digital thermometerx - University of Saskatchewan

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Nov 2, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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Digital Thermometer

EE 331 Final

Design

Report























12/1/2009

University of Saskatchewan

Anna Thomas

Jose Cheruvallath

Introduction:

We have designed a digital thermometer using the concepts we learnt in our EE331 class to
interface a Microchip PIC16F886 microcontroller with an external analog temperature sensor
(National Semiconductor, device LM35DZ). The temperature output was made to

display the
temperature in degrees Celsius.

The LM35DZ temperature sensor comprises of a precision integrated
-
circuit whose output
voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius temperature. Thus, due to this convenience of
having the output voltage cal
ibrated to a Celsius reading, the voltage output is typically a low
value when compared to the higher numbers displayed by sensors having Fahrenheit related
outputs. The relative ease of having a three pin sensor is countless, as circuit connections are
ma
de simpler.

The Microchip PIC16F886 microcontroller is an efficient controller which is suitable for a mini
scale project such as ours. It is capable of analog to digital conversion, and provides for several
calculation tasks that have enabled us to displa
y the temperature. With the use of 7 segment led
displays, outputs from the microcontroller have been displayed as decimal numbers depicting the
current temperature.

Understanding our task:

We considered this task of most importance towards implementing a
working prototype of our
design. Our first priority was to try and implement our design using a Microchip PIC16F886
microcontroller which is readily available in our labs. Keeping this in mind, we started to add
components together with an attempt to final
ly have a working digital thermometer.

It was evident that we were in need of some sort of sensor would be required for temperature
collection which would then be fed into the system as the input. Upon talking with James from
the electrical department, we
were made aware of a digital sensor (Maxim DS1620) which would
read and give a corresponding digital output via a 3 wire connection. Our preliminary efforts
towards our design were spent in learning how this sensor worked and communicated with a
microcontr
oller.

We also realized that if we were going to display the temperatures accurately we would need
several 7 segment displays. Unfortunately, due to the restriction on the number of output ports
available on our chosen microcontroller, we needed some sort

of external manipulation in order
to use more 7 segment displays. Professor W. Khan, suggested that we could make use of latches
or flip flops to store the latch the outputs to corresponding 7 segment displays thereby providing
an efficient use of minimum

output ports.

Thus, our first design for the project included 6 quad transparent latches (Semiconductor
Components Industries, IC
-
MC14042BCP), which enabled us to display on three 7 segment led
displays. Unfortunately, things are always easier said than
done. The idea of using latches to hold
output data values was discarded due to the complexity in connecting up the circuit on the circuit
board provided to us from the electrical department. Our first prototype of our design was the
complete circuit which

contained a PIC16F886 microcontroller, 4 7segment led displays, 6 quad
type D
-
latches and the DS1620 temperature sensor.

However, due to connection difficulties, and delay/interference with noise through wiring we
decided to discard this prototype. A pict
ure of our first prototype is enclosed below depicting an
image of the circuit which was ultimately discarded due to the simple reason that encountered
several glitches, and delays in transferring data to the 7 segment led’s.





Prototype 1 (Discarde
d due to delay and glitches caused due to noise)


Thus we decided to discard the use of latches as we were advised to implement our circuit
keeping the components as close as possible to reduce errors due to noise. Without the presence
of latches, we were
not able to light up the required number of led’s using our chosen PIC
microcontroller.

Our design circuit had to be changed to accommodate for the loss of the latches. Thus we
reduced the number of 7 segment displays to be used by two, and decided to hav
e two working 7
segments to display temperature readings anywhere in the range of 0 to +100 degrees Celsius.

Having consulted with Mr. James and Ramin from the electrical department, we spent a great
deal of time trying to make sure we were communicating w
ith our various devices correctly. Our
display modules were up and running, capable of displaying any number within a range of 0 to
99 decimal values, while we tried to establish a successful communication with our sensor
(DS1620). After several fruitless
hours of troubleshooting, we decided to check our
corresponding outputs to the sensor via a logic analyzer. We seemed to be sending the correct
information using appropriate delays as stated in the DS1620 datasheet, but we got no response
from the sensor,
which was confirmed from waveforms observed on scope.





Data being sent to DS1620 sensor (top to bottom: Data_line,clk,rst)


Data being sent to set a pin in DS1620 to set a pin connected to a LED, but this test also
failed. Hence we concluded that the sensor was bad (top to bottom: Data_line,clk,rst)


Thus we were now convinced that the DS1620 chip we had was non functional and
hence it had
to be discarded. Given the little time remaining prior to our scheduled demonstration, we chose
an analog sensor manufactured by National Semiconductor (device
-

LM35DZ). This sensor chip
being analog would now give us an analog input which ne
eds to be converted to a digital value
via the ADC module in the PIC microcontroller. The operating range of this sensor enables us to
measure a temperature reading in the range of 2 degrees to over +100 degrees Celsius.

Final design prototype:

After sever
al fruitless design implementations using latches and a digital temperature sensor, we
arrived at our final design schematic which comprises of the least of devices used, while still
providing an accurate but relatively simple digital thermometer capable o
f measuring
temperature reading from 2 to 99 degrees Celsius and displaying it on two 7 segment led
displays. Having only 2 displays meant that when we had a decimal point lit up, it implies a
degree Celsius reading of +0.5 Celsius.

