Programming Languages and Program Development

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Nov 4, 2013 (3 years and 1 month ago)

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Programming Languages and Program Development


SECTION
A

Multiple Choice Questions


1.

Programmers use a variety of programming languages to write, or _____, a program.

a.

compile

b.

code

c.

interpret

d.

execute

2.

_____ language instructions use a series of binary digits (
1s and 0s) or a combination of
numbers and letters that represent binary digits.

a.

Machine

b.

Assembly

c.

Procedural

d.

Nonprocedural

3.

_____ are meaningful abbreviations and codes used in an assembly language.

a.

Event addresses

b.

Symbolic instruction codes

c.

Event instructi
on codes

d.

Symbolic addresses

4.

In some cases, an assembly language uses a type of _____ to generate the many machine
language instructions for a single assembly language instruction.

a.

bug

b.

script

c.

macro

d.

tag

5.

With a procedural language, often called a _____, a pro
grammer uses a series of English
-
like
words to write instructions.

a.

first
-
generation language (1GL)

b.

second
-
generation language (2GL)

c.

third
-
generation language (3GL)

d.

fourth
-
generation language (4GL)

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6.

The machine language version that results from compiling a
3GL is called the _____.

a.

dead code or dead program

b.

source code or source program

c.

live code or live program

d.

object code or object program

7.

An advantage of an interpreter is that _____.

a.

when it finds errors, it displays feedback immediately

b.

interpreted progra
ms run faster than compiled programs

c.

an interpreter produces an object program

d.

all of the above

8.

Naval officer _____, a pioneer in computer programming, was a prime developer of
COBOL.

a.

Grace Hopper

b.

John Kemeny

c.

Dennis Ritchie

d.

Bjarne Sroustrup

9.

Widely used obj
ect
-
oriented languages that the industry recognizes as standards include all
of the following
except

_____.

a.

Java

b.

COBOL

c.

C++

d.

C#

10.

A(n) _____ is an action to which an OOP language program responds.

a.

macro

b.

event

c.

object

d.

tag

11.

_____ is a set of technologies by Sun Mi
crosystems that allows programmers to develop and
deploy Web services for an enterprise.

a.

JIT (Java Instruction Technology)

b.

JavaScript

c.

J2EE (Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition)

d.

JavaBuilder

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12.

_____ is a set of technologies from Microsoft that allows almost any

type of program to run
on the Internet or an internal business network.

a.

.JIT

b.

.RPG

c.

.NET

d.

.VPE

13.

The latest version of Visual Studio 2005 includes _____.

a.

RAD tools

b.

just
-
in
-
time compilers and debuggers

c.

code snippets

d.

all of the above

14.

The purpose of _____ is to t
ake the complexity out of C++ 2005 and still provide an object
-
oriented programming language.

a.

Visual C* 2005

b.

Visual C# 2005

c.

Visual C+ 2005

d.

Visual C? 2005

15.

In an application generator, a _____ allows a developer to design a report on the screen,
retrieve dat
a into the report design, and then display or print the report.

a.

counter

b.

report writer

c.

form

d.

menu generator

16.

In an application generator, a _____ is a window on the screen that provides areas for
entering or changing data in a database.

a.

counter

b.

report writer

c.

form

d.

menu generator

17.

In an application generator, a _____ enables a developer to create lists of commands for the
application options.

a.

counter

b.

report writer

c.

form

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d.

menu generator

18.

Many programs use _____ or a similar language as their macro programming languag
e.

a.

Report Program Generator (RPG)

b.

Programming Language One (PL/I)

c.

Wireless Markup Language (WML)

d.

Visual Basic for Applications (VBA)

19.

The designers of Web pages, known as _____, use a variety of techniques to develop Web
pages.

a.

Web page authors

b.

Web administ
rators

c.

Webmasters

d.

Web programmers

20.

Examples of HTML _____ are <B> to bold text, <P> to indicate a new paragraph, and <HR>
to display a horizontal rule across the page.

a.

controls

b.

bugs

c.

events

d.

tags

21.

