Unit 1

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Overview



Unit 3. Types of Computer




24

UNIT 3


TYPES OF
COMPUTER


START UP



How many types of computer do you know?



What are
the criteria for

classifying computers?


READING

Task 1
:
Read the text below then
answer the questions
.


THE COMPUTERS OF TOD
AY


1.

The first computers developed were mainfra
mes, which are large, general purpose
machines. In the early days of the computer industry, one could run only batch
programs on mainframe computers. Today this type of machine is likely to support
a large number of terminals and personal computers interac
ting with huge
databases containing billions of characters of data. Mainframes are used
extensively to process transactions and maintain vital data for access by various
users. The challenge for today’s mainframe manufacturers is to adopt new
technology th
at will make these machines competitive in cost.


2.

Mainframe computers are not fast enough for some applications. The mainframe
computer was originally developed for business use. It has features to allow the
processing of business data involving character
manipulation and decimal
arithmetic. Scientists and engineers have computationally intensive problems to
solve, often involving numbers with many digits of significance. Consequently,
supercomputers are devised. They are among the fastest computers today.


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Unit 3. Types of Computer




25

3.

The next type of computer to develop was the minicomputer. Minis became very
popular as stand

alone time sharing computers and as machines dedicated to a
department in a corporation. These computers can be classified as “midrange”.
Companies use this mid
range computer for a variety of processing tasks, some of
which are similar to what a mainframe did a decade ago. A company might use this
computer for all of its processing.


4.

Next came the PC or personal computer. The personal computer is used in
thousand
s of ways today and there are many thousands of programs available for
it. Personal computers and workstations are defined as separate kinds.
Workstations are high performance 32 bit computers for e
ngineering and scientific
work.

The workstation features s
uperior graphics and is often used for design
tasks.


5.

Why are there so many different kinds of machines, supercomputers, mainframes,
minicomputers and PCs? The main reason for the variety of computers is the
applications users have programmed to run on the
m. As industry develops new
types of computers, mainframes, minis, and PCs, users write custom applications
for these computers. You should not be surprised to see a variety of almost all
types of computers discussed in this text in a company, nor should y
ou think that a
company is necessarily behind the time because it still has applications that run on
mainframe computers.


1.

What kinds of computers are discussed in the text?


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2. What are mainframe
s
used for?


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Unit 3. Types of Computer




26


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3. What kind
s

of problems have to be p
rocessed on supercomputers?


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4. Which sentence in the text shows that PCs are very popular now?


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5.
What matter
should a person or a company consider, when buying a computer?


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Task 2:


Decide whether the
following statements are true,
false

or n
o information about
it is given
,

according to the information from the text.

Correct the false statements.


1.

Mainframe computers can do more kinds of jobs than they used to do.


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2.

A minicomputer can provide access for some users at the same time.


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3.

A mi
nicomputer can do certain jobs that a mainframe did ten years ago.


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4.

Workstations are powerful computers used for engineering and science.


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5.

Each type of computers has its application
s
.


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Unit 3. Types of Computer




27


Task 3:
Find the words or phrases in the text which
mean:

1.

fle
xible (paragraph 1)

.……………………


2.

designed (paragraph 2)

……………………


3.

referred to
as

(paragraph 3)
……………….. ….

4.

high quality (paragraph 4)

.……………………

5.

old
-
fashioned (paragraph 5)
.……………………


Task 4
:


Gap fi
lling


Fill in each gap in the following passage with an appropriate word
/phrase

from the given
list. Each word is used
once
only.




fashion

other

present

binary digits

either

next

in


扥瑷敥渠癡汵敳

湥楴桥n

䥮牤敲


sós瑥ã

潮⁴桥瑨敲⁨慮


獯⁴桡s

牥灲敳敮瑥ê



慬瑨潵ah

f楲獴


䡏t⁉匠 乁䱏䜠d䅔䄠A
䥇f呉婅䐿

周攠睯牬搠楳áf畬氠潦 ã敡獵牡扬s 煵慮瑩瑩敳í 卯ãe

煵慮瑩瑩敳e捨cn来g杲慤畡glóⰠ慮搠
獯ã攠捨慮来c 獴数s bó 獴数⸠ 周慴q 楳á 瑯í 獡óⰠ獵捨s 瑨楮杳í 慳a 瑥íp敲慴畲攠慮搠瑨í
汯畤湥獳 潦 愠獯畮s 獨o
眠湯n捬敡爠摩癩獩潮 扥瑷敥渠潮o 癡汵v 慮搠瑨攠
(1)…………..
.
Quantities that change in this continuous, or stepless, manner

are said to be analog
values. In contrast, an
electrical switch is
(2) …………..
on
or off, with nothing in


between; if a telephone numbe
r is 123
-
4567, then th
e next one is 123
-
4568, with
no
thing in


between. Quantities that progress in this step by step
(3) …………..
are
called digital values.


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Unit 3. Types of Computer




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The circuits inside a computer are digital and operate on the basis of a pair of
electrical condit
ions: on/off or high/low voltage. There are no

(4) …………..
. These
two conditions correspond
to the numerical values 1 and 0
,
(5) …………..
all
arithmetic values can be represented in t
erms
of this binary system.

