# Semester I L T P C

Electronics - Devices

Nov 2, 2013 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

M.

Tech. Power Electronics and Power Systems

Course Structure w.e.f. 2009
-
2010

Semester

I

L

T

P

C

1.

Power System Operation and Control

4

-

-

8

2.

Reactive Power
Compensation & Management

4

-

-

8

3

Analysis of Power Electronic Converters

4

-

-

8

4.

Power Electronic Control of DC Drives

4

-

-

8

5.

Elective

I

4

-

-

8

i)
Micro

Controllers

& Applications

ii)

Special Machines and Controls

iii) Power
Semiconductor Devices & Protection

6.

Elective
-
II

4

-

-

8

i)
Voltage Stability

ii)
Electrical Distribution Systems

iii) Renewable Energy sources

7

Power Electronic
s

and Power System Simulation laboratory

-

-

3

8

Semester

II

1.

Switched Mode
Power Conversion

4

-

-

8

2.

Power Electronics Control of AC Drives

4

-

-

8

3.

FACTS Controllers

4

-

-

8

4.

4

-

-

8

5.

Elective
-
III

4

-

-

8

i)

Intelliligent Control

ii)
Digital
Control Systems

iii)
PLC Controllers and its Applications

6.

Elective
-
IV

4

-

-

8

i)
Power System Deregulation

ii)
Real Time Control of Power Systems

iii)
Demand S
ide Energy Management

7.

Power Electronics& Power Systems

Laboratory

-

-

3

8

SEMESTER

I

1.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

Unit 1 :

Unit commitment problem : Introductions to UCP, thermal & Hydral constraints in Unit
commitment : Priority list scheme method, unit commitment problem solution by priority list
scheme method,

Unit 2

:

Unit commitment problem solutions by Dynamic programming Approach. Introduction,
advantages of DP method over priority list scheme, Back word DP approach, forward DP
approach algorithm and their flow charts solution UCP using Dynamic program metho
d.

Unit 3 :

-
I : Necessity of keeping frequency constant. Definition of
control area, single area control, Block diagram representation of an isolated Power System,
-
Uncontrolled case.

Unit 4 :

Proportional plus Integral control of single area and its block diagram representation,

Unit 5 :

-
II : Load frequency control of 2
-
area system : uncontrolled

case and controlled case, tie
-
time bias control.

Unit 6

:

Optimal LF control
-
steady state representation, performance Index and optimal

Unit 7 :

Generation with limited Energy supply : Take
-
or
-
pay fuel supply contract, composite
gene
ration production cost function. Solution by gradient search techniques, Hard limits and
slack variables, Fuel scheduling by linear programming.

Unit 8 :

Interchange Evaluation and Power Pools Economy Interchange, Economy interchange
Evaluation, Interchan
ge Evaluation with unit commitment, Multiple Interchange contracts.
After
-
the
-
fact production costing, Transmission Losses in transaction Evaluation, other types of
Interchange, power pools.

Reference Books :

1.

Electrical Energy Systems Theory
-

by
O.I.Elgerd, Tata Mc Graw
-
Hill Publishing
Company Ltd, 2
nd

edition.

2.

Tata Mc Graw Hill Publications

3.

Power Generation, Operation and Control
-

by A.J.Wood and B.F.Wollenberg,John wiley
& sons Inc. 1984.

4.

Modern Power Syst
em Analysis
-

by I.J.Nagrath & D.P.Kothari, Tata Mc Graw
-
Hill
Publishing Company ltd, 2
nd

edition.

2.
REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION AND MANAGEMENT

UNIT I:

Objectives and specifications

reactive power characteristics

inductive and
capacitive
approximate biasing

Load compensator as a voltage regulator

phase balancing and power
-

examples.

state reactive power compensation in transmission system:

Uncompensated line

types
of compensation

Passive shunt and series and dynamic shunt
compensation

examples

UNIT III:

Transient state reactive power compensation in transmission systems:

Characteristic time periods

passive shunt compensation

static compensations
-

series
cap
acitor compensation

compensation using synchronous condensers

examples

UNIT
-
IV:

Reactive power coordination:

Objective

Mathematical modeling

Operation planning

transmission benefits

Basic
concepts of quality of power supply

disturbances
-

y

state variations

effects of under
voltages

frequency

Harmonics, radio frequency and electromagnetic interferences

UNIT
-
V:

Demand side management:

power tariffs
-

KVAR based tariffs penalties for
voltage
flickers and Harmonic voltage levels

UNIT
-
VI:

Distribution side Reactive power Management
:

System losses

loss reduction methods

examples

Reactive power planning

objectives

Economics Planning capacitor placement

retrofitting of capacitor banks

U
NIT
-
VII:

User side reactive power management:

KVAR requirements for domestic appliances

Purpose of using capacitors

selection of
capacitors

deciding factors

types of available capacitor, characteristics and Limitations

UNIT
-
VIII: Reactive power man
agement in electric traction systems and are furnaces:

Typical layout of traction systems

reactive power control requirements

distribution
transformers
-

Electric arc furnaces

basic operations
-

furnaces transformer

filter requirements

remedial
measures

power factor of an arc furnace

Reference Books:

1. Reactive power control in Electric power systems by T.J.E.Miller, John Wiley and sons, 1982
(Units I to IV)

2. Reactive power Management by D.M.Tagare,Tata McGraw Hill,2004.(Units V toVIII

3.
ANALYSIS OF POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS

Unit
-
I Single Phase AC voltage Controllers

Single Phase AC Voltage Controllers with RL and RLE loads
-
ac voltage controller’s with PWM
control
-
Effects of source and load inductances

synchronous tap changers

Applica
tion
-

numerical problems

Unit
-
II Three Phase AC Voltage Controllers

Three Phase AC Voltage controllers
-
Analysis of Controllers with star and delta connected
resistive, resistive

-
Effects of source and load inductances

Application
-

numerica
l problems.

