Conventional platform-centric video surveillance systems - Autosophy

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Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

1














Application Research Proposal


Video surveillance systems

Replacing conventional Shannon video surveillance with Autosophy video.


Abstract:
Video surveillance systems are now designed according to the Shannon information theory
where video

is transmitted in meaningless bit streams. Video bit rates are determined by screen size, color
resolution, and scanning rates. The video "content" is irrelevant so that totally random images require the
same bit rates as blank images. An alternative syst
em design, based on the newer Autosophy information
theory, is now evolving, which transmits data "contend" or "meaning" in a universally compatible 64bit
format. This may produce orders of magnitude lossless video compression. The new systems design uses
self
-
assembling hyperspace libraries, which grow like data crystals or data trees in electronic memories,
for both communication and archiving. The advantages for video communication and archiving may
include: very high lossless image and video compression
, unbreakable encryption security, resistance to
transmission errors, universally compatible data formats, self
-
organizing error
-
proof mass memories,
immunity to the Internet's Quality of Service problems, and error
-
proof secure communication protocols.
Le
gacy data transmission formats can be converted by simple software patches or integrated chipsets to
be forwarded through any media
-

satellites, radio, Internet, cable
-

without needing to be reformatted.
This may result in orders of magnitude improvement
s for video surveillance and archiving systems.


Anticipated Applications:

Autosophy video can compress high
-
resolution image storage and
communication by two orders of magnitude without introduced image distortions or loss of resolution. It
may also provi
de a universally compatible multimedia data format to ease video transmissions on the
Internet and video retrieval from archives.


Keywords:
Autosophy, Video Surveillance, Universal Data Formats, Video Compression, Encryption,
Quality of Service (QoS). Fai
lure
-
proof systems.










NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMMUNICATION AND SELF
-
LEARNIN
G DEVICES


602 Mason #305, San Francisco, CA 94108


Tel. (415) 834


1646 autosopher@yahoo.com www.autosophy.com

Autosophy

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Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

2


Identification and significance of the application

Wide
-
view, high
-
resolution video surveillance cameras generate enormous amounts of data, which is far
beyond the storage capacities in archiving systems or the Internet’s tran
smission speed. Conventional
lossy video compression is not an option, because Cosine Transforms (JPEG


MPEG), Wavelets, or
Fractals will reduce the video quality at high compression ratios by introducing image distortions and
artifacts. The very purpose
of high
-
resolution video surveillance cameras is lost if the video images are
later degraded or distorted by video compression. Virtually lossless video compression (JPEG, GIF, TIF,
LZW) is too slow, because of the enormous computation required, and it can
not deliver the required high
compression ratios. Moreover, collecting and storing the video data is only a small part of the problem.
The video information must be made available to other users via low bandwidth networks such as radio,
satellites, or the
wireless Internet. The video may then be stored in very large archives for later access by
many users. This requires precise indexing for finding specific video events and displaying them to its
users without excessive delays. Communication must be secure
to prevent video interception and possible
deception by faked recorded video. A practical video surveillance system must be an integrated solution
that must deal with all the communication and archiving problems in a realistic and hostile environment.


All

the following issues must be addressed.

1 Video communication protocols compatible with all future hardware and operating systems.

2 Media
-
independent data formats for wire, radio, cellular telephone, satellite, and the Internet.

3 Quality of
Service (QoS) problems for real
-
time data including live video and sound on the Internet.

4 Mixing of data (live video, sound, text, still images, and random bits) in the Internet's packet stream.

5 Universal hardware
-
independent data formats that
will never become incompatible.

6 Combining sensor data from many sources into a single coherent picture.

7 High lossless data and video compression to reduce bit rate and storage requirements.

8 Disturbing visual effects caused by conventional

lossy video compression (JPEG, MPEG).

9 Resistance to transmission errors
-

such as lost data, noise, and jamming in radio communications.

10 Latency effects in video and sound caused by software encoding and decoding delays.

11 Absolute security
including sender authentication, data interception, and detecting deception.

12 Single point failures bringing down a whole surveillance and communications platform.

13 Large volume mixed multimedia data recordings and archiving for later real
-
time pla
yback.

14 Software patches and chipsets to convert data formats from incompatible legacy applications.

15 Motion sensing for easier viewing, including indexing and fast
-
forward search data mining.


All these problems were previously investigated in a p
rior project to distribute movies
-
on
-
demand
via the Internet. Once orders of magnitude lossless video compression was achieved, the problem then
arose how to combine the compressed video with compressed synchronized sound in the Internet's
intermittent pac
ket stream. The solution was found in a universal 64bit

data format for mixed multimedia
communications. The real
-
time data transmissions are virtually immune against packet latency, dropped
packets, out of sequence packets, and transmission errors. All da
ta compression algorithms (for video,
sound, text, still images) are lossless and will not cause data distortions. The video bit rates are dependent
on video "content" rather than video "volume." Virtually unbreakable "codebook" encryption is provided
for
all data types by growing private encryption libraries. The 64bit data codes are media independent for
routing via satellite, radio, or the Internet without reformatting.

Additional research and development is
required for tactical video communications and

archiving.



More information and a library of published papers are available on the Internet
: www.autosophy.com
.
A video compression demonstration is already available. To find more references for this subject use the
keyword
Autosophy

in your Internet s
earch engine.



www.autosophy.com

Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

3


What is "Information" and "Communication"?

The question “what exactly is information and communication?” can be answered by two theories. The
outdated Shannon theory explains conventional mainframe sensor systems. Modern "network
-
centric"
s
ystems, like the Internet, are best defined by the newer Autosophy theory. Instead of storing or
transmitting meaningless hardware
-
determined bit streams, as dictated by the Shannon information
theory, the new video surveillance systems would store only tr
ue information according to a new
Autosophy information theory. This would provide very high, visually lossless, video compression and
absolute encryption security.


In 1948 Claude Shannon published “A mathematical Theory of Communication,” which defines

communication” as binary digits or bits and bytes. All video data is regarded as "quantities," which is
converted into binary digits for storage or transmission in meaningless bit streams. This allows for "lossy"
data compression only
--

in which data comp
ression leads inevitably to data distortion or loss of
resolution. This primitive method of communication was developed in an age of telegraphy and
mainframe computer systems. The theory is still being taught in our universities even though there is not
a
single example of that kind of communication in nature.