The
(6)
…………..
1 and 0 can also be used in combina
tions to represent other symbols, such
as letters of the alphabet. Before information can be put into a computer, it must be
(7) …………..
in binary digital values 1s and 0s.


Analog values,
(8) …………..
, cannot be input directly to the computer, nor can the
co
mputer output them. They must
(9) …………..
be processed by analog/digital
(A/D) converter,

and

then

digital values

corresponding to the originals are

put to the
computer
.
(10) …………..
produce an output, the computer’s digital signal is D/A
converted


changed

from digital to analog. This conversion technology allows the
computer to receive data from both the digital and the analog worlds.


TRANSLATION

Task 5
:

English
-

Vietnamese translation

Translate the following passage into Vietnamese.


WHAT IS A SUPERCOMPU
TER?

Some problems are too complex even for mainframe computers. Mapping the
wind patterns in a storm

or the water flow round one rock in a rushing stream would
take scientists a long time on a mainframe.

Similarly, very large numbers in

astronomy
are too
difficult for standard computers to handle.

Supercomputers have no problem
with huge numbers and are equipped to handle many equations simultaneously,
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Unit 3. Types of Computer




29

performing billions of calculations in a second.


This great speed has been achieved in several ways. By
making circuits more
and more compact, engineers have shortened the distance each electrical impulse has to
travel inside the computer. Chemists have developed a synthetic semiconductor,

gallium

arsenide

t
hat conducts electricity faster than silicon can. A
nd designers have
built arrays of many microprocessors, linked to handle data in new ways.


A traditional computer works sequentially: It reads a command, calculates the
data address, and executes each command before starting to read the next. But multiple

microprocessors within a supercomputer carry out these tasks in an overlapping
manner, called parallel or pipeline processing, letting the computer process many
commands at one time. And by arranging data into vectors, or arrays, supercomputers
can proces
s long lists of numbers simultaneously.


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Task 6:
Vietnamese
-

English translation


M
áy tính điện tử kỹ thuật số được phân loại theo kích cỡ bộ nhớ chính và tốc độ xử
lý của chúng thành máy vi tính, máy tính nhỏ, máy tính lớn và siêu máy

tính. Một tiêu
chí của tốc độ xử lý là thời gian truy cập
-

thời gian máy tính định vị và truyền một byte
dữ liệu từ
bộ nhớ tới bộ xử lý trung tâm hay ngươc lại. Các loại máy tính khác nhau
cũng khác nhau ở kích cỡ độ dài từ
-

số bit mà chúng chia thông ti
n thành để xử lý. Độ
dài từ càng lớn thì tốc độ xử lý càng nhanh.


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Nhóm đầu tiên, máy vi tính, bao gồm máy tính cá nhân và máy tính gia đình, chúng
được sử dụng chủ yếu bởi cá nhân ở gia đình hoặc văn phòng. Máy tính nhỏ được sử
dụng chủ yế
u ở văn phòng, các việ
n nghiên cứu và các nhà máy. Một

số cũng được dùng
làm “bộ não” của mạng máy tính. Phần lớn máy tính lớn được sử dụng bởi các tập đoàn
lớn, các cơ quan chính phủ và các viện nghiên cứu lớn để xứ lý dữ liệu chính của họ
hoăc cho nhu cầ
u lưu trữ hồ sơ.
Siêu máy tính là loại máy tính lớn nhất và nhanh nhất.
Chúng được sử dụng cho mục đích quân sự và cho các công việc nghiên cứu khoa học
đòi hỏi nhất.

Ranh giới phân c
hia bốn loại máy tính trên thay

đổi thường xuyên bởi vì công nghệ
máy t
ính phát triển không ngừng.

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31

Độ dài từ

:

word length

Mục đích quân sự: military purposes

Ranh giới : boundary


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SPEAKING

Task 7
:

Aids to communication

Here are some phrases to use when agreeing or disagreeing with some
one.

A: (I think) The best computer for a
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is
-----------------------
.

B: I agree. / I think so too.

C: I disagree. / I don’t think so.

In pairs, decide what sort of computer is best for each of these users.

1.

John Wilton is a sales person

and he spends a lot of time visiting customers. He
wants a computer to carry with him so he can access data about his customers and
record his sales.

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32

2.

Pat Nye is a personne
l officer. She needs a computer to keep staff records and to
keep a diary of appoint
ments. She also needs a computer for writing letters.

3.

The U
niversity
of the North needs a computer to look after its accounts, its
network, the records of all students and staff, and to help with scientific research.

4.

The James family wants a computer for e
ntertainment, writing letters, the
Internet, and for calculating tax.


LANGUAGE FOCUS

RELATIVE CLAUSES


We can define people or things with a restrictive
relative
(defining) clause.



The teacher who is responsible for the computer center has just arrived.

W
e use the relative pronoun “who” because it refers to a person. We could also
use “that”.



The microprocessor is a chip which processes the information provided by the
software.