Unit

III Single phase ac
-
dc converters

Single phase Half controlled and Fully controlled Converters with RL load

Evaluation of input
power factor and harmonic factor
-
-
Power factor
improvements
-
Extincti
on angle control
-
symmetrical angle control
-
PWM single phase sinusoidal
PWM
-
Single phase series converters
-

numerical problems

Unit
-
IV Three Phase ac
-
dc Converters

Three Phase ac
-
dc Converters
-

Half controlled and fully controlled Converters with RL load

E
valuation of input power factor and harmonic factor
-
current
-
three phase dual converters
-
Power factor improvements
-
three phase PWM
-
twelve pulse
converters
-

numerical problems

Unit
-
V Power Factor Correction Converters

Single
-
phase single stage boost power factor corrected rectifier, power circuit principle of
-

analysis, three phase boost PFC converter

Unit

VI Single phase PWM Inverters

Principle of operation
-
Voltage control of single phase invert
ers
-

sinusoidal PWM

modified
PWM

phase displacement Control

Trapezoidal, staircase, stepped, harmonic injection and
delta modulation

numerical problems

Unit VII: Three Phase PWM Inverters

Voltage Control of Three
-
Phase Inverters
-

Sinusoidal PWM
-

60
0

PWM
-

Third Harmonic PWM
-

Space Vector Modulation
-

Comparison of PWM Techniques
-
current source inverters
-
Variable
-

numerical problems

Unit VIII: Multi level inverters

Introduction, Multilevel Concept, Types of Multilevel Inverters
-

Diode
-
Clamped Multilevel
Inverter, Principle of Operation, Features of Diode
-
Clamped Inverter, Improved Diode
-
Clamped
Inverter
-

Flying
-
Capacitors Multilevel Inverter
-

Principle of Operation, Features of Flying
-
Capacitors Inverter
-

rter
-

Principle of Operation
-

Inverter
-

Switching Device Currents
-
DC
-
-

Features of
Multilevel Inverters
-

Comparisons of Multilevel Converters

Textbooks

1. Power Electronics
-
Md.H.Rashid

Pearson Education

Third Edition
-

First Indian

Reprint
-

2008

2. Power Electronics
-

Ned Mohan, Tore M.Undelan and William P.Robbins

John Wiley & Sons

-
2
nd

Edition.

4.
POWER ELECTRONIC CONTROL OF DC DRIVES

Unit
-
I: Speed Torque characteristics of DC
Motors

Separately excited DC motors, Shunt motor, series motor and compound motor

Unit
-
II: Controlled Bridge Rectifier (1
-

Separately excited DC motors with rectified single phase supply
-

single phase semi converter and single
phase
full converter for continuous and discontinuous modes of operation

power and power factor.

Unit
-
III: Controlled Bridge Rectifier (3
-

Three phase semi converter and three phase full converter for continuous and discontinuous modes of
operation

power and power factor

Freewheeling

diode

Three phase double converter.

Unit
-
IV: Three phase naturally commutated bridge circuit as a rectifier or as an inverter

Three phase controlled bridge rectifier with passive load impedanc
e, resistive load and ideal supply

Highly inductive load and ideal supply for load side and supply side quantities, shunt capacitor
compensation, three phase controlled bridge rectifier inverter.

Unit
-
V: Closed loop control of phase controlled DC motor D
rives

Open loop Transfer function of DC Motor drive
-

Closed loop Transfer function of DC Motor drive

Phase
-
Locked loop control.

Unit
-
VI: Chopper controlled DC motor drives

Principle of operation of the chopper

Chopper for

inversion

Chopper
with other power devices

model of the chopper

input to the chopper

controlled DC motor drives

rating of the devices.

Unit
-

VII: Closed loop control of chopper fed DC motor Drives

Speed controlled

drive system

current control loop

pulse width modulated current controller

hysteresis current controller

modeling of current controller

design of current controller

Unit
-
VIII: Simulation of DC motor Drives

Dynamic simulations of the speed contro
lled DC motor drives

Speed feedback speed controller

command current generator

current controller.

REFERENCES

1.

Power Electronics and Motor Control

Shepherd, Hulley, Liang

II Edition, Cambridge
University Press

2.

Power Electronic Circuits, Devices an
d Applications

M. H. Rashid

PHI.

3.

Electric Motor Drives Modeling, Analysis and Control

R. Krishnan, Prentice Hall India.

4.

Fundamentals of Electric Drives

G. K. Dubey

Narosa Publications

1995.

5.

Power Semiconductor drives

G. K. Dubey.

5.1 MICRO CONTROLLERS

AND APPLICATIONS

(Elective

I)

Unit
-
I: 8051 Microcontrollers

Introduction to Intel 8 bit &

16 bit Microcontrollers, MCS
-
51 Architecture, Registers in MCS
-
51, 8051
Pin Description, 8051 Connections, 8051 Parallel I/O Ports, Memory Organization

Unit II: MCS
-

-
51 Instruction Set, 8051

Instructions and Simple Programs, Using Stack
Pointer, 8051 Assembly Language Programming, Development Systems and Tools, Software Simulators
of 8051

Unit
-
III: MCS
-
51 Interrupts, Timer/Counters and Serial Communication

Interrupts, Interrupts in MCS
-
51, T
imers and Counters, Serial Communication, Atmel Microcontrollers
(89CXX and 89C20XX), Architectural Overview of Atmel 89C51 and Atmel 89C2051, Pin Description
of 89C51 and 89C2051, Using Flash Memory Devices Atmel 89CXX and 89C20XX

Unit
-
IV: Applications
of MCS
-
51 and Atmel 89C51 and 89C2051 Microcontrollers

Applications of MCS
-
51 and Atmel 89C51 and 89C2051 Microcontrollers
-

Square Wave Generation
-

Rectangular Waves
-

Pulse Generation
-

Pulse Width Modulation
-

Staircase Ramp Generation
-

Sine Wave
Generation
-

Pulse Width Measurement
-

Frequency Counter

Unit
-

V. PIC Microcontrollers

PIC Microcontrollers: Overview and Features, PIC 16C6X/7X, FSR(File Selection Register) [Indirect
Data Memory Address Pointer], PIC Reset Actions, PIC Oscillator Connections,
PIC Memory
Organizations, PIC PIC 16C6X/7X Instructions, Addressing Modes, I/O Ports, Interrupts in PIC
16C61/71, PIC 16C61/71 Timers, PIC 16C71 Analog
-
to
-

Unit
-

VI. PIC 16F8XX Flash Microcontrollers

Introduction, Pin Diagram of 16F8XX, STATUS Register, OPTION_REG Register, Power Control
Register (PCON), PIC 16F8XX Program Memory, PIC 16F8XX Data Memory, DATA EEPROM and
Flash Program EEPROM, Interrupts in 16F877, I/O Ports, Timers

Unit
-

VII: Interfac
ing and Microcontroller Applications
-

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), Push
Buttons, Relays and Latch Connections, Keyboard Interfacing, Interfacing 7
-
Segment Displays, LCD
Interfacing, ADC AND DAC Interfacing with 89C51 Microcontrollers

Unit
-

VIII: Indus
trial Applications of Microcontrollers
-

Measurement Applications, Automation and
Control Applications

Reference books:

1.