In 1974 Klaus Holtz developed the Autosophy information theory, in which all data items are
regarded as "addresses" to define or create quanta of knowledge, called "engrams," in a hyperspace
knowled
ge library. Communication uses address codes, called "tip," each identifying an engram in the
receiver's hyperspace library that can represent any amount of data. Information is only that, which is not
already known to the receiver and which therefore crea
tes new knowledge in the receiver's libraries. The
purpose of a communication is to create new knowledge in the receiver, i.e., to teach it something. The
new video transmission method is especially suited for video surveillance systems and Internet video
using the TCP/IP packet switching protocol.

Conventional platform
-
centric video surveillance systems

Primitive conventional platform
-
centric video surveillance systems are designed according to the outdated
Shannon information theory.














Figure

1. Conventional "Platform
-
Centric" video surveillance systems

A video surveillance system usually contains a computer connected to communication lines, various
sensors or video cameras, and "dumb" operator terminals. A computer failure may cause a total
surveillance system’s blackout. Data is continuously collected, transmitted, or stored, at a fixed
bandwidth or bit rate, whether or not it actually contains useful information. This outdated method is
similar to a moving transport belt, which is continuou
sly running whether or not anything needs to be
transported. The bit rate in television is determined by the imaging "hardware"
--

screen size, resolution,
and frame rate. The images actually shown on the screen are irrelevant. A blank or static video imag
e
would require the same bit rate as random noise (snow) images.

Dumb

Terminals

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Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

4



All input terminals, sensors, or surveillance cameras are connected to the mainframe computer.
Collected video is accumulated on
-
site (magnetic tape, CD
-
ROM, DVD) or in the mainframe compute
r
memory. The surveillance data may then be transmitted to remote users in meaningless bit streams
according to the outdated Shannon information theory. Video data is continuously collected or transmitted
whether or not it contains useful information. This

requires very high bandwidth communication channels
and enormous storage capacities, which makes video retrieval and searching very slow and cumbersome.


This totally hardware determined paradigm is obviously not the way human beings perceive or
communic
ate video information. There are no examples of Shannon
-
like communications in nature.
Communicating that way is very inefficient. Problems arise with the storage and communication of
enormous amounts of data. Lossy video compression, higher bit rate commu
nication channels, faster
computers, and better programming, will not solve the problems.


















Figure 2.

Bit rates in conventional Shannon data and video communication

Communication, according to the Shannon theory, is mere data in a bit strea
m that has no
"meaning." All data items (ASCII characters or pixels) are regarded as "quantities," to be converted into
binary digits (bit) for transmission and storage. According to Shannon's theory, communication "removes
uncertainty" in the receiver. Th
e data "quality" is determined by the transmitted bit rate, whether or not
any improvements in the video quality can actually be seen or used by the human observers.

In television, for example, the video "information" or bit
-
rate is determined by the imagi
ng
“hardware”, i.e., screen size (the number of pixels on the screen), color resolution (bits per pixel), and
frame rates (frames per second). A random noise video image would require the same bit rate as a blank
screen image. The higher the bit rate being

transmitted, the higher the image quality should become. Any
attempt at reducing the bit rate through video compression will cause inevitable image distortion or loss
of resolution. The more the video images are compressed, the worse the image quality wil
l become. Lossy
video compression methods such as Cosine Transforms (JPEG, MPEG), Wavelets, or Fractals, mainly
attempt to hide the distortions from human observers. The video quality is determined by the bit rate,
whether or not any improvement in the vid
eo quality is actually visible to the human eye. Data encryption
for security is only possible using bit scrambling, such as pseudo random number generators. All such
codes can be broken by high speed computing and determined efforts.

The bottom line is th
at any attempt of data compression will lead to inevitable video distortions
such as blocking, blurring, image artifacts, and jagged motions. Using high resolution, high quality, video
cameras and then destroying the image quality through lossy video compr
ession is irrational. A real leap
-
ahead jump in video storage, compression, and transmission technology must abandon the outdated
Shannon theory and adopt the newer Autosophy information theory. This is especially important because
conventional mainframe c
omputer systems are now rapidly being replaced by modern network
-
centric
systems like the Internet.

QUANTITIES

INPUT DATA

TO BINARY

CONVERSION

BINARY TO

OUTPUT DATA

CONVERSION

BINARY DIGITS (BIT)

QUANTITIES

QUANTITIES

VIDEO BIT RATE = ROWS * COLUMNS *RESOLUTION (BIT / PIXE
L)

* SCANNING RATE (FRAMES / SEC.)

THE BIT RATE IS DEPENDENT ON THE VIDEO “HARDWARE” ONLY.

(THE VIDEO CONTENT IS IRRELEVANT)

MEANINGLESS BIT STREAMS

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Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

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The next generation network
-
centric video surveillance systems

Network
-
centric systems transmit data "content" or "meaning" instead of meaningless bit strea
ms. Data is
transmitted only if there is a need for the information. The Internet is an example, which can be greatly
improved. Most of the Internet’s video transmission and storage problems can be solved, by using
Autosophy video methods.














Fi
gure 3 "Network
-
Centric" communication examples: postal service or Autosophy Content
-

Video

Network
-
centric systems can be compared to the postal service or the packet
-
switching Internet. In the
postal service, for example, letters or parcels are depos
ited into a mailbox for transport in the worldwide
postal system. Each letter is marked with a destination address and a return address. A postage stamp is
used to pay for the service. Once the mail is deposited into the box the postal service will then de
liver the
letters and parcels to the receiver. On the Internet, likewise, data packets are marked with an address
(URL) code and a return address for transmission, via modems or high
-
speed access lines.
Network
-
centric systems are much more efficient than
conventional platform
-
centric systems. Instead of
meaningless bit streams, information involves "meaning" or data content. Information is only that what
the receiver does not already know. There is obviously no need to constantly send empty letters, parcel
s,
or data packets. Both the postal service and the Internet are virtually indestructible. Defective mailboxes
or terminals will not bring down either the postal system or the worldwide Internet. Connecting the video
surveillance cameras via the wireless r
emoves the coax wiring problems. Transmission security is assured
through unbreakable encryption. The new video may bring orders of magnitude, leap
-
ahead,
improvements to surveillance systems.



















Figure 4.

Autosophy video communication and

storage bit rates.

