on Aerospace Components

ugliestmysticAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.

Conformal Inkjet Direct Write
on Aerospace Components

Industrial Doctorate Centre and
BAE Systems


Mau Yuen Chan


Prof. Alan Champneys

Dr. Jagjit Sidhu

Dr. Paul Warr


This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.


What is direct
w
rite (DW)?


Differences in method to traditional lithography



Benefits of DW?


What advantages it brings



The challenges faced during the study



The DW system



This Presentation

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.

A freeform patterning and deposition technique



Completes patterning and deposition simultaneously


Encompasses different deposition techniques


Droplet


Laser


Flow


Tip


No single ‘perfect’ technique


I
nnovative applications


Direct Write

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.

Comparison to Convention

Lithography




Requires
the use of
masks



Large material wastage



Changes to designs costly



Etch
s
tep
limits substrate
material type



Substrates must be relatively
planar



High capital
cost

Direct
Write




Freeform patterning


Low material wastage



Mass
customisation



Variety of substrate
materials possible



Substrates can be non
-
planar



Lower capital costs

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.


Benefits:


Higher material efficiency


Mass customisation


Increased design freedom


Integrated
functionality



COPE Project


Replacing electronic wiring
with DW solution


Benefits for

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.


Aerospace Helmet used by pilots



Recognised as the most advanced
helmet in the world



Undergoes further development to
keep competitiveness


Even during the project study



The Helmet Shell


Features:


Complex concave Shape


Carbon fibre substrate


Head tracking system; composed of LEDs and flexible connectors for wiring





This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.

The DW Process

Design

Execution

Evaluation

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.

Challenges

Challenge

Solution

Enabled by


Complex shaped structures


Conformal printing


5
-
axis

motion controller


Low thermal tolerance of substrate


Localised post
-
processing


iCure


Lower

than bulk electrical conductivity


Electrodeposition

of conductive metal


Electroplating head


Linking
DW and existing hardware


Connector


Connector tab

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.

Multi
-
discipline

Printing
system

Inks and

substrates

Post
-
processing

DW
printed component

Electroplating

Mechatronics

Thermal
Science &
Physical Chemistry

Physical Chemistry

Electrochemistry

Business

Multi
-
layers

Electrical Engineering

Mechanical Engineering

Computer Science

Control Systems

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.


The ‘creative brain’



MasterCam is a CAD/CAM design
software



Originally a software program for
milling applications



Used to manipulate CAD models and
design DW tracks



Output: Movement scripts for the
motion controller






MasterCam®

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.


The ‘arm’



A motion control robot with five degrees of
freedom giving it a large work envelop



All tools mounted onto working face


Required mechanical integration



Precision controlled (0.001mm accuracy)






5
-
axis Motion Controller

150µm

100µm

5
0µm

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.


The ‘pen’



Single nozzle jetting device (MicroFab)



Inks used


Polymer dielectric ink


Silver conductive nanoparticle ink



Can jet many materials


May require post
-
processing to
functionalise



Inkjet Printer

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.


UV energy delivery system


Required for curing polymer dielectric ink



Controllable and localised output



Curing regime affects silver behaviour





Bluewave
®

System

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.


Thermal spot delivery system for sintering


Delivers focussed broad
-
band optical
energy


+ Controlled thermal exposure

+ Superior electrical properties than oven
sintering


-

Difficulty on thermally conductive substrates

-

Inks needed to be modified to match process




iCure™ System

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.


4
-
point bend test used to investigate
possible thermal damage caused by
iCure process



Sintering requires at least 2.0W of
energy


Speeds kept constant



Failure modes:


Compression


Resin failure


Tension


Fibre pull out



Significant loss in mechanical stability
at more intense exposures



Thermal Damage

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.


Chosen as a method of improving electrical conductivity of DW tracks


Improvement to DW track conductivities (reaching ~50
-
70% bulk Cu)



Uses brush
plating
method to deposit copper



Several designs iterated:


Improvement to electrolyte flow


Higher current density


Lower surface damage to copper deposit


Be able to navigate around complex 3D structures


Automatic feed/extract system for fluid



Further improvements:


Use of local cathode ‘ring’ for local connection




Electroplating

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.


Communications with the manufacturer


Requirements capturing


Resolving needs and expectations


Suitable for existing processes



Several designs created for manufacturer’s approval



Final design: Connector tab (c)


Soldered into place


Flexible




Connector Tabs

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.


Aim: To replace chunky wiring in helmet shell with an integrated DW solution



DW elements successfully fabricated onto a section of the helmet shell


Hardware and DW elements were connected


DW elements passed preliminary round of aerospace durability tests















The DW Helmet

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.

DW electronics demonstrated on an aerospace
component





Developed a process that can fabricate DW electronics onto complex 3D
structures




Future work:


Innovative full DW solutions to electronic applications


Repair work on damaged DW components


Scaling of process for full manufacturing environments





Conclusions

This work

is part of the

COPE collaborative project co
-
funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and EPSRC.

Questions?

The End