Microcontrollers
-
Theory and Applications by Ajay V Deshmukh, McGraw Hills

2.

Microcontrollers by Kentrith J ayala, Thomson publishers

3

Micr
oprocessor and Microcontrollers by Prof C.R.Sarma

5.2
SPECIAL MACHINES AND CONTROLS

(Elective
-
1)

Unit I: Stepper Motors

Constructional features, Principle of operation, Modes of excitation torque production in

Variable

Reluctance (VR) stepping motor

Unit II: Characteristics of Stepper Motors

Dynamic characteristics, Drive systems and circuit for open loop control, closed loop control of stepping
motor.

Unit III: Switched Reluctance Motors

Constructional features, Principle of operation. Torque equatio
n, Characteristics, Control

Techniques
,

Drive Concept.

Unit IV: Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motors

Commutation in DC motors, Difference between mechanical and electronic commutators,

Hall sensors,
Optical sensors, Multiphase Brushless motor, Square wa
ve permanent

magnet brushless motor drives,
Torque and emf equation, Torque
-
speed characteristics,

Controllers
-
Microprocessors based controller.

Unit V: Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

Principle of operation, EMF,

power input and torque expressions,
Phasor diagram, Power

controllers,
Torque speed characteristics, Self control, Vector control, Current control

schemes.

Unit VI: Servomotors

Servomotor

Types

Constructional features

Principle of Operation

Characteristics
-
Control

Microprocessor

based applications.

Unit VII: AC Tachometers

Schematic diagram, Operating principle, numerical problems

Unit VIII: Linear Motors

Linear Motors: Linear Induction Motor (LIM) Classification

Construction

Principle of operation

Concept of Current she
et

Goodness factor

DC Linear Motor (DCLM) types

Circuit equation

DCLM control
-
applications.

References

1. Miller, T.J.E. “Brushless Permanent Magnet and Reluctance Motor Drives”,Clarendon Press, Oxford,

1989.

2. Kenjo, T, “Stepping Motors and t
heir Microprocessor control”, Clarendon Press,

Oxford, 1989.

3. Naser A and Boldea I, “Linear Electric Motors: Theory, Design and Practical

Application”, Prentice

Hall Inc., New Jersey,1987

4. Floyd E Saner,”Servo Motor Applications”, Pittman USA,
1993.

5. Kenjo, T and Naganori, S “Permanent Magnet and brushless DC motors”, Clarendon

Press, Oxford,

1989.

6. Generalized Theory of Electrical Machines

P.S.Bimbra
-
Khanna publications
-
5
th

edition
-
1995

5.3 POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES & PROTECTION
(Elective
-
I)

Unit I: Overview of Power Switching Devices:
Introduction to power switching devices,
classification of devices, controlled and un
-
controlled devices, i
-
v characteristics of ideal and
real switching devices,

Unit
-
II: Power Diodes:
Device str
ucture and i
-
v characteristics, ratings & specifications,
switching characteristics, reverse recovery, classification of various diodes: Schotky diode, line
frequency diodes, fast recovery diodes,

Unit
-
III: Power Transistors:

Device structure and i
-
v chara
cteristics, ratings & specifications,
switching characteristics, ON to OFF and OFF to ON state transitions, ON/OFF transition loss
analysis, driver circuit.

Unit
-
IV: Power MOSFETs:
Device structure and i
-
v characteristics, ratings & specifications,
switchi
ng characteristics, ON to OFF and OFF to ON state transitions, ON/OFF transition loss
analysis, driver circuit.

Unit
-
V: IGBT:
Device structure and i
-
v characteristics, ratings & specifications, switching
characteristics, ON to OFF and OFF to ON state trans
itions, ON/OFF transition loss analysis,.
Comparison of all the above devices with reference to power handling capability, frequency of
operation, driver circuit, .emerging power switching devices.

Unit
-
VI: Protection of the Switching Devices:
Device prote
ction against over voltage/currents,
di/dt and dv/dt; safe operating area, design of snubbers for power devices.

Unit
-
VII:

Thermal Management:

Conduction and transition losses computation, thermal
-
state temperature rise, electri
cal equivalent circuit of thermal model,
sizing of the heat sink.

Unit
-
VIII: Passive Components:
Magnetic circuit, review of design of line frequency inductors
and transformers, design of high frequency inductors and transformers.

Text book

1.

Power
Electronics Circuits
-

B. W. Williams

Reference books

1.

Power Electronics Circuits, Devices and Applications

M. H. Rashid
-
PHI
-

2.

Power Electronics

Converters, Applications and Design

Mohan and Undeland
-
John
Wiley & Sons

3.

Power Electronics: L. Umanand

6.1 VOLTAGE STABILITY
(ELECTIVE II)

Unit 1

:
Reactive Power flow and voltage stability in power systems
:
Physical relationship
indicating dependency of voltage on reactive power flow
-

reactive power transient stability;
Q
-
V curve; definition of voltage stability, voltage collapse and voltage security. Voltage collapse
phenomenon, Factors of voltage col
lapse, effects of voltage collapse, voltage collapse analysis.
Reasons for aggravation of the problem.

Unit 2

:

Power system loads : Load characteristics that influence voltage stability such as

Discharge lighting, Induction motor, Air conditioning an
d heat pumps, Electronic power
supplies, Over Head lines and cables.

Unit 3

:

Reactive Power compensation : Generation and absorption of reactive power

Reactive power compensators & voltage controllers :
-

shunt capacitors, synchronous phase
modifi
er

static VAR system

on load tap changing transformer, booster transformers.

Unit 4

:

Voltage stability static indices :
Development of voltage collapse index

power flow
studies

singular value decomposition

minimum singular value of voltage collapse

condition number as voltage collapse index.

Unit 5

:
V
oltage stability margins & Improvement of voltage stability:
Stability margins,
voltage stability margin of un compensated and compensated power system . Dynamic voltage
stability

voltage security , Methods of improving voltage stability and its practical aspects.