We use the relative pronoun “which” because it refers to a thing. We could also

use “that”



The computer we saw at the exhibition runs at 600 MHz

Relative pronouns can be left out when they are not the subject of the relative
clause.

Task 8
:

Complete the sentences below with suitable relative pronouns. Give alternative
options if p
ossible.

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1.

That’s the CPU ………………. I’d like to buy.




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2.

The mi
croprocessor is a chip ………………. p
rocesses data and instructions.




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3.

The microprocessor coor
dinates the activities ………

t
ake place in the computer
system.




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4.

Last night I met someone ………………. works for GM as a computer
programmer.




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5.

A co
-

processor is a silicon chip
………………. carries out mathematical
operations at a very high speed.




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6.

A mega
hertz is a unit of frequency ……………….is used to measure processor
speed.




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7.

Here’s the floppy disk ……………….you lent me!




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8.

The different classes of computers also differ in the size of their “words”


the
numb
er of bits into………………. they divide information for processing.




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We use nonrestrictive relative clause
to give extra information to a noun /noun phrase in
the

main

clause.

A nonrestrictive relative clause is separated from the main cl
ause by a
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Unit 3. Types of Computer




34

comma.



Mr. Smith, who teaches us Pascal
, has been working in this university for
nearly 30 years.



There are
some trainees in my department, each of whom is in charge of
different tasks.



A number of different codes exist, some of which are b
ased on a 6
-
, 7
-

or
8
-
bit structure.



My compu
ter, which was made by IBM, has

been in use for 5 years.

Words with relative pronouns to i
ntroduce nonrestrictive clauses


For people

For things

For possession

( for both people and things)




who




Whose + noun


whom


which


one of whom


one of which


each of whom

each of which


some of whom

some of which


none of whom

none of which


neither of whom


neither of which



either of whom

either of which


all of whom


all of which


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Unit 3. Types of Computer




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Task 9
:


Use the given relative pronoun
s

to combine

each of

the following pairs of sentences
into a complex one.

Separate the relative clause from the main one by a c
omma if
necessary.


Example:

People can save time. They use computers
. (
who)


People who use computer can save time.


1.

Let’s take a look at the history of computers. We know the computers today.
(that)



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2.

The com
puter needs checking. Its program for SPSS doesn’t work. (whose)




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3.

A person must be able to work logically. The person wants to be a computer
programmer.(who)




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4.

The students enroll in the Inf
ormation Technology discipline. I told you about
the students. (whom)



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5.

We’ll begin our discussion by introducing the basic threats. The basic threats
may be present on our computer. (that)



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6.

OS/2 Warp allows a prog
ram to be divided int
o threads. Many of them can be
processed at the same time. ( which)



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7.

The keyboard is the most common input device. It is used to input text and
numerical data

into the computer. (which)



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8.

The
internal memory is a place in the CPU. Data and instructions are kept in this
place while they are being processed. (which)



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DO YOU KNOW?


INTERACTIVITY: T
HE EXAMPLES OF MULTI
MEDIA COMPUTERS
,


PERSONAL DIGI
TAL ASSISTANTS AND F
UTURISTIC “
SM
ART BOXES”
AND
“INTERNET APPLIANCES



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Interactivity means that the user is able to make an immediate response to what is going
on and modify the processes. That is, there is a dialog between the user and the computer
or communications device
. Interactivity

allows users to be active rather than passive
participants in the technology process.

Among the types of interactive devices are multimedia computers, personal digital
assistants, and various kinds of up


coming “smart boxes” that work either with a TV o
r
a PC.




Multimedia refers to technology that presents information in more than one
medium, including text, graphics, animation, video, music, and voice. Multimedia
computers are powerful microcomputers that include sound and video capability,
run CD
-
Rom d
isks, and allow users to play games or perform interactive tasks.




Personal digital assistants: (PDAs) are small pen


controlled, handheld computers
that, in their most developed form, can do two

way wireless messaging. The
newer generation of PDAs can b
e used not only to keep an appointment calendar
and write memos but also to access to the Internet and send and receive faxes an
d
e
-
mail. With a PDA, then , you can immediately get information from some remote
location


such as your microcomputer on your desk at home


and if necessary,
change

it to update it, and you can use it as a digital camera.




Up

and coming “smart boxes”

and “ Internet appliances: with these futuristic
devices consumers could listen to music CDs, watch movies, do computing, view
multiple cable channels, and go online. Set top boxes would provide two
-

way
interactivity not only with video games but also wi
th online entertainment, news,
and educational programs
.


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Unit 3. Types of Computer




38

A network computer, or hollow personal computer: Instead of having all the
complex memory and storage capabilities built
-

in, the network PC is designed to
serve as an entry point to the online worl
d, which is supposed to contain all the
resources anyone would need.


Which of the following statements expresses best the main idea of the text?

Answer:

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1.

PDAs can be used in different ways.

2.

Smart boxes and Internet appliances are devices of the future.

3.

Multimedia computers include sound, video capability, games and
entertainment.

4.

Because of interactivity computer users can become more active in
the
technology process.


FUN CORNER