A(n) _____ is an interpreted program that runs on the client.

a.

s
cript

b.

servlet

c.

applet

d.

image map

22.

A(n) _____ is a compiled program that runs on the client.

a.

script

b.

servlet

c.

applet

d.

image map

23.

A(n) _____ is an interpreted program that runs on the server.

a.

script

b.

servlet

c.

applet

d.

image map

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24.

The _____ is the communications standard
that defines how a Web server communicates
with outside sources.

a.

RPG (report program generator)

b.

VPE (visual programming environment)

c.

SQL (structured query language)

d.

CGI (common gateway interface)

25.

JavaScript is a(n) _____, which means anyone can use it with
out purchasing a license.

a.

open language

b.

machine
-
dependent language

c.

closed language

d.

machine
-
independent language

26.

Typically, Web pages created with DHTML are _____ to user interaction.

a.

less animated and responsive

b.

less animated but more responsive

c.

more anima
ted but less responsive

d.

more animated and responsive

27.

_____ contain the formats for how a particular object should display in a Web browser.

a.

Cascading style sheets (CSS)

b.

Report program generators (RPG)

c.

Document object models (DOM)

d.

Common gateway interfaces
(CGI)

28.

One application of XML is the _____, often used by news Web sites to publish headlines and
stories.

a.

RSS specification

b.

DHTML

c.

DMX

d.

CSS

29.

_____, from Macromedia, is a multimedia authoring program that provides tools developers
need to build interactive tra
ining and educational programs.

a.

Producer

b.

ToolBook

c.

Director MX

d.

Authorware

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30.

_____, from Macromedia, is a popular multimedia authoring program with powerful features
and a built
-
in object
-
oriented scripting language, called Lingo, that allow developers to
crea
te highly interactive multimedia applications.

a.

Producer

b.

ToolBook

c.

Director MX

d.

Authorware

31.

In sequence, the program development cycle consists of six steps: _____.

a.

validate design, test solution, design solution, implement design, analyze requirements,
and do
cument solution

b.

implement design, document solution, test solution, validate design, design solution, and
analyze requirements

c.

analyze requirements, design solution, validate design, implement design, test solution,
and document solution

d.

test solution, ana
lyze requirements, document solution, implement design, validate
design, and design solution

32.

When programmers correct errors or add enhancements to an existing program they are said
to be _____ the program.

a.

executing

b.

maintaining

c.

coding

d.

validating

33.

The _____

step of the programming development cycle consists of three major tasks: (1)
review the requirements, (2) meet with the systems analysts and users, and (3) identify input,
output, processing, and data components.

a.

Analyze Requirements

b.

Design Solution

c.

Test
Solution

d.

Implement Solution

34.

A(n) _____, also called program logic, is a graphical or written description of the step
-
by
-
step procedures to solve the problem.

a.

object model

b.

style sheet

c.

solution algorithm

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d.

source code

35.

In structured design, a section of a progr
am that performs a single function is a _____.

a.

main routine

b.

bug

c.

macro generator

d.

module

36.

In object
-
oriented (OO) design, the concept of packaging data and procedures into a single
object is called _____.

a.

validation

b.

encapsulation

c.

verification

d.

consolidation

37.

A
_____ shows one or more actions following each other in order.

a.

sequence control structure

b.

selection control structure

c.

repetition control structure

d.

compliance control structure

Note:

Q
uestions 38 through 40
s
tudents reference this figure to answer the quest
ions.



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38.

A _____, which is illustrated in the accompanying figure, tells the program which action to
take, based on a certain condition.

a.

sequence control structure

b.

selection control structure

c.

repetition control structure

d.

compliance control structure

39.

When
a program evaluates a condition in a(n) _____, which is illustrated in the
accompanying figure, it yields one of two possibilities: true or false.

a.

if
-
then
-
else control structure

b.

case control structure

c.

do
-
while control structure

d.

do
-
until control structure

40.

U
nlike the control structure illustrated in the accompanying figure, with the _____ a
condition can yield one of three or more possibilities.

a.

if
-
then
-
else control structure

b.

case control structure

c.

do
-
while control structure

d.

do
-
until control structure

41.