References:

1.

Performance operation and control
of EHV power transmission SystemsA chakrabarti,
D.P.Kothari, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, A.H. Wheeler publishing, 1995.

2.

Power system Voltage stability
-

C.W. Taylor , Mc. Graw Hill, 1994

6
.2
ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

(ELECTIVE
-
I
I)

Unit 1 :

General : Introduction to Distribution systems, an overview of the role of computers in
distribution system planning
-
Load modeling and characteristics: definition of basic terms like demand
factor, utilization factor, load factor, plant factor, diversity

factor, coincidence factor, contribution factor
and loss factor
-
Relationship between the load factor and loss factor
-

(Residential, Commercial, Agricultural and Industrial) and their characteristics.

Unit 2 :

Distributio
n Feeders and Substations : Design consideration of Distribution feeders: Radial and
loop types of primary feeders, voltage levels, feeder
-

Unit 3 :

Design practice of the secondary distribution system.

Location of
Substations:

Rating of a Distr
ibution Substation, service area with

primary feeders. Benefits derived through optimal location of substations.

Unit 4 :

System analysis : Voltage drop and power loss calculations : Derivation for volt
-
drop and power
loss in lines, manual methods of solution for radial networks, three
-
phase balanced primary lines, non
-
three
-
phase primary lines.

Unit 5 :

Protective devices a
nd coordination : Objectives of distribution system protection, types of
common faults and procedure for fault calculation.

Unit 6 :

Protective Devices: Principle of operation of fuses, circuit reclosers, line sectionalizer and circuit
breakers. Coordinati
on of protective devices : General coordination procedure.

Unit 7 :

Capacitive compensation for power factor control: Different types of power capacitors, shunt and
series capacitors, effect of shunt capacitors (Fixed and switched ) power factor correction
, capacitor
location. Economic justification. Procedure to determine the best capacitor location.

Unit 8 :

Voltage control : Equipment for voltage control, effect of series capacitors, effect of AVB/AVR,
line drop compensation.

Reference Books :

1.

“Electric

Power Distribution System Engineering “ by Turan Gonen, Mc.Graw
-
Hill Book

Company,1986.

2.

Electric Power Distribution
-
by A.S.Pabla, Tata Mc Graw
-
Hill Publishing Company, 4
th

edition,

1997

6.3
RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES

(Elective

II)

Unit
-
I

Solar Energy
-

Availability
-

-

Estimation of average solar
-

Solar water heater types
-

Heat balance

Flat plate collector efficiency

Efficiency
of heat removal
-

Thermo siphon flow calculation
-

Forced ci
rculation calculation
-

Evacuated
collectors
-

Basics of solar concentrators

Unit
-
II

Solar Energy Applications
-

Solar air heaters

Solar Chimney
-

Crop driers
-

Passive solar
system
-

Active solar systems
-

Water desalination
-

Output from solar still

Principle of solar
ponds.

Unit
-
III

Wind Energy

Nature of wind

Characteristics

Variation with height and time

Power in
wind

Aerodynamics of Wind turbine

Momentum theory

Basics of aerodynamics

Aerofoils
and their characteristics

HAWT

B

Prandtl’s lifting line theory
(prescribed wake analysis) VAWT aerodynamics

Unit
-
IV

Wind Energy Conversion System

Siting

Rotor s
election

Annual energy output

Horizontal
axis wind turbine (HAWT)

Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT)

Rotor design considerations

Solidity
-

Upwind/Downwind

Yaw system

Tower

Braking system
-

Synchronous and

Integration of wind
energy converters to electrical networks

Inverters

Control system

Requirement and
strategies

Noise

Applications of wind energy

Unit
-
V

Biomass energy
-

Bio fuel classification

Examples of
thermo chemical, Pyrolysis, biochemical
and agrochemical systems

Energy farming

Direct combustion for heat

Process heat and
electricity

Ethanol production and use

Anaerobic

digestion for biogas

Different
digesters

Digester sizing

Applicat
ions of Biogas
-

Operation with I.C.Engine

Unit
-
VI

Ocean Energy
-

OTEC Principle
-

Lambert’s law of absorption
-

Open cycle and closed cycle
-

heat exchanger calculations

Major problems and operational experience.

Unit
-
VII

Tidal Power
-

Principles of power generation
-

components of power plant

Single and two
basin systems

Turbines for tidal power
-

Estimation of energy

Maximum and minimum
power ranges
-

tidal powerhouse.

Wave Energy

Concept of energy and power fro
m waves

Wave characteristics

period and
wave velocities
-

Different wave energy conservation devices (Saltor duck, oscillating water
column and dolphin types)

operational experience.

Unit
-
VIII

Geothermal Energy
-

Classification
-

Fundamentals of geop
hysics
-

Dry rock and hot aquifier
energy analysis
-

Estimation of thermal power
-

Extraction techniques
-

Prime movers.

References:

1.

Renewable Energy Resources / John Twidell and Tony Weir / E & F.N.Spon

2.

Renewable Energy Resources Basic Principles and
Applications / G.N.Tiwari and
M.K.Ghosal / Narosa

3.

Solar Energy
-

Principles of thermal collection and storage/ S.P. Sukhatme / TMH

4.

Solar Energy Thermal Processes,/Duffie & Beckman

5.

Solar Heating and Cooling / Kreith & Kreider

6.

Wind Energy Handbook / Tony Bur
ton, David Sharpe, Nick Jenkins and Ervin Bossanyi /
WileyWind Electrical Systems / S.N.Bhadra, D.Kastha and S.Banerjee / Oxford

7.

Biogas Technology
-

A Practical Hand Book / K.Khendelwal & S.S. Mahdi / McGraw
-
Hill

7. Power
Electronics and Power System Simulation Laboratory

Group

A

1.

PSPICE Simulation of Three phase full converter using RL & E Loads.

2.

PSPICE Simulation of single phase AC Voltage controller with PWM control for RL

3.

PSPICE Simulation of Three phase invert
er with Sinusoidal PWM control for R
-

4.

PSPICE Simulation of single phase current source inverter with RL Load.

5.

Characteristics of induction machines under balanced and symmetrical conditions for the
.

a. dq

model in synchronous reference frame
.

b. dq model in stator reference frame
.

c. dq model in rotor reference frame
.

