Pick and Place Robot

ukrainianlegalElectronics - Devices

Nov 2, 2013 (4 years and 4 days ago)

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Pick and Place Robot




ABSTRACT



The aim of this article is to get familiarized with the modern field of robotics and to find the technology know
-
how.
Also here we are using the sophisticated emerging technology
-
embedded system. Here we have designed
a robot arm,
controlled by a microcontroller. We choose this deign because it is the most common form of robot we can find anywhere in
industries like car assembling, bottling plant, packing section etc. The driver circuits for these motors are to be contr
olled using
8051 microcontroller with a control key panel. The movement is established using stepper motors. pick and place robots are th
e
small robots using for continuous purpose in the industries then let us go through some thing about pick and place ro
bot by this
article .



INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS A ROBOT?

Robot is any machine that does work on its own, automatically after it is programmed by humans.
HISTORY OF ROBOTS:

The first robot's name was Electro and his dog's name was Sparko .They appeared at the
New York world's fair in 1939. While
plugged in, Elektro could say 77 words and move backwards and forwards.

In1920's, Karl Capek from Czechoslovakia introduced the words first robot on stage.



PICK AND PLACE ROBOT

We are going to design & implement a
small model of pick and place robot, which pick and place object any where with in
360degrees and 30 cm diameters around it. The reason for choosing project is, the most extensively form of machine is used in

most of
the industries like car manufacturing,
shipyards, assembling machine etc.


MICROCONROLLERS FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

Microprocessors and microcontroller are widely used in embedded system products.

An embedded system is a system which is dedicated for a single purpose remains unchanged through out
its entire life
time. An embedded product uses a microprocessor (or microcontroller) to do one task and one task only.

STEPPER MOTOR:

A stepper motor is a widely used device that translates electrical pulses into mechanical movement. It is used for precise

position control. # Increase or decrease the RPM (speed) of it.

To vary the RPM of motor we have to vary the PRF (Pulse Repetition frequency). Number of applied pulses will vary number of
rotations and last to change direction we have to change pulse sequ
ence.



CIRCUIT WORKING


The circuit mainly consists of three modules
-
control system, user interface module & a high voltage driver. A control system is
nothing but the microcontroller. It has got the following modules.

1.

User Interface Module.

2.

Pulse
Generator Module.

3.

Timing Control Module.

4.

Output Module.

When the keys are pressed the current flows directly to the ground due to the low resistive path making no more current avail
able to the
port pins pulling it down to low state, so when ever the keys a
re pressed the corresponding pins are pulled down. So normally every pin
are at a high state giving a value of 1 when ever the keys are pressed the pins are to the low state giving the value 0.

This change is constantly monitored to check for any user inte
raction. The microcontroller constantly monitors port 0 for any change
in port value and if it finds any change it generates the appropriate control signals. The stepper motor driver circuit consi
sts of two
stages
-
low power switching stage& high power swit
ching stage. The function of the low power switching stage is to boost up the low
power signal output from the micro controller to a high power signal so as to drive the power transistor.

Care should be taken while connecting the circuit to the motor as st
epper has got a tendency to produce very high
reverse current compared to DC motor.

To protect the circuit for this reverse current we have connected a diode in reverse bias across the coil supply so that when
ever reverse
current is present this diode will

sink it protecting the circuit.




APPLICATIONS



Materials Handling



Industrial Robot applications



Debarring



Welding



Handling



Trimming and Sealing



Spraying and palletizing

FUTURE APPLICATION



Coal mining



Military Operation



Fire fighting Operation



Undersea
Robots



Garbage Collection and Waste Disposal Operation.



CONCLUSION:


This robot is used for pick the object in one place and place that objects in required places. Some
industrial works are harmful for humans this robot is mainly used for reduce the risk

process and consuming
time and avoid labors. Human are tired for hard work such as assembly line, material handling etc. this robot
does all those things it mainly reduces the manual work our robot is designed at low cost as well as high
efficient one.

Th
is project is to give the way for providing bigger effective robot for

industrial applications.