The ___
__ enables a program to perform one or more actions repeatedly as a loop as long as
a certain condition is met.

a.

sequence control structure

b.

selection control structure

c.

repetition control structure

d.

compliance control structure

42.

A(n) _____ tests a condition at

the beginning of the loop and repeats one or more times as
long as the condition is true.

a.

if
-
then
-
else control structure

b.

case control structure

c.

do
-
while control structure

d.

do
-
until control structure

43.

The _____ tests a condition at the end of the loop and co
ntinues looping until the condition is
true


and then stops.

a.

if
-
then
-
else control structure

b.

case control structure

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c.

do
-
while control structure

d.

do
-
until control structure

44.

With pseudocode, the beginning and ending of a module start at the _____ margin, and
a
ctions within the module are indented.

a.

top

b.

bottom

c.

right

d.

left

45.

Once programmers develop the solution algorithm using a program flowchart or pseudocode,
they should _____, or check, the program design for accuracy.

a.

authenticate

b.

encapsulate

c.

validate

d.

consolidat
e

46.

A program has its own documentation, called _____.

a.

macros

b.

comments

c.

reports

d.

bugs

47.

Syntax errors will be caused by all of the following
except

_____.

a.

misspelling a command

b.

leaving out required punctuation

c.

typing command words out of order

d.

using the wrong co
ntrol structure

48.

One purpose of using test data is to try to cause a _____, which is an error that occurs while a
program is running.

a.

run
-
time error

b.

syntax error

c.

one
-
time error

d.

logic error

49.

A(n) _____ is a program that has most or all of its features and fun
ctionality implemented.

a.

alpha

b.

beta

c.

contra

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d.

gamma

50.

Dead code is _____.

a.

the program instructions that will be converted to machine language

b.

any program instructions that a program executes

c.

the program instructions that have been converted to machine language

d.

a
ny program instructions that a program never executes

True/False

T

F

1.

A low
-
level language is a programming language that is machine dependent.

T

F

2.

A machine
-
dependent language can run on many different types of computers and
operating systems.

T

F

3.

Progra
ms written in a machine
-
dependent language are easily portable to other
computers.

T

F

4.

With a high
-
level language, each language instruction typically equates to multiple
machine language instructions.

T

F

5.

A machine
-
independent language runs on only one
particular type of computer.

T

F

6.

Coding in a machine language is tedious and time consuming.

T

F

7.

Programmers must convert an assembly language program into machine language
before the computer can execute, or run, the program.

T

F

8.

A computer can execute

an assembly source program.

T

F

9.

For 3GLs, programmers typically use either a compiler or an interpreter to translate
the 3GL source program into machine language instructions.

T

F

10.

A compiler reads a code statement, converts it into one or more machine l
anguage
instructions, and then executes those machine language instructions before moving
to the next code statement.

T

F

11.

An interpreter is a separate program that converts an entire source program into
machine language before executing it.

T

F

12.

Interpret
ed programs run faster than compiled programs because an interpreter
does not have to translate the source program to machine language each time the
program executes.

T

F

13.

Many programming languages include both an interpreter and a compiler.

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T

F

14.

Hundreds

of procedural languages exist.

T

F

15.

Although COBOL programs always are short, their obscure statements make the
code difficult to read, write, and maintain.

T

F

16.

The most popular personal computer COBOL program is Micro Focus, which
enables programmers to

create and migrate COBOL programs to the Web.

T

F

17.

C is a powerful programming language that requires professional programming
skills.

T

F

18.

In an object
-
oriented programming language, an object is an item that can contain
both data and the procedures that

read or manipulate that data.

T

F

19.

A major drawback of OOP is the inability to reuse or modify existing objects.

T

F

20.

An event
-
driven program checks for and responds to events.

T

F

21.

A just
-
in
-
time (JIT) compiler converts Java source code into machine code
, and a
Java interpreter executes the machine code, called bytecode, because the operating
system cannot execute it.

T

F

22.

An important concept in RAD is the use of prebuilt components.

T

F

23.

Programmers rarely use C++ to develop database or Web applications
.