6.

Volts/Hz

closed
-
loop speed control of an induction motor drive using Matlab/Simulink
.

7.

Open
-
loop Volts/Hz control of a synchro
.

8.

Speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor using Matlab/Simulink
.

7. Power Electronics and Power System Simulation Laboratory

Group

B

1.

Y
-

Bus Formation.

2.

Gauss

3.

Fast

4.

Formation of Z
-
Bus.

5.

Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical fault analysis using Z
-
Bus.

6.

Unit Commitment Problem.

7.

Hydro
-
Thermal scheduling problem.

8.

Transient stability analysis using point by point method.

NB: The students have to do minimum
of
6 experiments from each group.

SEMESTER

II

1.
SWITCHED MODE POWER CONVERSION

Unit

I Single
-
switch Isolated converters:
Requirement for isolation in the switch
-
mode
converters, transformer connection, Forward

and flyback converters, power circuit and steady
-
state analysis.

Unit
-
II: Push
-
Pull Converters:
-
state analysis, utilization of magnetic
circuits in single switch and push
-
pull topologies.

Unit
-

III: Isolated Bridge converters:
Ha
lf bridge and full
-
bridge converters
,
Power circuit and
-
state analysis, utilization of magnetic circuits and comparison with previous topologies.

Unit
-
IV
:
Dynamic Analysis of dc
-
dc converters:
Formulation of dynamic equation of buck and
boost
converters, averaged circuit models, linearization technique, small
-
signal model and
converter transfer functions.

Unit
-
V:

Controller Design
: Review of frequency
-
domain analysis of linear time
-
invariant
systems, concept of bode plot, phase and gain margin
s, bandwidth, controller specifications,
proportional(P), proportional plus integral (PI), proportional plus integral plus integral controller
(PID), selection of controller parameters.

Unit
-
VI: Resonant Converters:

Classification of Resonant converters
-
B
asic resonant circuits
-

Series resonant circuit
-
parallel resonant circuits
-

Resonant switches.

Unit
-
VII:

Quasi
-
Resonant Converters
-
I: Concept of Zero voltage switching, principle of
operation, analysis of M
-
type and L
-
type Buck or boost Converters.

Unit
-
VIII
: Quasi
-
Resonant Converters
-
II: Concept of Zero current switching, principle of
operation, analysis of M
-
type and L
-
type Buck or boost Converters.

Text Books:

1.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Robert Erickson and Dragon Maksivimovic,
Springer Pulblications.

2.

Power Electronics

Issa Batarseh
-

John Wiely

Reference Books:

1. Elements of Power Electronics
-

Philip T.Krein

Oxford University Press

2. Power Electro
nics, L. Umanand, Tata Mc
-
Graw Hill

2. POWER ELECTRONIC CONTROL OF AC DRIVES

Unit
-
I
:

Introduction

-
state operation of Induction motor, Equivalent circuit analysis, torque
-
speed
characteristics.

Unit II: Voltage Source Inverter Fed
Induction motor drives

Scalar control
-

Voltage fed Inverter control
-
Open loop volts/Hz control
-
Speed control with slip
regulation
-
Speed control with torque and Flux control
-
Current controlled voltage fed Inverter
Drive

Unit III Current Source Inverter Fe
d Induction motor drives

Current
-
Fed Inverter control
-
Independent current and frequency control
-
Speed and flux control
in Current
-
Fed Inverter drive
-
Volts/Hz control of Current
-
Fed Inverter drive
-
Efficiency
optimization control by flux program.

Unit IV Sl
ip power recovery schemes

Slip
-
power recovery Drives
-
Static Kramer drive
-
Phasor diagram
-
Torque expression
-
Speed
control of a Kramer drive
-
Static scherbius drive
-
Modes of operation

Unit
-
V: Vector control of Induction Motor:

Principles of vector control,
Direct vector control, derivation of indirect vector control,
implementation

block diagram; estimation of flux, flux weakening operation.

Unit
-
VI: Control of Synchronous motor drives:

Synchronous motor and its characteristics
-

Control strategies
-
Consta
nt torque angle control
-

power factor control, constant flux control, flux weakening operation, Load commutated inverter
fed synchronous motor drive, motoring and regeneration, phasor diagrams.

UNIT
-
VII: PMSM and BLDC Drives:

Characteristics of permanen
t magnet, synchronous
machines with permanent magnet, vector control of PMSM
-

Motor model and control scheme.
Modeling of PM brushless dc motor, drive scheme
-
Three
-
phase full wave Brushless dc motor
-
Sinusoidal type of Brushless dc motor
-

current control
led Brushless dc motor Servo drive

UNIT
-
VIII Variable Reluctance Motor Drive

Variable Reluctance motor drives
-

Torque production in the variable reluctance motor
-
Drive
characteristics and control principles
-

Current control variable reluctance motor se
rvo drive

Text Book:

1.

Electric Motor Drives Modeling, Analysis & control
-
R. Krishnan
-

Pearson Education

Reference Books:

2.

Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives

B. K. Bose
-
Pearson Publications
-

3.

Power Electronics control of AC motors

MD Murphy & FG Turn
Bull Pergman Press
-
1
st

edition
-
1998

4.

Fundamentals of Electrical Drives

G.K. Dubey

Narosa Publications
-
1995

5.

Power Semiconductor drives
-

G.K. Dubey
-
Prentice hall

3.
FACTS CONTROLLERS

Unit 1 :

Power flow and Dynamic stability considerations, importance of controllable parameters.

Unit 2 :

Opportunities for FACTS, basic types of FACTS controllers, benefits fro
m FACTS
controllers, Requirements and Characteristics of High Power devices

Voltage and Current
rating, losses and speed of switching, parameter trade
-
off of devices.

Unit 3 :

Basic concept of Voltage source converter, Single phase full wave bridge conv
erter,
Single phase
-
leg (pole) operation, Square
-
wave voltage harmonics for a single phase Bridge, 3
Phase full wave bridge converter.

Unit 4 :

Transformer connections for 12 pulse, 24 and 48 pulse operation. Three level voltage
source converter, pulse w
idth modulation converter, basic concept of current source converters,
comparison of current source converters with voltage source converters.

Unit 5 :

Objectives of shunt compensation, midpoint voltage regulation for line segmentation,
End of line voltag
e support to prevent voltage instability, improvement of transient stability,
Power oscillation damping.