HYPERSPACE

KNOWLEDGE

LIBRARIES

TRANSMITTER





ADDRESSES

ADDRESSES

ADDR
ESSES

HYPERSPACE

KNOWLEDGE

LIBRARIES

RECEIVER





ADDRESSES (TIP)

UNIVERSAL

64 BIT CODES

THE BIT RATE IS DEPENDENT ON THE VIDEO “CONTENT” ONLY.

(THE HARDWARE IS IRRELEVANT)

VIDEO BIT RATE = MOTION AND COMPLEXITY


Autosophy

Content
-

Video

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Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

6



In the new Autosophy surveillance systems all data items (pixel) are regarded as "addresses"
which convey "meaning." The transmission bit rates are determined by the data content. Information in
essence is only that, which is not alrea
dy known by the receiver and which can actually be perceived by
the receiver. Video for example is transmitted in tiny pixel clusters, each representing motion and
complexity in the images. Each cluster of up to 16 full color pixels (virtual 16bit per colo
r resolution) is
transmitted with a standard 64bit packet code to be inserted at any location in the output image. High
"lossless" video compression is achieved by transmitting only that which is not already known to the
receiver, i.e., that which is not a
lready in the receiver's libraries. Additional compression is achieved by
transmitting only the portions of the data that are actually perceptible by the receiver. In television, for
example, only the moving portions of the images are transmitted. The stat
ic portions of the video are not
re
-
transmitted, because, they are already in the receiver’s library. A software demonstration is available.


The objectives of this research would be to provide a universal surveillance capability for all
types of sensors o
r cameras, combined with virtually absolute security. The new data formats and
protocols promise high lossless data compression; unbreakable "codebook" encryption; high resistance to
transmission errors; universally compatible data formats; and virtual imm
unity to the Internet's Quality of
Service (QoS) problems. A new protocol may provide virtually impenetrable secure communications,
including: verification of received data, positive sender authentication, and instant detection of system
break
-
in or decept
ion.


A synergy of six Autosophy innovations

Video communication and archiving systems will require immense, ever growing, bandwidth and storage
capacities. Using conventional Shannon technology would require higher and higher bandwidth channels
and more a
nd more storage capacities. Video surveillance systems should be integrated with the Internet
to allow forwarding of data via radio, cellular telephone, or cables, directly by satellite links or through
ground stations. Lossless data compression and impene
trable security is no longer an option but a
necessity.

Video surveillance and archiving systems can be improved by orders of magnitude by converting
the systems to the Autosophy theory. This will require some research and development but the effort will
b
e well worth it. Improvements are made through software patches or video chipsets, without requiring
new cameras or hardware. The new data formats and protocols will not interfere with existing
communication for a gradual switch over to the new technologie
s.

The six research
-
innovation projects, shown below, require different sets of expertise, where each
project by itself may greatly improve communication and archiving capability, but the full benefit will be
realized only by a synergy of all six innovatio
ns.


1

Video “content” communication and storage
. In effect sending or storing only that which is
necessary by the receiver to reconstruct the original video images without distortions or loss of resolution.

2

Self
-
assembling hyperspace knowledge librari
es
. There are seven known classes of self
-
learning Omni Dimensional Networks, each providing a different learning mode. Only the “serial” or the
“parallel” networks will be used in this project.

3

Perceptible information coding
. Information should be enc
oded according to what can be
perceived by the human eyes, instead of meaningless bit and bytes arbitrarily determined by the hardware
or the resolution of the video cameras.

4

Universal hardware
-
independent 64bit data formats
. These new codes will greatl
y improve
transmission efficiency and prevent any future video data record from becoming incompatible.

5

Self
-
organizing failure
-
proof mass memories
. These memories may be printed on thin stainless
steel foil spools to provide immense error
-
proof hyperspa
ce data storage, at low cost, while consuming
very little energy. These memory devices will only be necessary in future, more advanced systems.

6

Secure communication protocol
. An improved version of the Internet's TCP/IP protocol, using
two check codes,
may provide universal future communication protocols including unbreakable
encryption, sender and receiver identification, and instant detection of intrusion or deception.

www.autosophy.com

Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

7


Video “content” communication and storage

Autosophy communication methods transmi
t data content or "meaning" with address codes, called "tip",
where each tip transmission may represent any amount of data. This is in contrast to the conventional
Shannon methods where communication is with binary digits, called bit and bytes, transmitted

in
hardware
-
determined meaningless bit streams. Autosophy methods can provide very high "lossless" data
compression and built
-
in unbreakable encryption. A demonstration is already available.












































Figure 5. Autos
ophy video “content” communication and storage


Image Buffer for the

current image frame

Output Image Buffer

Pixel brightness

Comparator with

a threshold

Change Buffer
for the screen

addresses of the changed pixels

Fixed (CAM)

Hyperspace

Library

Fixed (ROM)

Hyperspace

Library

Update the changed areas

In the Output Image Buffer

Generate

cluster codes

of the

changed

areas

Universal

64 bit

cluster

packets

Sto
re the changed

pixels in the

Image Buffer

Compare each input

pixel with the

corresponding pixel

in the Image Buffer

Save the screen

addresses of the

changed pixels

Threshold feedback

Scan the pixels from

the Output Image Buffer

to the Monitor

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Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

8



Autosophy television requires an image buffer in both transmitter and receiver, which contains
the current video frame. A new input video frame, from the television camera, is scanned and compared
with the c
urrent image frame to detect the pixels whose brightness or color has changed more than a
perceptible limit. The newly changed pixels are stored into the image buffer. Non
-
changing pixels are
ignored. The screen location addresses of the changing pixels ar
e accumulated in a change buffer. The
encoding process combines the changed pixels into clusters using a fixed hyperspace knowledge library.
The output is a universal 64bit code defining a group of changing pixels in a cluster that can be anywhere
within t
he output image frame. The video codes are randomly mixed with other data codes (representing
sound, text, or random bit files) for storage or transmission. The receiver retrieves the image cluster from
the 64bit code using a duplicate fixed hyperspace lib
rary. The changing pixel clusters are used to update
small moving areas in the output image buffer. The output image buffer is then scanned at arbitrary
intervals to the output monitor.