T

F

24.

Because C++ is an outgrowth of the C programming language, a programmer
needs C programming experience to be a successful C++ programmer.

T

F

25.

Visual programming languages seldom are used in a RAD environment.

T

F

26.

The first step in building a Visua
l Basic 2005 program is to generate and test the
final program.

T

F

27.

The final step in building a Visual Basic 2005 program is to design the graphical
user interface.

T

F

28.

Visual C++ 2005 is a visual programming language based on C++.

T

F

29.

Visual J# 2005 i
s a visual programming language that allows Java program
development in the .NET environment.

T

F

30.

Colleges seldom teach Visual J# .NET 2005 in their introductory programming
course because it is much more difficult to learn than the Visual C family of
lan
guages.


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F

31.

A visual programming language provides a graphical interface, called a visual
programming environment (VPE), that allows developers to drag and drop objects
to build programs.

T

F

32.

Programmers use PowerBuilder to develop small
-

and medium
-
sca
le client/server
applications.

T

F

33.

In terms of complexity, PowerBuilder is much simpler than Delphi.

T

F

34.

Nonprocedural languages are more difficult to use than procedural languages.

T

F

35.

One popular 3GL is SQL.

T

F

36.

RPG primarily is used for application
development on IBM
servers
.

T

F

37.

Powerful fourth
-
generation languages allow database administrators to define a
database and its structure.

T

F

38.

When using an application generator, the developer (a programmer or user) works
with menu
-
driven tools and grap
hical user interfaces to define the desired
specifications.

T

F

39.

Application generators rarely are bundled with or are included as part of a DBMS.

T

F

40.

Macros allow users to automate routine, repetitive, or difficult tasks in application
software.

T

F

41.

Mac
ros usually are created in one of two ways: (1) record the macro or (2) write
the macro.

T

F

42.

A macro recorder is similar to a movie camera because both record all actions until
turned off.

T

F

43.

HTML code can be written using any text editor, such as Notep
ad.

T

F

44.

HTML is a programming language.

T

F

45.

When HTML code is entered into a standard word processing program to create a
Web page, it must be saved as an ASCII file, instead of as a formatted word
processing document.

T

F

46.

Scripts, applets, servlets, an
d ActiveX controls are executed by the operating
system.

T

F

47.

To run an ActiveX control, the Web browser must support ActiveX technology.

T

F

48.

A counter is a graphical image that points to a URL.

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F

49.

An image map tracks the number of visitors to a Web sit
e.

T

F

50.

The program that manages the sending and receiving across a CGI is a CGI script.

T

F

51.

Popular scripting languages include JavaScript, VBScript, and Perl.

T

F

52.

Although it lacks many of the features of the full Java language, JavaScript is a
much mo
re complex language.

T

F

53.

Rexx works only with Windows.

T

F

54.

Tcl has a companion program called ToolKit, that allows Web page authors to
build graphical user interfaces.

T

F

55.

Because Perl has weak text processing capabilities, it has become an unpopular
la
nguage for writing scripts.

T

F

56.

Dynamic HTML works by using the document object model, style sheets, and
scripting languages.

T

F

57.

A single HTML document can contain multiple cascading style sheets, thus, the
name cascading.

T

F

58.

With XML, a server keeps
an entire record from the client, preventing the client
from doing much of the processing without going back to the server.

T

F

59.

XML combines the Web page content with its format, preventing a Web browser
from displaying the contents of a Web page in a for
m appropriate for the display
device.

T

F

60.

Many Internet
-
enabled PDAs and smart phones use XML as their markup
language.

T

F

61.

With Web page authoring software, users can view or modify the HTML
associated with a Web page.

T

F

62.

Many developers use multimedi
a authoring software for computer
-
based training
(CBT) and Web
-
based training (WBT).

T

F

63.

Authorware offers tools for building interactive multimedia training and
educational programs.

T

F

64.

Director

MX
’s powerful features make it well suited for developing

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F

65.

The program development cycle guides information technology (IT) professionals
through the development of an information system.

T

F

66.

Program development is an ongo
ing process within system development.

T

F

67.

