Basic Computer Concepts

typoweheeElectronics - Devices

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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S4CS:Basic Computer Concepts

CNECLWS
-
GiP


Page:
1



Basic Computer Concepts


A computer is a machine that accepts input, processes instruction, and produces output.


Input


Process


Output


Hardware (
硬件
)


Hardware is the physical components of computer systems. There are 5 types of
hardware:

Hardware:

Des
cription

Example

Input Device

(
輸入設備
/
裝置


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輸出設備
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裝置
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Software
(
軟件
)

Software is a s
et of instructions(
指令
)
that tells the
computer what to do. There are two
types of software:

Software

Description

Example

Application Software

(
應用軟件
)

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such as preparing
documents
,
processing database
.

word processor,

spreadsheet,

Internet browser

System Software

(
系統軟件
)



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S4CS:Basic Computer Concepts

CNECLWS
-
GiP


Page:
2



input and output devices.

Mac OS


COMPUTER
SYSTEM
Software
Hardware
Output Device
CPU
Input Device
(
M
ain Memory
)
Backup Store
(
Application
)
software
System
software

Notes
: Hardware needs software to operate and perform tasks.


Program(
程式
/
程序
)



Program is a set of instructions for a computer to perform a specific task.



Both applica
tion software and the system software are programs.


Data(
數據
)

Data is the raw facts about somebody or something. It can be represented in the form of
symbols, (
number
) or characters.


Relation between Program and Data


Data

Program

Computer
Information

S4CS:Basic Computer Concepts

CNECLWS
-
GiP


Page:
3



Classific
ation of Computer

Type

Purpose

Mainframe
Computer/

Mainframe

(
大型電腦
)

1.

It is designed for handle:



the most intensive computational tasks.



large (
centralized
) database(
資料庫
)
.



multi
-
user environment.

2.

It is large, powerful and expensive.

3.

Used in government depar
tments and large
companies.

(
Minicomputer
)

(
小型電腦
)

1.

It is smaller, cheaper and less powerful than
mainframe.

2.

Transaction
-
processing(
交易處理
)

like accounting
and order taking.

3.

Used in small or medium
-
sized businesses, college
or universities.

Microcomputer
/

Pe
rsonal
Computer (PC)

(
微型電腦
)

1.

It is the smallest and least expensive computers.

2.

It is also powerful machine.

3.

Used in office, school and at home.

4.

It can be categorized as
:



(
desktop
) computers(
桌上電腦
)



notebook(
筆記簿電腦
)



palmtop(
掌上電腦
)