The packet rate in Autosophy television depends only on the video con
tent, i.e., motion and
complexity in the video images. The video hardware (i.e., the screen size, resolution and scanning rates)
becomes irrelevant. This is analogous to human vision and perception. A blank or static video image
would contains no “informat
ion” and therefore requires no packet transmissions at all. On the other hand,
random noise video images (snow) would require excessive packet rates. Most video images are
composed of larger areas of mostly equal brightness and color. Also, moving objects
in the video usually
change many adjacent pixels at the same time. The changing pixels can be combined into cluster (up to 16
pixels per cluster) to combine several changed pixels into a cluster code. Simple, evenly colored video
images therefore require f
ewer packet transmissions, therefore increasing data compression performance.
Defensive strategies are used to temporarily reduce the code rates for very rapidly moving video to avoid
overloading a limited bandwidth channel. This method of video compressio
n has been simulated by
software. A real
-
time video demonstration is available in a laptop computer.


In conventional Shannon video communication each image is scanned
-

pixel by pixel
-

and
transmitted in meaningless bit streams. The bit rate is determine
d by the hardware i.e. the number if pixels
on the screen, the color resolution (bit/pixel), and the scanning rate (frames/second). The image content is
irrelevant so that totally random noise (snow) images require the same bit rate as blank or static imag
es.
In Autosophy video communication, in contrast, the code rate is determined by the video “content”
(motion and complexity) where totally random noise images would require excessive code rates while
static or blank video images would require no transmiss
ions at all. There cannot be any fixed
"compression ratio" calculation. Compression is the hardware (the product of the number of pixels on the
screen, bits per pixel, and scanning rate) divided by content (motion and complexity), or Shannon bit rates
divi
ded by Autosophy code rates. Compression is approximately the colored pixels in the left image
divided by the colored pixels in the right image shown in Figure 5.


Converting conventional Shannon video to Autosophy video, for video surveillance and
archiv
ing, can be done by slow software (about 1 image frame per second) or in real time using integrated
chipsets. This is only a temporary solution. Television cameras and monitors will eventually become
available, which would generate and accept the universal

64bit codes, to make conversion unnecessary.



Self
-
assembling hyperspace knowledge libraries

Hyperspace knowledge libraries are grown, from sample data or video files, to provide true mathematical
learning. The process can be imagined like the growin
g of data trees or data crystals in a hyperspace
library without human programming or supervision. The knowledge libraries are generated by automated
software in a computer. This requires sample data such as still images or video clips. There are seven
kno
wn classes of self
-
learning hyperspace libraries, each providing a different learning mode. Only the
serial networks, shown in Figure 6, is currently used in commercial applications, such as the V.42bis
compression standard in Internet modems or the gif an
d tif lossless still image compression method.
These initial primitive applications can be greatly improved to provide data compression and encryption
for all mixed multimedia communication and archiving applications.

www.autosophy.com

Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

9


































Figur
e 6. Serial hyperspace library example and algorithm


The serial network, shown in Fig. 6, provides an example of true mathematical "learning", according to
the Autosophy information theory. A new unit of knowledge is created by new information (GATE),
r
elated to already established knowledge (POINTER), which may then create a new "engram"
(ADDRESS) as an extension to that which is already known. The process can be imagined like the
growing of data trees or data crystals. A stored tree network consists of

separate nodes, where each
ADDRESS represents an engram of knowledge. The library ADDRESS is a mathematical equivalent to a
point in omni dimensional hyperspace. The content of each library ADDRESS is unique and can be stored
only once. One cannot learn w
hat one already knows. The network starts growing from an arbitrarily pre
-
selected SEED ADDRESS. Data transmissions use “tip” codes, which are the node ADDRESSES at the
final tip of the tree branches. Each transmitted tip ADDRESS code may represent any len
gth data string.
The data strings are later retrieved from the tip codes, in reverse order, by following the POINTER trail
back to the SEED ADDRESS.

Hyperspace knowledge libraries can provide both very high lossless data compression and
unbreakable encrypt
ion for security. Shannon communications and archiving are examples of extreme
inefficiency because they lack a library. In conventional Shannon communication and archiving all data
items (text characters or pixels) are treated as quantities to be transmit
ted in meaningless bit streams or
stored in a linear memory device. Transmitting or storing twice as many data items, for example, would
require twice as many data bits and twice the storage capacity.


SERIAL NETWORK LEARNING ALGORITHM

MATRIX [ POINTER ] GATE ] (The MATRIX is a working register in the hardware)

Start: Set POINTER = Seed (= 0)

Loop: Move the

next input character into the GATE


If End Of Sequence (a SPACE character) then output the POINTER as a Tip code; Goto Start


Else search the library for a matching MATRIX


If found then move the library ADDRESS where it was fou
nd to the POINTER; Goto Loop


Else, if not found, then store the MATRIX into a next empty library ADDRESS;


Move the library ADDRESS where it was stored into the POINTER: Goto Loop

SERIAL NETWORK RETRIEVAL ALGORITHM

MATRIX [ POINTER ] G
ATE ]

Start: Move the input Tip code into the POINTER

Loop: Use the POINTER as a library ADDRESS to fetch a next MATRIX from the library


Push the GATE into a First
-
In
-
Last
-
Out (FILO) stack


If the POINTER = Seed (= 0) then pull the o
utput data from the FILO stack; Goto Start


Else Goto Loop

(0)

0 Seed

1 0 R

2 1 O

3 2 S

4 3 E

5 2 B

6 5 O

7 6 T

8 2 O

9 8 T

10 1 E

11 10 D

12 10 A

13 12 D

14 13 Y

0 R (1)

1 O (2)

1 E (10)

2 S (3)

2 B (5)

2 O (8)

10 D (11) RED


10 A (12)

3 E (4) ROSE

5 O (6)

6 T (7) ROBOT

8 T (9) ROOT

12 D (13)

13 Y (14) READY

Pointer Gate Address

Tip

Tip

Tip

Tip

Input: ROSE ROBOT ROOT RED READY

Seed

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Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

10



















Figure 7. Hyperspace data storag
e and communication


In Autosophy communication and archiving, in contrast, only that which is not already known by
the receiver, i.e. that what is not already in the receiver's libraries, needs to be transmitted or stored. A
hyperspace library will store
every data or image pattern only once, because one cannot learn what one
already knows. Already stored data or image patterns will compress the storage of new input patterns. The
larger the libraries become the fewer codes need to be transmitted or stored
in an archive. The storage
requirement in a large library will saturate to increase both communication compression ratios and the
storage efficiency in large archives.