If a company opts for in
-
house software development, the design and
implementation phases of the system development cycle become quite limited.

T

F

68.

The program development cycle begins at the start of the planni
ng phase in the
system development cycle.

T

F

69.

By following the steps in the program development cycle, programmers create
programs that are correct (produce accurate information) and maintainable (easy to
modify).

T

F

70.

Many programmers use an IPO chart du
ring the Analyze Requirements step of
program development.

T

F

71.

Determining the logic for a program always is a programmer’s least challenging
瑡獫t

T

F

72.

In structured design, a programmer begins with the details and then expands
toward a larger, general d
esign.

T

F

73.

In structured design, the main routine often is called the main module.

T

F

74.

Programs developed using the top
-
down approach can result in redundant program
code that must change every time the structure of data changes.

T

F

75.

Structured design p
rovides a way to keep the data and the program (or procedure)
together.

T

F

76.

With object
-
oriented design, when the structure of an object changes, any program
that accesses the object automatically accesses the change.

T

F

77.

With object
-
oriented design, pro
grammers use a class diagram to represent classes
and their hierarchical relationships graphically.

T

F

78.

Whether using structured design or object
-
oriented design, programmers typically
use control structures to describe the tasks a program is to perform.

T

F

79.

Two common types of selection control structures are the do
-
while and do
-
until.

T

F

80.

Many programmers refer to the repetition construct as a loop.

T

F

81.

Two forms of the repetition control structure are the if
-
the
-
else and the case.

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F

82.

The do
-
while c
ontrol structure normally is used when occurrence of an event is
quantifiable and predictable.

T

F

83.

The action(s) in a do
-
until control structure always will execute at least once.

T

F

84.

Like the do
-
while control structure, the do
-
until control structure co
ntinues to loop
while the condition is true.

T

F

85.

To help document a solution algorithm, programmers use design tools.

T

F

86.

Pseudocode uses indentations to identify the control structures.

T

F

87.

The two basic categories of diagrams in the UML are structural

diagrams and
behavioral diagrams.

T

F

88.

A logic error occurs when the code violates the syntax, or grammar, of the
programming language.

T

F

89.

Programmers can use inspections to review solution algorithms during the program
development cycle.

T

F

90.

Each prog
ramming language has a particular syntax.

T

F

91.

Global comments, which appear throughout a program, explain the purpose of the
code statements within the program.

T

F

92.

Internal comments, which generally are at the top of a program, explain the
program’s pur
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T

F

93.

Extreme programming essentially eliminates the Design Solution and Validate
Design steps of the traditional program development cycle.

T

F

94.

Proponents of extreme programming claim i
t reduces the time required for the
program development cycle.

T

F

95.

A syntax error is a flaw in the design of a program that causes inaccurate results.

T

F

96.

Programmers usually discover syntax errors the first time they attempt to compile
or interpret the
program code on a computer.

T

F

97.

Test data should include only valid (correct) data.

T

F

98.

With a debugger, a programmer examines program values while the program runs
in slow motion.

T

F

99.

As a general rule, the less time and effort programmers spend analyz
ing and
designing a solution algorithm, the less time spent debugging the program.

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F

100.

Proper documentation greatly increases the amount of time a new programmer
spends learning about existing programs.


SECTION C

Exercises


1.

How Are Machine Languages Dif
ferent from Assembly Languages?


2.

What Is the Purpose of Procedural Programming Languages?


3.

What Are the Characteristics of Object
-
Oriented Programming Languages?


4.

What Are the Advantages and Uses of Visual Programming Languages?


5.

What Are the Uses of Oth
er Programming Languages and Other Program Development
Tools?


6.

What Are Web Page Program Development Techniques such as HTML, Scripting
Languages, DHTML, XML, WML, and Web Page Authoring Software?


7.

How Are Popular Multimedia Authoring Programs Used?


8.

Wh
at Are the Six Steps in the Program Development Cycle?


9.

How Is Structured Design Different from Object
-
Oriented Design?


10.

What Are the Basic Control Structures and Design Tools Used in Designing Solutions to
Programming Problems?