Unit 6 :

Methods of controllable var generation: variable impedance type static var generators

TCR and TSR, TSC, FC
-
TCR, TSC
-
TCR, switching converte
r type var generators, hybrid var
generators.

Unit 7 :

SVC and STATCOM : The regulation and slope transfer function and dynamic
performance, transient stability enhancement and power oscillation damping, operating point
control and summary of compensation control.

Unit 8 :

Static series compensators : Concep
t of series capacitive compensation, improvement of
transient stability, power oscillation damping, functional requirements. GTO thyristor controlled
series capacitor (GSC), thyristor switched series capacitor (TSSC), and thyristor controlled series
capaci
tor (TCSC), control schemes for GSC, TSSC and TCSC.

Reference Book:

1. “Understanding FACTS ” N.G.Hingorani and L.Guygi, IEEE Press.

Indian Edition is available:
--
Standard Publications, 2001.

1.

“Flexible a c transmission system (FACTS)” Edited by YONG HUE SONG and

ALLAN T JOHNS, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London.

4.

Unit 1
: STATIC RELAYS CLASSIFICATION AND TOOLS:
Basic construction of
static relays, Classification of static relays, Comparison of Static relays with electromagnetic
relays, Level detectors, Polarity detector, Zero Crossing detector, Thyristor and UJT
triggering circuits, Amplitude comparator, Phase comparator, Princip
le of Duality.

Unit 2

: AMPLITUDE AND PHASE COMPARATORS (2 INPUT):

Generalized equations for amplitude and Phase comparison, Derivation of several Different
characteristics of static relays. Rectifier bridge circulating and opposed Voltage type
-

Averag
ing
-
phase splitting type
-
Sampling type of amplitude Comparison. Block spike type
-
Phase splitting type
-

Transistor integrating type
-
Rectifier bridge type
-

Vector product type
Phase comparison.

Unit 3
: STATIC OVER CURRENT RELAYS (OC):
Instantaneous
-

Defi
nite time

Inverse time
-

Directional
-

IDMT
-

Very inverse Time
-
Extremely inverse time over current
relays. Time current characteristics of Over current relays.

Unit 4 :

Over current protective Schemes:

-
-
Combination
of time and current graded system. Protection of radial feeder, Protection of
parallel feeders, Protection of loop or Ring circuit.

Unit 5
: DISTANCE RELAYS:
Principle of operation
-

Classification of distance relays
-

Protective schemes using Distance rela
ys
-

Effect of power swings, Fault impedance, load
impedance, Source impedance on the performance of distance relay
-

Static Impedance relay
-

Static MHO relay
-

Static Reactance relay
-
Selection of distance relays. Distance Protection of
transmission system.

Unit 6 :

CONIC CHARACTERISTICS:

Purpose of conic characteristics
-
-

Elliptical
-
Hyperbolic
-

Parabolic Characteristic Distance relays.

Unit 7
: DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS:
Principle of operation

Rectifier bridge single phase
and Three phase Differential Relays
-

Principle of Phase sequence detectors
-

Poly phase
Differential relay using Sequence detectors
-

Unit 8 :

Static differential protection of single phase, three phase
Transformers and Generator
Transformer unit.

Reference Books :

1.Power system protection
---
by TSM Rao.

2.Power system protection and switch gear
--

3.Switch gear and protection
---
by MV Deshpande.

4.Pro
tective relaying vol
-
2
---
by Warrington.

5. Power system protection and switch gear
---
by Ravindranath & Chandan

5.
1

INTELLIGENT CONTROL

(Elective

I
II
)

UNIT I:

Introduction and motivation. Approaches to intelligent control. Architecture for
intelligent control. Symbolic reasoning system, rule
-
based systems, the AI approach. Knowledge
representation. Expert systems.

UNIT II

Concept of Artificial Neural Networks and its basic mathematical model, McCulloch
-
Pitts
-
forward Multilayer Perceptron.
Learning and Training the neural network.

UNIT III

Data Pre
-
Processing: Sca
ling, Fourier transformation, principal
-
component analysis and wavelet
transformations. Networks: Hopfield network, Self
-
organizing network and Recurrent network.
Neural Network based controller Case studies: Identification and control of linear and nonlin
ear
dynamic systems using Matlab
-
Neural Network toolbox.

UNIT IV

Genetic Algorithm: Basic concept of Genetic algorithm and detail algorithmic steps, adjustment
of free parameters. Solution of typical control problems using genetic algorithm.

UNIT V

Con
cept on some other than GA search techniques like tabu search and ant
-
colony search
techniques for solving optimization problems.

UNIT VI

Introduction to crisp sets and fuzzy sets, basic fuzzy set operation and approximate reasoning.
Introduction to Fuzz
y logic modeling and control of a system. Fuzzification, inference and
defuzzification. Fuzzy knowledge and rule bases.

UNIT VII

Fuzzy modeling and control schemes for nonlinear systems. Self
-
organizing fuzzy logic control.
Implementation of fuzzy logic
controller using Matlab fuzzy
-
logic toolbox.

Unit
-
VIII Fuzzy logic & Neural network applications to Drives

Fuzzy logic applications:
Design of Fuzzy PI controller for speed control of DC motor
-

Flux
programming efficiency improvement of three phase induction motor
-
Induction motor speed
control
-
Slip gain tuning of indirect vector control of induction motor
-
stator resistance estimation.

Neural network applications:
-
PWM Controller
-
Selected harmonic

elimination PWM
-
Space
vector PWM
-
Vector controlled drive
-
feedback signal estimation
-
speed estimation and flux
estimation of induction motor

Text Books

1.

Neural Networks: A comprehensive Foundation

Simon Haykins, Pearson Edition,
2003.

2.

Fuzzy logic with
Fuzzy Applications

T.J.Ross

Mc Graw Hill Inc, 1997.

3.

Genetic Algorithms
-

David E Goldberg.

4.

Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives

B.K.Bose
-
Pearson Publications

5.

Artificial Intelligent based Electrical Machines and Drives
-

Peter Vas, Oxford University
Pr
ess

References

1.

Neural Network Design
-
M.T.Hagan, H. B. Demuth and M. Beale, Indian reprint, 2008.

2.

Principles of Neurocomputing for science and Engineering,
-

Fredric M.Ham and Ivica
Kostanic, McGraw Hill, 2001.