Hyperspace libraries for communication are usually grown, from sample data (still image
s or
moving video) by an automated software program. The program will extract the most common image
pattern using a bubble
-
sorting algorithm. It will then deliver the output library in a computer file. The
library may then be transmitted to all authorized
users in encrypted Internet Email files. Only receivers
with the correct library will be able to retrieve useful video data. Open, non
-
encrypted, communications
can use "generic" libraries, which are pre
-
grown in a lab, and available either in the software

or embedded
in the communication hardware devices.


Perceptible information coding

The image or video "quality" in conventional communication systems is determined by the "hardware"
parameter, such as: the number of pixels in the video camera, the color r
esolution in bit per pixel, and the
scanning rates in frames per second. Any improvement in the hardware parameter is supposed to increase
the video "quality" whether or not it is actually perceptible by the human eye. In Autosophy perceptible
information
coding, in contrast, only that which is actually perceptible by the human eye is being
transmitted. Information that cannot be seen by the human eye is useless and therefore need not be
transmitted. Human sense organs have a logarithmic perception profile,

where the image or video
"quality" is determined by the principle of the "minimum perceptible difference".


A human weightlifter, for example, may test two weights to determine whether they are the same
or of different weight. Small weights require small
differences in order to be detectible. Larger weights
require more differences in weight so that the larger the weight the more difference in weight is required
to detect the difference. The same principle is true for our other senses, such as vision. The
brighter a
pixel becomes the more difference in brightness is required to detect a change in color or brightness. The
human eye has 3 color detectors for red, green, and blue, but the human eye is unable to separate the
colors in a pixel. What is actually
seen by the eye is a merging of the three colors, into a huge variety of
merged colors. The overall brightness of a pixel is determined by the brightest of the dominant color.

Storage

locations

required

Linear Shannon

communication

and archiving

Autosophy communication and archiving

using hyperspace knowledge libraries

Volume of data stored in the Hyperspace Library

Communication

codes required

www.autosophy.com

Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

11



Since the purpose of "information" in Autosophy is to "create knowledge" in th
e receiver, any
transmission that is not detectible, not seen or heard, by the receiver is useless and need not be
transmitted. This can lead to great lossless data compression for practical video surveillance transmission
and archiving systems. "Lossless
compression" in Shannon communication means that every data bit
must be reproduced. In Autosophy systems "lossless" means that the "difference" to the original data
pattern cannot be seen or detected by the intended receiver.




















Figure 8.

Perceptible lossless video encoding

An Autosophy 64bit video code, shown in Figure 8, may represent a cluster of many pixels at a virtually
16bit/color resolution. Only the changing or moving pixels are encoded for transmission. The overall
brightness of

a cluster start pixel is determined by its dominant color. The 6bit per color portion of the
start pixel ignores all brightness values of less than 1% because they are not visible to the eye. The
difference in color of adjacent pixels are then sampled and

encoded into up to 16 pixels per cluster using a
hyperspace library of the most often encountered patterns. The result is very high visually lossless
compression, which may actually improve the observed image or video quality.


Universal hardware
-
indepen
dent 64bit data formats

Internet data traffic is now at a similar state of development as shipping was a hundred years ago. In the
old days cargo was shipped in separate bags or boxes, which were loaded onto ships, trains, or trucks by
longshoremen or pack
ers. The cargo had to be reloaded with each change in carrier, according to the size
of the cargo hold. Most goods, in contrast, are now shipped in standard size containers, loaded onto
standard container ships, and distributed via standard trucks and trai
ns. No special handling is required
during the shipping process.

The Internet could emulate that process by defining a standard 64bit code for
all types of data including real time video, sound, text, and random bit files. The data can be encrypted
and com
pressed, but with only the final receiver needing to know how to decrypt and decompress it. Data
codes should be routable from carrier to carrier (e.g., from cellular telephone to radio, to satellites, and
through the Internet) without needing to be re
-
for
matted. The 64bit codes can be randomly mixed together
and stuffed into standard packets, such as the Internet's TCP/IP packets.

The packets are then put onto the
networks for delivery. The packets may arrive at the receiver with unpredictable delays and i
n
unpredictable order. So, each container has embedded timing stamps, which allow for the real time
reconstruction of live video with synchronized sound. The packets may also contain error checking codes
but with only the ultimate receiver requesting re
-
tr
ansmission of defective packets.



Green

First 1 bit of the dominant color

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

x

x

x

x

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

x

x

x

x

Red

Blue

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

x

x

x

x

Color
Resolution

1

0

1

0

Cluster start
pixel

16bit / color

1 0

Spare

Screen Address of the

Start pixel (20 bit)

Hyperspace library

Address (16 bit)

Red

Green

Blue

Brightn. log

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

x

x

x

x

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

x

x

x

x

Red

Blue

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

x

x

x

x

Hyperspace library 15bit

Green

Difference to start pixel

Next cluster pixel

64bit VIDEO CODE

Brightness

log

www.autosophy.com

Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

12














Figure 9. A universal 64bit code standard for all types of mixed data on the Internet

A 2bit header defines the type and priority of the data. Real
-
time sound has the highest priority. Live
video requires

a lower priority because of its inherent resistance to packet latency and transmission errors.
Text data, still images, or random bit files can be transmitted with low priority because they are not time
dependent. All these types of data are randomly mixe
d together into larger packets for transport via the
Internet's TCP/IP or any other future protocol. Lower priority containers may be delayed until data traffic
in higher priority containers has eased. All data codes contain their own control, timing, and
error
checking codes.

Sound codes (11)

transmit sound by cutting waveforms at the analog zero crossing point. Each
64bit code would represent a waveform in the sound stream. Sound codes must be randomly mixed with
video codes to achieve synchronized sound.

Lower frequency simple sound, such as speech, would
require fewer codes than higher frequency complex sound, such as music. Silence would require no code
transmissions at all. Only sound that can be heard by the human ear needs to be transmitted.

Video co
des (10)

would each insert a small cluster of up to 16 full color pixels (16bit/color)
anywhere within the output image. Only moving portions of the video are transmitted. The video camera
and monitor may both have entirely different image formats, image s
izes, color resolution, or scanning
rates and yet always remain compatible. This allows television technology to evolve towards larger and
larger screens and higher resolution, while using a universal media independent protocol.

