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ugliestharrasSoftware and s/w Development

Nov 4, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Web Terminology

Emily Hultman

Zach Frank



Internet:

A global
network

connecting millions of
computers
.


World Wide Web:

A
system

of
Internet

servers

that
support

specially
formatted

documents
. The documents are formatted in a markup language called
HTML

(HyperText Markup Language) that supports links to other documents, as well as
graphics
, audio, and
video

files
.


Web server:

A
computer

that delivers (serves up)
Web pages
. Every
Web server

has an
IP address

and possibly a
domain name
.


Host:

A c
omputer that is connected to a TCP/IP network, including the
Internet
.
Each host has a unique
IP address
.


Web site:

A site (locatio
n) on the
World Wide Web
. Each
Web

site contains a
home page
, whi
ch is the first
document

users

see when they enter the site. The
site might also contain additional documents and
files
. Each site is owned and
managed by an individual, company or organization.


Web page:

A document on the
World Wide Web
. Every
Web

page is identified
by a unique
URL


Web browser:

A
software application

used to locate and dis
play
Web pages
.


Podcast:

Podcasting

is similar in nature to
RSS
, which all
ows subscribers to
subscribe to a set of feeds to view
syndicated

Web site

content. With podcasting
however, you have a set of subs
criptions that are checked regularly for updates
and instead of reading the feeds on your
computer

screen, you listen


to the new
content on on your
iPod

(or like
device
)


Cache:

Pronounced cash, a special high
-
speed
storage

mechanism. It can be
either a reserved section
of
main memory

or an independent high
-
speed
storage
device
. Two types of caching are commonly used in
personal computers
:
memory caching and disk caching.


HTML:

Short for HyperText Markup Language, the authoring
language

used to
create
documents

on the
World Wide Web
.


XHTML:

Short for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language, a hybrid between
HTML

and
XML

specifically designed for Net device displays. XHTML is a
markup language written in XML; therefore, it is an XML
application
.


XML:

Short for Extensible Markup Language, a specification developed by the
W3C
.
XML

is a pared
-
down version of
SGML
, designed especially for
Web

documents. It allows designers to create their own customized
tags
, enabling the
definition, transmission, validation, and interpretation of
data

between
applications and between organizations.


JavaScript:

A
scripting language

developed by
Netscape

to enable
Web

authors
to design interactive
sites
. Although it shares many of the features and structures
of the full
Java language
, it was developed independently.
Javascript

can interact
with
HTML

source code
, enabling Web authors to spice up their sites with
dynamic

content. JavaScript is endorsed by a number of
software companies

and is an
open

language that anyone can use without purchasing a
license
.


IP Address:

An
identifier

for a computer or
device
on a
TCP/IP

network
.
Networks using the TCP/IP
protocol

route messages based on the
IP address

of
the destination. The format of an IP address is a 32
-
bit numeric address written
as four numbers separated by period
s.


URL’s:

Abbreviation of Uniform Resource Locator, the global
address

of
documents

and other
resources

on the
World Wide Web
.


Domain name:

A name that identifies one or more
IP addresses
.


HTTP:

Sh
ort for HyperText Transfer Protocol, the underlying
protocol

used by
the
World Wide Web
. HTTP defines how messages are formatted

and
transmitted, and what actions
Web servers

and
browsers

should take in
response to various commands.


FTP:

Short for File Transfe
r Protocol, the
protocol

for exchanging
files

over the
Internet
. FTP works in

the same way as
HTTP

for transferring Web pages from a
server

to a user's browser and
SMTP

for transferring
electronic mail

across the
Internet in that, like these
technologies
, FTP uses the Internet's
TCP/IP

protocols
to enable
data transfer
.


ISP:

Short for Internet Service Provider, a company that provides access to the
Internet
.


IPP:

Short for Internet Printing Protocol, an Internet
protocol

that allows universal
solutions to users trying to
print

documents from
the Internet
.


Modem:

Short for modulator
-
demodulator. A
modem

is a
device

or
program

that
enables a
computer

to transmit
da
ta

over, for example, telephone or
cable

lines.
Computer information is
stored

digitally
, whereas information transmitted over
telephone lines is transmitted in the form of
analog

waves. A modem
converts

between the
se two forms.


Cable modem:

A
modem

designed to operate over
cable

TV lines.


Ethernet:

A
local
-
area network (LAN)

architecture

developed by
Xerox
Corporation

in cooperation with
DEC

and
Intel

in 1976. Ethernet uses a
bus or
star topology

and
supports

data transfer rates

of 10
Mbps
.


Wireless:

The word
wireless

is dictionary defined as "having no wires". In
networking

terminology, wireless is the term used to describe any
computer

network

where there is no physical wired connection between sender and
receiver, but rather the network is connected by radio waves and/or microwaves
to maintain communicat
ions.


CSS:

Short for Cascading Style Sheets, a new feature being added to
HTML

that
gives both
Web site

developers

and
users

more control over how
pages

are
displayed. With
CSS
, designers and users can create
style sheets

that define
how different elements, such as headers and links, appear. These style sheets
can then be applied to any
Web page
.


Blog:

Short for Web log, a blog is a
Web page

that serves as a publicly
accessible personal journal for an individual. Typically updated daily,
blogs often
reflect the personality of the author.


MP3:

The name of the file extension and also the name of the type of file for
MPEG
, audio layer 3. Layer 3 is one of three coding schemes (layer 1,
layer 2
and layer 3) for the compression of audio signals.


JPEG:

Short for Joint Photographic Experts Group, and pronounced jay
-
peg.
JPEG

is a
lossy compression

technique for color
images
. Although it can reduce
files sizes to about 5% of their normal size, some detail is lost in the
compression.


GIF:

Pronounced jiff or gi
ff (hard g) stands for graphics interchange format, a
bit
-
mapped graphics

file format

used by the
World Wide Web
,
CompuServe

and
many
BBSs
.
GIF

supports

color and various
resolutions
. It also includes
data
compression
, but because it is limited to 256 colors, it is more effective for
scanned images such as illustrations rather than color
photos
.

GUI:

Abbreviated GUI (pron
ounced GOO
-
ee). A
program

interface

that takes
advantage of the
computer's

graphics

capabilities to make the program easier to
use.


PHP:

Self
-
referentially short for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor, an
open
source
,
server
-
side
,
HTML

embedded scripting language used to create dynamic
Web
pages
. In an HTML document,
PHP

script (similar
syntax

to that of
Perl

or
C

) is
enclosed within special PHP tags. Because PHP is embedded within tags, the
author can jump between HTML and PHP (similar to
A
SP

and
Cold Fusion
)
instead of having to rely on heavy amounts of code to output HTML.