3.

Neural Network Fundamentals with Graphs, Algo
rithms and Applications, N.K. Bose and
P.Liang, Mc
-
Graw Hill, Inc. 1996.

4.

Intelligent System
-

Modeling, Optimization and Control
-

Yung C. Shin and Chengying
Xu,CRC Press, 2009.

5.

Soft computing & Intelligent Systems
-

Theory & Applications

N.K.Sinha and Mo
dan
M Gupta. Indian Edition, Elsevier, 2007.

6.

Fuzzy logic Intelligence, Control, and Information
-

John Yen and Reza Langari, Pearson
Education, Indian Edition, 2003.

7.

Fuzzy Control and Fuzzy Systms, Witold Pedrycz, Overseas Press, Indian Edition, 2008.

5
.2

DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(
Elective
-
III)

Unit 1:

Discrete data and digital Control Systems

-

Impulse sampling and data hold

transfer functions of Zero order
hold and First order hold.

Reconstructing original signals from sampled signals

samp
ling theorem, ideal low pass filter,
frequency response characteristics of the Zero order hold.

Unit 2 :
The Z
-
transform, Z transforms of some elementary functions, Important properties and
theorems of the Z
-
transform, The inverse Z
-
transform, S
-
transfor
m method for solving
difference equations, the pulse transfer function, realization of digital controllers.

Unit 3:

Mapping between the s
-
plane and the z
-
plane, the Jury stability test, stability analysis by
use of the bilinear transformation and Routh st
ability criterion. Liapunov stability analysis of
discrete time systems.

Unit 4:

Transient response specifications, steady state error analysis. Design based on frequency
response method, Analytical design method.

Unit 5:

Concept of the state space meth
od, State space representations of discrete time systems,
solving discrete time state space equations. Discretisation of continuous time state space
equations.

Unit 6:

Controllability, Observability, Principle of Duality, Design via pole placement neces
sary
and sufficient condition. Ackerman’s formula, Dead Beat response.

Unit 7:

State observers

necessary and sufficient condition for state observation, full order state
observer, minimum order state observer.

Unit 8:

Microprocessor and DSP control :
Microprocessor control of control systems, single
-
board controllers with custom
-
designed chips, DMC

105 board, digital signal processors

TMS 320 DSPs, development system and support tools. Effects of finite word length and
quantization on controllabi
lity and closed loop pole placement. Effect of quantization

least
upper bound on quantization error.

Reference Books :

1.

Discrete
-
time Control Systems, 2
nd

edition K.OGATA, Pearson Education Asia.

2.

Digital Control Systems : 2
nd

edition, B.C.KUO, Oxford University Press

5.3
PLC CONTROLLERS AND ITS APPLICATIONS

(Elective

III)

Unit 1:

PLC Basics: PLC system, I/O modules and interfacing, CPU processor, programming
equipment, programming formats, construction of PLC ladder
diagrams, devices connected to
I/O modules.

Unit 2:

PLC Programming: Input instructions, outputs, operational procedures, programming examples
using contacts and coils. Drill press operation.

Unit 3:

Digital logic gates, programming in the Boolean algebra

construction and flow chart for spray process system.

Unit 4:

PLC Registers: Characteristics of Registers, module addressing, holding
registers, input registers,
output registers.

Unit 5:

PLC Functions: Timer functions and Industrial applications, counters, counter function industrial
applications, Arithmetic functions, Number comparison functions, number conversion functions.

Unit 6:

Data Handling functions: SKIP, Master control Relay, Jump, Move, FIFO, FAL, ONS, CLR and
Sweep functions and their applications.

Unit 7:

Bit Pattern and changing a bit shift register, sequence functions and applications, controlling of
two axis and three
axis Robots with PLC, Matrix functions.

Unit 8:

Analog PLC operation: Analog modules and systems, Analog signal processing, multi bit data
processing, analog output application examples, PID principles, position indicator with PID
control, PID modules, PID

tuning, PID functions.

Reference Books:

1.

Programmable Logic Controllers

Principle and Applications by John W. Webb and
Ronald A. Reiss, Fifth Edition, PHI

2.

Programmable Logic Controllers

Programming Method and Applications by JR.

Hackworth
and F.D Hackworth Jr.

Pearson, 2004.

6.1 POWER SYSTEM DEREGULATION (Elective

IV)

UNIT I

Need and conditions for deregulation. Introduction of Market structure, Market

Architecture,
Spot market, forward markets and settlements. Review of Concepts

marginal

cost of generation,
least
-
cost operation, incremental cost of generation.

Power System Operation: Old vs. New

UNIT II

Electricity sector structures and Ownership /management, the forms of Ownership and

management. Different structure model like M

wholesale competition model, Retail competition model.

UNIT III

Framework and methods for the analysis of Bilateral and pool markets, LMP based

markets,
auction models and price formation, price based unit
commitment, country

practices

UNIT IV

Transmission network and market power. Power wheeling transactions and marginal

costing,
transmission costing. Congestion management methods
-

market splitting,

counter
-
of congestion on LMPs
-

country pr
actices

UNIT V

Ancillary Services and System Security in Deregulation. Classifications and definitions,

AS
management in various markets
-

country practices. Technical, economic, &

regulatory issues
involved in the deregulation of the power industry.

Refe
rence Books:

1. Power System Economics: Designing markets for electricity
-

S. Stoft

2. Power generation, operation and control,
-
J. Wood and B. F. Wollenberg

3. Operation of restructured power systems
-

K. Bhattacharya, M.H.J. Bollen and

J.E. Daalder

4. M
arket operations in electric power systems
-

M. Shahidehpour, H. Yamin

and Z. Li

5. Fundamentals of power system economics
-

S. Kirschen and G. Strbac

6. Optimization principles: Practical Applications to the Operation and Markets

of the Electric Power Ind
ustry
-

N. S. Rau

7. Competition and Choice in Electricity
-

Sally Hunt and Graham Shuttleworth

6.2

REAL TIME CONTROL OF POWER SYSTEMS

(Elective
-

IV)

Unit 1 :

State Estimation : Different types of State Estimations, Theory of WLS state estimation,
sequential and non
-
sequential methods to process measurements.