Text codes (01)

use a mixtu
re of either 9bit or 18bit codes. A 9bit code represents a single ASCII
character or random bit data, while an 18bit code represents a whole text word of many characters. The
system uses a pre
-
grown hyperspace library, which contains the most common words
in a language.
Virtually unbreakable security can be achieved when using private hyperspace encryption libraries.

Random bit codes (00)

transmit compressed still images or other random bit files from legacy
formats. Still images use 16bit codes for any
-
siz
ed images at any resolution. Random data types may be
random bit codes, computer programs, encryption library downloads, or any other unknown data formats.
A 6bit "data type" field allows up to 64 different data types or separate data files to be simultane
ously
transmitted and mixed in the same channel. An 8bit index is required because data packets may be
received out of sequence in the Internet's intermittent packet stream.


Self
-
organizing failure
-
proof mass memories

The new Autosophy archives would even
tually require enormous capacity, non
-
volatile, Content or
Random Addressable memories, such as the memory disclosed in Patent 5 576 985. The memory units
must be small enough to fit into mobile robots and consume very little power so as to require no cool
ing
and conserve the limited power of mobile robots. When Autosophy archives evolve from mere
information access systems to robots able to physically interact with human beings, then near
-
absolute
reliability becomes essential even in cases of severe physi
cal damage to the robots. A malfunctioning
robot may cause severe physical damage and injury to human beings. These new memory devices are for
future systems. They are not required for present day video surveillance applications.

1 1

Library

Address (16 bit)

Channel Spare

Rotating index

in 0.1 ms (16 bit)

Duration


in 0.1 ms (16 bit)

+/
-

Amplitude log.

0 0

REAL TIME

SOUND

0 1

Index (8 bit)

Character 1

Character 2

Character 3

Character 4

Character 5

Character 6

COMPRESSED

TEXT

Index (8 bit)

Data type

Random bit files

Payload 6 bytes

Still images

All 16 bit codes

RANDOM BIT,

STILL IMAGES

Type

REAL TIME

VIDEO

1 0

Spare

Screen Address of the

Start pixel (20 bit)

Hyperspace library

Address (16 bit)

Red

Green

Blue

Brightn. log

www.autosophy.com

Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

13


In the new memory devices
the input
-
output data determines or creates its own storage nodes in
the memory. Once the simple learning algorithms have been set up, then there is no need for
programming or outside supervision of the internal operations.

A Content Addressable Read Only

Memory (CAROM) may be printed on thin foils using Poly
-
Silicon Thin
-
Film
-
Transistor (TFT) technologies. An archive memory may consist of very thin stainless
steel foil, which is wound into a spool the size of a roll of toilet paper. Tiny thin
-
film transis
tors and
printed wiring are deposited onto the foil through vacuum deposition in a continuous roll
-
to
-
roll industrial
process yielding very inexpensive solid
-
state mass memories.


Both the electronic autosopher and the brain store multimedia "information"

in a saturating omni
dimensional hyperspace format, in which any node may be located anywhere in the memory device.
Memory repair is far beyond human intelligence. Repairing an individual hyperspace memory node is just
as impossible as repairing individua
l neurons in the brain. The systems act like a sealed "black box" to
organize and repair their own memory operations.

Examples of self
-
repairing dual redundant information storage are found in double ledger
accounting and the DNA helix. In double ledger a
ccounting every transaction is recorded twice, as a gain
and as a loss. Errors in one ledger can be corrected from the other ledger to obtain error proof accounting.
In biological DNA, information is stored in two strands wound together into a helix, where

each strand
contains the same information but in a complementary form.

Autosophy archives store information in two
spools, a male (RAM) and a female (CAM), each containing the same information in a complementary
format. An error in one spool is automatica
lly repaired from the complementary spool.
A
utomatic self
-
repair and self
-
healing facilities can also be used for rejuvenation and cloning of robot memories.
Removing one spool and replacing it with an empty spool will cause a robot to automatically restor
e the
information from the remaining spool into the empty spool. The removed spool may then be inserted into
a second robot, together with an empty spool, to produce a robot clone with the same knowledge and
“personality.” Rejuvenation involves double clon
ing allowing old robots to be rejuvenated without loss of
information.


Secure communication protocols

A next generation video surveillance system on the Internet could include revolutionary improvements to
the TCP/IP protocol. This would provide error
-
fre
e communications with virtually impenetrable security
for all mixed multimedia communications.














Figure 10. A new post TCP/IP communication protocol

The next generation communication protocol may use a universal 64bit data format that may be
forwarded from media to media (wire to radio, to satellites, through the Internet) without needing to be
reformatted. Each communication terminal would use one or many pre
-
grown hyperspace libraries. Open,
non
-
encrypted, communications would use "generic"
libraries that are supplied to anyone in the
communications software packages. Encrypted communications would use custom hyperspace libraries
that are grown by software from data samples. The libraries may be downloaded in encrypted format to
all authorize
d communication partners via the Internet.

Multimedia
64bit

Data Fi
les

Compressed and Encrypted TCP/IP Packet

Partial Data Check

Return TCP/IP Packet

Hyperspace

Library Files:

Live Sound

Live Video

Text Files

Encryption

Transmission Check

Partial Data Check

Transmission Check

Multimedia

64bit

Data Files

Hyperspace

Library Files:

Live Sound

Live Video

Text Files

Encryption

www.autosophy.com

Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

14



Each packet would generate two communication check characters. The TRANSMISSION
CHECK character is a checksum of all the transmitted codes in a packet. It confirms that a data stream
was transmitted without error
s. The DATA
-
CHECK character is a checksum code that is generated from
the data retrieved from the hyperspace libraries. Both check characters are returned to the transmitter as in
the TCP/IP protocol. If both check characters match then the packet transmis
sion was successful without
errors. If both check characters don’t match then a normal communications error has been detected. The
data packet is ignored or repaired by a normal TCP/IP packet retransmission. If the TRANSMISSION
CHECK character matches and
the DATA
-
CHECK character is incorrect, then an attempted break
-
in or
deception is detected. Only a receiver in possession of the correct encryption library could generate the
correct DATA
-
CHECK code. This both confirms correct data reception by the receive
r, and that the
receiver is authorized to receive the data. Instant detection of break
-
in or deception would allow for
instant countermeasures, such as ignoring the transmissions or tracing the transmission through the
Internet to its source (its URL).