Rationale of choosing t
he MCU:

We decided to choose the PIC16F886 microcontroller for several reasons:



Available in the labs



Cheap



Had the right number of I/O pins for our design to light up enough number of LEDs



Easy to program


programmed using assembly language



Fewer
instructions
-

there were only 35 instructions

Key features of the design:

1)

Simple circuit containing only two 7 segment led’s, where the decimal point if lit up if
we have 0.5 degrees Celsius. We have not displayed a decimal digit merely due to the
fact th
at the decimal point value is not precise due to our error margin within the range
±0.5 degrees Celsius

2)

Relatively consistent, and accurate analog sensor, which has given us consistent
temperature reading in Celsius

3)

SI units of temperature scale displayed
(Celsius), less hassle direct output

4)

Temperature reading is held for 30 seconds, before displaying a ‘
-

-

‘ indicating next
temperature reading is going to be displayed

5)

Displays room temperatures within the range from 2 to +99 degrees Celsius




Our
Design:




Design schematic:


Block diagram of our design

The schematic of the mini scale project we designed is shown above. The schematic design
comprises of three main parts mainly:

a)

PIC 16F886 microcontroller


which is a 8 bit
microcontroller sufficient for performing
control tasks required by our design

b)

Temperature sensor LM35DZ


an analog sensor, capable of measuring the degree
Celsius temperature of its surrounding

c)

Two 7 segment displays (common cathode

LDS
-
C512RI
)


a set
of led’s arranged in
such a manner making it capable to display a number based upon having the appropriate
led’s lit up

d)

15
-

Resistors (270 Ω)

The microcontroller we used is PIC16F886. It is a 28 pin microcontroller with 24 I/O pins. The
main functionalit
y of the microcontroller is to get the analog data from the temperature sensor
and convert it into a digital output and make it available for the LEDs to display the temperature
readings. The MCU is programmed using the assembly language. The maximum outpu
t current
sunk and sourced by an I/O pin is 25 mA.

The PIC16F886 microcontroller is sensitive to its input voltage. The maximum supply voltage to
it can only be +5 V. Thus the input voltage is regulated from the source to be no more than 5 V
dc.

The temper
ature sensor on the other hand, has an input voltage from the range from 4 to 30 V.
Thus, we were capable of using the same input voltage that was fed to the microcontroller (+5 V
dc). The outputs on the other hand are connected to led’s. As a safety proce
dure to ensure that
the led’s are never subjected to currents above 25

mA as stated in the data sheet, we placed
resistors of 270 ohms across each of the output lines leading to the 7 segment displays. The
picture below shows the rating specifications for
the 7 segment displays as taken from the
datasheet for the device

(diagram on next page).



Picture illustrating 7 segment display ratings (from device’s datasheet)


Understanding the digital value being stored through the ADC module of PIC16F886:

The ADC

module in pIC16F886 is a 10bit ADC convertor. Thus an analog signal will be
converted and represented by a 10 bit binary number. A 10 bit number can hold a maximum
decimal number equivalent of 1024. So we have measurements ranging from 0 to 1023 digital
r
eading.

From the datasheet for the analog temperature sensor, it is given that the sensor gives a
corresponding output voltage of 10mV per degrees Celsius temperature reading.

Also the
pictures shown below are taken from the datasheet for the sensor LM35DZ
.

The picture above is a representation of how we used the sensor in our design implementation.

Pictures taken from the datasheet showing the linearity in output current, voltage and
temperature accuracy are shown below.








Pictures taken from datasheet for LM35DZ temperature sensor illustrating linearity of
curves




Calculating the digital value equivalence:

Settings in PIC16F886 for ADC module,

V
ref

set to +V
dd

(+5V)

V
ss

set to ground



Thus ADC
conversion formula is:


















Where X is the digital reading received after ADC conversion. The numerator terms comprise of
the V
ref

voltage (+5V) multiplied by 100 (because 10mV is given per degree
s Celsius).

Thus, the result of this equation can be approximated to be equivalent to,













Thus dividing the ADC converted value by 2, gives us the binary equivalent of the temperature
reading in degrees Celsius. By dividing by 2, we will always get either a remainder of 0 or 1,
which is equivalent to a degrees Celsius reading of 0.0 or 0.5 deg
rees. Thus we claim our
designed thermometer to have an accuracy of ±0.5 degrees.

Design Shortcomings:

1)

Enhance ability to measure temperatures below 2 degrees Celsius, basically negative
temperatures

2)

Ability to enhance accuracy to 0.1 degrees Celsius, by
having more precise conversions
by ADC module

3)

Ability to display temperature reading in degrees Fahrenheit if desired

4)

Make it even more compact and portable

Tasks performed by group members:

Anna Thomas:



Studied how the temperature sensor works



Building
the circuit and circuit diagrams



Studied the devices used in the circuit


through the datasheets



Helped in coming up with a final efficient circuit



Temperature sensor programming

Jose Cheruvallath:



Coded the digital thermometer

(sensor and display)

using

assembly in MPlab



Design troubleshooting (sensor failures, new sensor implementation)



Helped in building our design circuit



Helped in documentation of our work and process



Analog to digital conversion calculation

List of files included in final folder
sent:

1)

MPlab project folder “Project_Anna_Jose_MPlab”

2)

Final report file


Report.docx (includes schematic diagram)






















References

Microchip PIC16F886 datasheet referenced throughout our project. Referenced from
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/41291F.pdf

7 segment led display data sheet referenced from
http://www.lumex.co
m/pdf/LDS
-
C512RI.pdf

National Semiconductor Temperature sensor LM35DZ datasheet referenced from
http://pdf1.alldatasheet.com/datasheet
-
pdf/view/8875/NSC/LM35DZ.html