems.



Support



Contact Arthriti
s Victoria for more information.



Complementary therapies



such as massage or acupuncture may be helpful
.



Joint surgery



may be necessary in some cases
.


ACTIVITY

WHAT IS IT?

ANSWER

This can be found in the hands, hips and knees


This arthritis is an autoimmune disease


55,000 Australians suffer with this each year


Kidney damage, Eye damage, Heart disease,
stroke and circulation problems, Sexual problems

Foot ulcers or infections are signs of what
untreated disease


This is the leading cause of death in Australia


This condition cannot be cured and requires
good management which enables people to lead
normal lives


Aboriginal people have one

of the highest rates
of t
his disease

in the world


Swelling, pain and heat in the joints are
symptoms of what disease


There are over 100 types of this condition and
there is no cure


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INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

A person with an intellectual disability may have difficulty learning and managing daily living skills.
This is because their cognitive (thought
-
related) processing is impaired. Children and young people
have different abilities and develop at different ra
tes.



A person is said to have an intellectual disability if they have
both

the following before they are 18
years of age:



an IQ below 70 (average IQ is 100)



significant difficulty with daily living skills including looking after themselves,
communicating
and taking part in activities with others



A
pproximately

two to three per cent of the population have an intellectual disability.



Common characteristics

Generally speaking, a person with an intellectual disability:



l
earns and processes in
formation more slowly than people without an intellectual disability



h
as difficulty with abstract concepts, such as money and time



h
as difficulty understanding the subtletie
s of interpersonal interaction.


Needs depend on individual factors

C
ategories of
mild, moderate, severe and profound levels of intellectual disability are defined on the
basis of IQ scores. These levels give some guide to the level of support someone might need, but the
way the person functions in their life also depends on other facto
rs including:



p
ersonality and
c
oping skills



o
ther disabilities


for example, physical, social or sensory



t
he amount of support offered by family, friends and the community



w
hat is demanded of them in different situati
ons


for example, home or work


People with a mild intellectual disability

A mild intellectual disability is defined as an IQ between 50 and 70. A person with

a mild intellectual
disability;



c
an participate in and contribute to their families and their communities



w
ill have important rel
ationships in their lives



m
ay find the subtleties of interpersonal relationships and social rules difficult to fully
understand. They may sometimes behave awkwardly or inappropriately in social situations



m
ay marry and raise children with the support of fa
mily, friends and support services



m
ay have a job, in either open or supported employment



m
ay live and travel independently but may need support and help to handle money and to
plan and organise their daily life



m
ay learn to read and writ
e with appropriate

teaching





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People with a moderate intellectual disability

A moderate intellectual disability is defined as an IQ between 35 and 50. A person with a moderate
intellectual disability:



w
ill have important relationships in their life and will probably form
valued and lasting
friendships



w
ill enjoy a range of activities with their families, friends and acquaintances



m
ay be able to learn to travel on regular public transport routes with specific training, but
will have difficulty planning trips and handling mo
ney. They may have great difficulty
problem solving when unexpected events occur



m
ay learn to recognise some words in context, such as common signs including ‘Ladies’,
‘Gents’ and ‘Exit’



w
ill be able to make choices and understand daily schedules or future

events if provided with
visual prompts such as daily timetables and pictures of planned events



w
ill need lifelong support in the planning and organisation of their lives and activities



m
ay develop independence in personal care, such as toilet

hygiene, dre
ssing and bathing
-


i
ndependence in these tasks will depend on opportunities to learn and practise these tasks,
and whether or not the person has other disab
ilities, such as cerebral palsy


People with a severe or profound intellectual disability

A severe

intellectual disability is defined as an IQ between 20 and 35. A profound intellectual
disability is defined as an IQ below 20. A person with a severe or profound intellectual disability:



w
ill usually recognise familiar people and may have strong
relationships with key people in
their lives



i
s likely to have little or no speech and will rely on gestures, facial expression and body
language to communicate needs or feelings. Communication systems for people with this
level of disability generally rel
y on photographs or objects to support understanding. For
example, a cup or a photograph of a cup may be used with the spoken question: ‘Would you
like a drink?’



wi
ll require lifelong help with personal care tasks, communication and accessing and
participa
ting in community facilities, services and activities


ACTIVITY

What is the average IQ for the following levels of an intellectual disability?

Mild


Moderate


Severe




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DOWN SYNDROME



Down syndrome (also known as trisomy 21) is a genetic condition in
which the person has an
extra copy of chromosome 21.



This results in a number of physical and developmental characteristics and some level of
intellectual disability.





Down syndrome and the extra chromosome



Chromosomes are the blueprint for the body’s development.



They determine our physical and mental characteristics.



The usual number of chromosomes is 46 (arranged in 23 matched pairs).



People with Down syndrome have an extra chromosome 21.



Down syndrome is the most common chromosome disorder and occurs in all races and
cultures at around the same rate.




Some level of intellectual disability is the only feature common to all, although a range of
other features are also associated with the c
ondition. These include characteristic physical
features and a number of health and developmental indications.


Common physical characteristics

There are a number of physical characteristics associated with Down syndrome. The most common
physical character
istics include:



Eyes



nearly all people with Down syndrome have a slight upward slant of the eyes. There
can also be a small fold of skin on the inside of the eye (epicanthic fold) and small white
patches on the edge of the iris of the eye (Brushfield spo
ts).



Face



this is often rounded and tends to have a flat profile.



Stature



babies with Down syndrome are usually smaller and weigh less at birth than
others. Children tend to grow more slowly and are commonly smaller than other children
their age. Adult
s with Down syndrome are commonly smaller than in the general population.


Delayed development



Babies reach the same developmental milestones (such as smiling, sitting up, crawling,
walking, talking and toileting) as all babies, but with some degree of delay.



Speech and language development is often the area of greatest delay.



Everyone with Down s
yndrome will experience some delay in their development and some
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level of learning disability, but the extent and specific areas of delay vary from one individual
to another.



Generally need more support than most other people in order to achieve their pote
ntial


some will need very little support, while others may require a high level of support.



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Capabilities and potential



Down syndrome affects, but does not determine, development and achievement in a person.



People demonstrate a wide range of capabilit
ies
.




What happens after birth will be far more important in shaping the outlook for a person than
the occurrence of the extra chromosome at conception
.




These days, children with Down syndrome attend childcare settings, pre
-
schools and primary
and high sc
hools alongside other children of their age
.




Adults with Down syndrome attend post
-
school training, participate in the workforce and
lead full lives as productive and valued members of their communities
.




An increasing number are achieving independent liv
ing, with some level o
f support, within
the community.



People with Down syndrome often have their abilities and potential underestimated
.



A person with this condition will achieve in many areas when offered the oppo
rtunity and
encouraged to do so.


Diagnosis of Down S
yndrome

Down syndrome is usually recognisable at birth and confirmed by a blood test. Prenatal tests that
can help to detect Down syndrome in a foetus include:



u
ltrasound scans



m
aternal serum screening



a
mniocentesis



c
horionic villi
sampling


FRAGILE X SYNDROME



Fragile X syndrome is an inherited condition causing various degrees of intellectual disability.