E
xpected performance improvements in video surveillance systems

Converting conventional platform
-
centric video surveillance systems, based on the Shannon information
theory, to a network
-
centric “content” video surveillance system, based in the Autosophy in
formation
theory, may result in orders of magnitude improvements in performance. It also provides faster search and
easier interpretation of the collected video information.


The new video surveillance systems must provide an integrated solution that solv
es all the
hardware and operational problems at once. A traditional federated approach, in which each problem is
solved separately, will not suffice. The future video surveillance systems must provide compatibility for
all future systems, in any media, and

in a rugged wireless environment.


Local surveillance recordings vs. remote archiving:
In conventional video surveillance
systems video data is collected by local video cameras, transmitted by cables to a local command post for
viewing, and recording in v
ideo recorders for later replay. Watching the surveillance images or data
mining is very tiring and boring for the human personnel. Forwarding video clips to other decision
makers involves transmission, either in real
-
time with very low image quality, or
very slow downloading
of high
-
resolution video. Because of the orders of magnitude, lossless, video compression provided by the
Autosophy methods, this can be replaced by remote archiving. High
-
resolution video cameras can be
connected to a wireless networ
k, such as the wireless Internet, satellite uplinks, for viewing or storage in
remote locations. The video cameras and sensors can either be in a fixed location or movable to various
locations, even dropped from an airplane. Viewing the surveillance video,

can be done on the Internet, by
many worldwide users, by switching the cameras on or off by remote commands. Surveillance data can
also be stored in large remote archives, which may be located anywhere on earth.

A shift from hardware
-
based to content
-
base
d video:
Bandwidth requirements in conventional
(Shannon) video surveillance systems are tied to the hardware, i.e. the camera’s image size, color
resolution and frame rates. Whenever video cameras evolve towards larger images with better image
quality, th
en a new standard is required that will be incompatible with all the previous video standards.
Surveillance networks are caught in an endless cycle of introducing new video cameras and upgrading old
video files that have become incompatible. In Autosophy s
ystems, in contrast, bit rates or storage
requirements are dependent only on the video "content" (motion and complexity), which is universal and
hardware independent and which will not change with future evolution in the video cameras. All
surveillance cam
eras and sensors would always remain compatible regardless of image size, image
formats, color resolution, or scanning rates. Converting old communications formats or video files from
legacy protocols or operating systems to the new 64bit format can be don
e slowly by simple software
patches or by small chipsets for live video. This would provide a true paradigm shift in video
communications and archiving. Video communication and archiving would never become incompatible
because of the introduction of new vi
deo cameras or video monitors.


www.autosophy.com

Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

15


High video compression:
In the next generation video surveillance systems video compression is
no longer a choice but a necessity. Several orders of magnitude video compression is necessary both for
reducing the huge storage

capacities in the video archives and to reduce the bandwidth requirements in
communication networks. Though higher bandwidth channels may become available in the future, a need
for more and more bandwidth will also increase. There is simply not enough ban
dwidth in digital radio,
satellite links, or the Internet, to satisfy the demand for higher resolution sensors. Both conventional
"lossy" and Autosophy "lossless" compression can be used in the future. In conventional lossy video
compression (JPEG, MPEG
-
4)

compression is achieved only by sacrificing image quality. The more the
video images are compressed, the worse the image quality will become. Image distortions include
blurring, blocking, jagged motion, and introduced image artifacts. There is no easy sol
ution to this
dilemma. Providing high resolution, wide view, surveillance cameras, and then drastically reducing the
required bandwidth through video compression, which will in effect wipe out the advantages provided by
the better cameras. Autosophy video
compression, in contrast, is visually lossless without visible image
distortions or introduced imaging artifacts. Lossless video compression will be much less expensive than
providing higher bandwidth channels.

Resistance to transmission errors

Error sensi
tivity is a severe problem in conventional video
compression (JPEG, MPEG
-
2, MPEG
-
4, Wavelets, Fractals). A single wrong bit or gaps in the
transmission can cause the video images to break up into random (snow) noise. This can produce very
disturbing effect
s to the observers. Conventional video is extremely sensitive to noisy radio transmissions
or intentional jamming. The problem is especially severe in Spread Spectrum Transmission, which is
inherently very noisy. Autosophy video, in contrast, is extremely
resistant to transmission errors.
Incorrect bits or missing portions in the transmission will only cause tiny spots on the video screen to
freeze when they were supposed to change. The video quality will therefore remain excellent even in very
noisy or jam
med video transmissions.


Communication protocols compatible with all future hardware and operating systems.


Universally compatible multimedia communication requires that all data standards must remain
compatible regardless of future operating systems or

evolution in the communications infrastructure.
Compatibility must include all data types including live video with synchronized live sound, text, still
images, and unknown file formats from legacy sensors. The new data formats should be compatible with
c
urrent platform
-
centric or network
-
centric Internet communication methods, for a gradual shift towards
the new Autosophy communications. Legacy data formats could be converted to the new 64bit universal
format by software patches or chipsets for real
-
time
data. Autosophy video communications promise a
hardware
-
independent mixed
-
multimedia data format that may never become incompatible, to allow
video surveillance data exchange with other nations, which may be using different video standards or
operating sys
tems.


Media
-
independent data formats.

Surveillance data may be transmitted, from the cameras, by
cables, radio, satellite uplinks, cellular telephone, or wireless Internet transmission. Using a universally
compatible 64bit data format would allow the forw
arding of the video from media to media without
needing to be reformatted. This would require immunity to the Internet’s Quality of Service (QoS)
problems for real
-
time data including live video and sound.


Mixing data types.
Advanced surveillance cameras
may include: live video, live sound, text, still
images, sensor data (radar, sonar, infrared), indexing metadata (date, time, location) and random bit files.
All these data types may be randomly mixed together in the Internet’s TCP/IP packet stream. The mi
xed
data may then be stored in recording medias or in large archives for later playback in real time. The
various sensor images should then be merged into a single coherent image on a monitor. This would be
possible only by using the hardware independent 6
4bit data format. Connecting the surveillance cameras
via the wireless Internet also allows for controlling the cameras through remote control commands, such
as pointing the cameras in different directions, or switching the cameras on or off by remote comm
ands.



www.autosophy.com

Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

16


Secure network
-
centric multimedia communications:
Encryption is required to authenticate a
communication and to prevent interception of data by unauthorized users. Conventional data formats
require additional hardware or software for encryption, in
cluding firewalls and access controls.
Autosophy communication, in contrast, offers unbreakable "codebook" encryption by growing separate
encryption libraries for each user. This provides positive authentication and virtually unbreakable barriers
to data i
nterception. Data being misdirected by the server will be useless to the unauthorized receiver.
Only a receiver with the correct library will be able to retrieve useful information. Encryption libraries
may be downloaded via the Internet, in encrypted form
at, to change the encryption keys in each camera or
terminal. Attempts of deception can be detected immediately to initiate appropriate countermeasures, such
as simply ignoring the packets or to trace the packets back through the Internet to its sender. Au
tosophy
would allow a user to carve his own private Internet from the public Internet using private encryption
libraries. Absolute security is required in the new network
-
centric systems to avoid takeover of a
surveillance camera by hacker.