Unit 2 :

Unit 3 :

Security
and Contingency Evaluation : Security concept, Security Analysis and
monitoring, Contingency Analysis for Generator and line outages by iterative linear power flow
method, Fast Decoupled model, and network sensitivity methods.

Unit 4 :

Computer Control of
Power Systems : Need for real time and computer control of power
systems, operating states of a power system,

Unit 5 :

-

Supervisory control and Data Acquisition systems implementation
considerations, energy control centres, software requirements fo
r implementing the above
functions.

Unit 6 :

Voltage Stability : What is voltage stability, voltage collapse, and voltage security,
relation of voltage stability to rotor angle stability.

Unit 7 :

Voltage stability analysis Introduction to voltage stabilit
y analysis `P
-
V’ curves and `Q
-
V’ curves, voltage stability in mature power systems, long
-
term voltage stability, power flow
analysis for voltage stability, voltage stability static indices and Research Areas

Unit 8 :

Application of AI and ANN in Power Sys
tem : Basic concepts and definitions,
algorithms for load flow, short term load forecasting, fault diagnosis and state estimation.

Reference Books :

1.

John J.Grainger and William D.Stevenson, Jr. : Power System Analysis,

McGraw
-
Hil
l, 1994, International Edition

2.

Allen J.Wood and Bruce F.Wollenberg : Power Generation operation and control, John
Wiley & Sons, 1984

3.

R.N.Dhar : Computer Aided Power Systems Operation and Analysis, Tata McGraw Hill,
1982

4.

L.P.Singh : Advanced Power System An
alysis and Dynamics, Wiley

Eastern Ltd. 1986

5.

Prabha Kundur : Power System Stability and Control
-
, McGraw Hill, 1994

6.

P.D.Wasserman : `Neural Computing : Theory and Practice’ Van Nostrand
-

Feinhold,
New York.

6.3

DEMAND SIDE
MANAGEMENT

(
Elective
-
IV)

Unit
-
1

:

Energy Audit : Definitions
-
Need
-
concepts
-
Types of energy audit; Energy index

cost
index

pieharts

Sankey diagrams.

Unit
-
2 :

Energy Economics: Introduction
-
Cost benefit risk analysis
-
Payback period
-
Straight line
depreciation
-
Sinking fund depreciation

Reducing balance depreciation
-
Net present value
method
-
Internal rate of return method
-
Profitability index for benefit cost ratio.

Unit
-
3 :

Energy Conservation in Electric utilities and Industry: Electrical load manag
ement:
-
Conservation strategies; conservation in electric utilities
and industry: Introduction
-
Energy conservation in utilities by improving load factor
-
Utility
voltage regulation
-
Energy conservation in Industries
-
Power fa
ctor improvement
.

Unit
-
4 :

Energy

efficient electric motors (EEMs) : Energy efficient motors
-
construction and
technical features
-
case studies of EEMs with respect to cost effectiveness
-
performance
characteristics; Economics of EEMs and system life cycle
-
d
irect savings and payback analysis
-
efficiency factor or efficiency evaluation factor

Unit
-
5

:

Electric Lighting: Introduction
-
Need for an energy management program
-
Building
analysis
-
Modification of existing systems
-
Replacement of existing systems
-
prioritie
s:

Illumination requirement : Task lighting requirements
-
lighting levels
-
system modifications
-
non
illumination modifications
-
-
reflectances
-
space geometry ;System
elements.

Unit
-
6 :

Light sources
-

characteristics of families of lamps
-
lamp substitution in existing
systems
-
selection of Higher efficiency lamps for a new system
-
Luminaries
-
ballasts
-
energy
conservation in lighting. White light LED and conducting Polymers.

Unit
-
7 :

Space

Heating ,Ventilation, Air
-
Conditioning(HVAC) and Water Heating: Introduction
-
Heating of buildings
-
Transfer of Heat
-
Space heating methods
-
Ventilation and air
-
conditioning
-
Insulation
-
-
Electric water heating systems
-
Energy conservation methods.

Unit
-
8 :

Co
-
generation and storage: Combined cycle cogeneration
-
energy storage: pumped
hydro schemes
-
compressed air energy storage(CAES)
-
storage batteries
-
superconducting
magnetic energy storage (SMES)

References:

1.Energy management Hand book by Wayne C.
Turner,John wiley and sons publications

2.Electric Energy Utilization and Conservation by S C Tripathy,Tata McGraw hill publishing

company ltd.New Delhi

3.Energy efficient electric motors selection and application by John C.Andreas

4.Hand book on Energy Audit and Management by Amit kumar Tyagi,published by TERI(Tata

energy research Institute)

5.Energy management by Paul W.O’ Callaghan McGraw hill book company

6.Energy conversion systems by Rakosh Das Begamudre New age internation
al publishers

1.
Energy Management

by W.R.Murphy & G.Mckey Butterworths.

7.

POWER SYSTEM & POWER ELECTRONIC LABORATORY

Group

A

1. Operation of 3
-

phase Full
-
Converter on R & R
-

2. Performance & speed control of D.C. drive using 3
-
phase full Conv
erter.

3. Performance & Operation of a four quadrant Chopper on D.C. Drive

4. Performance & Operation of a 3
-
phase A.C. Voltage controller on motor load.

5. Operation of 3
-
phase IGBT based PWM Inverter on R & R
-

6. Performance &

speed control of 3 phase slip ring Induction motor by Static Rotor Resistance

Controller
.

7. PIC Microcontroller based speed control of three phase Induction Motor
.

8. DSP based V/F Control of 3 phase Induction motor
.

7.

POWER SYSTEM & POWER
ELECTRONIC LABORATORY

Group

B

1.

Determination of Sub
-
Transient Reactance of a Salient Pole Machine.

2.

Determination of Sequence Impedances of a Cylindrical Rotor Synchronous Machine.

3.

Fault Analysis of

i)

LG Fault

ii)

LL Fault

iii)

LLG Fault

iv)

LLLG Fault

4.

Power Angle Characteristics of a Salient Pole Synchronous Machine.

5.

Equivalent Circuit of a Three Winding Transformer.

6.

Characteristics of Over Voltage Relay.

i)

Electromagnetic Type

ii)
Microprocessor Type

7.

Characteristics of Percentage
Biased Differential Relay.

i)

Electromagnetic Type

ii)
Static Type

8.

Simulation of 220KV Transmission line model.

i)

Ferranti Effect

ii)
Transmission line parameter

iii)