Reliability pro
files: platform
-
centric vs. network
-
centric systems.

In conventional platform
-
centric systems a single hardware or software failure can cause a total communications blackout. The
reliability profile resembles a very long chain in which a break in any link
will cause a total failure. The
longer the chain becomes, the higher the probability of a failure. The Mean
-
Time
-
Between
-
Failures
(MTBF) is calculated from the number of components in the system and the failure probability of each
component. The larger a p
latform
-
centric system becomes the higher the probability of a failure.
Network
-
centric systems, in contrast, have a living tree
-
like reliability. Cutting a few leaves or branches
from a tree may not lead to failures. A tree will not only continue function
ing, but will eventually repair
itself by re
-
growth of the still functioning branches. In network
-
centric systems, likewise, a terminal
failure will only cause a localized failure in communications. The terminal may be replaced or the
terminal may use alte
rnate media, such as cellular phones, satellites, radio, or wireless Internets. The new
network
-
centric systems may cause orders of magnitude increases in communications reliability.

Video content data mining:
Autosophy video provides automatic motion sen
sing for easier
viewing of the recordings. The moving or changing portions in the video images can be intensified for
easier detection of moving objects. Playback of the video may skip scenes without movement while
showing the moving objects in very high r
esolution. The amount of movement in the video can also
trigger automatic alarms via the Internet. Scanning the surveillance video for data mining can be orders of
magnitude faster and much less tiring for the human personnel. Precise indexing of place, ti
me, and date,
can be provided by embedded metadata to allow precise reconstruction of the original video sequences.


References

A website on the Internet is available that provides a list of more than 50 published papers, slide show
presentations, patents,

proposals, and demonstrations:
www.autosophy.com
. A list of worldwide
references for this research can be found on the Internet using the keyword
Autosophy

in a search engine
(Microsoft, Yahoo). This Autosophy website is currently being upgraded.

1

Auto
sophy: an alternative vision for satellite communication, compression, and archiving.


SPIE 2006, San Diego, August 2006

2

Universal Autosophy Data Formats for Network
-
Centric Systems.


SPIE06, Orlando Florida, April 2006.

3

Self
-
Organizing and Self
-
Repai
ring Mass Memories for Autosophy Multimedia Archiving

Systems. ICETE 2005, Reading U.K. October 2005.

4

Replacing the Data Processing Computer with Brain
-
like Learning Machines.


IPSI 2005, Cambridge, July 2005.

5

Autosophy Failure
-
Proof Multimedia Archivi
ng.


IS&T Archiving 2004, San Antonio, Texas, April 2004




www.autosophy.com

Application Research Proposal: Video surveillance systems May 2007

17


Phase 1 research objectives

Phase I research should provide the architecture and specifications for a new content
-
based universal
video communication and storage method. This could consist mostly
of paper research and computer
simulations. Research results could address several commercial applications and Internet
communications. No classified research should acceptable and all research results may be published on an
Internet website.

Deliverable
items should include:

1

64bit data formats for all multimedia data (live video, live sound, still images, text, random bits).

2

Possible protocol changes to the Internet’s TCP/IP packet protocol.

3

Simple demonstrations examples (a video demonstration is a
lready available).

4

A SPECIFICATION DOCUMENT for the future communication and storage standard.

5

A final report for the Phase I project

6

Work planning and tasks for a follow on Phase II project proposal.



All the following issues should be addressed:

1

Video communication protocols compatible with all future hardware and operating systems.

2 Media
-
independent data formats for wire, radio, cellular telephone, satellite, and the Internet.

3 Quality of Service (QoS) problems for real
-
time data
including live video and sound on the Internet.

4 Mixing of data (live video, sound, text, still images, and random bits) in the Internet's packet stream.

5 Universal hardware
-
independent data formats that will never become incompatible.

6 Comb
ining sensor data from many sources into a single coherent picture.

7 High lossless data and video compression to reduce bit rate and storage requirements.

8 Disturbing visual effects caused by conventional lossy video compression (JPEG, MPEG).

9

Resistance to transmission errors
-

such as lost data, noise, and jamming in radio communications.

10 Latency effects in video and sound caused by software encoding and decoding delays.

11 Absolute security including sender authentication, data inte
rception, and detecting deception.

12 Single point failures bringing down a whole surveillance and communications platform.

13 Large volume mixed multimedia data recordings and archiving for later real
-
time playback.

14 Software patches and chipsets
to convert data formats from incompatible legacy applications.

15 Motion sensing for easier viewing, including indexing and fast
-
forward search data mining.


Commercialization strategy

Autosophy video compression methods can be implemented in small low p
ower chipsets for use in
consumer applications. Rather than manufacturing and selling the chipsets, a research company could
license its patents and technology to large chipset manufacturers.

The new video may have application potential that cannot be sat
isfied by any new small startup
company. No corporation no matter how large could satisfy the potential market. New applications could
be developed only in cooperation with larger partners. The partners would be expected to finance research
and development

for their specific application.

Developing the next generation video surveillance systems cannot be accomplished by any small
startup company. It will require large, high
-
risk, investments and academic support. Generating profits
from this new technology
may take years of research and development using large amounts of research
money, at a long
-
term commitment. Without significant support from governments, or large investors,
this project is unlikely to be financed by private investors. Incremental growth
to developing applications
for communication, data and video compression, and encryption, is possible but would delay the
introduction of this new video technology by decades. While the new video systems offer vastly improved
performance and a next generat
ion video surveillance, conventional video surveillance has an enormous
head start, which is still generating huge amounts of profit. Without a high risk commitment by
governments, or large corporations, this new technology may not be ready for years to co
me, to the
detriment of the world’s economy.