Science Fair Project

twoeggfinnishBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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Direct Relationship


variable increases and
other variable increases

0
5
10
15
0
1
2
3
pH
Column1
Inverse Relationship

variable increases and other
variable decreases

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
Series 1
Column1
Column2
Linear Relationship

each unit change in the x variable will
bring about the same change in the y
variable

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
Series 1
Column1
Column2
Non Linear

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
10
20
30
40
Series 1
Column1
Column2
1000 g = 1 kg



Kilo


1000


Centi



1/100


Milli



1/1000

44 ml

X

1 L






1000ml


It prevents wastes, which would
cause problems, from
accumulating.


It assures that the ecosystem will
not run out of essential elements.



1.

Begin
with a
CO
2
.





2

Photosynthesis




3.

Food chains




4.

Cell respiration





All organisms are made of
roughly the same organic
molecules in similar
proportions


A measure of their dry weight
is a rough measure of the
energy they contain.

Biomass



A census of the population,
multiplied by the weight of an
average individual in it


Gives an estimate of the
weight of the population.




A production pyramid explains why meat is a
luxury for humans


A field of corn


Can support many more human vegetarians than
meat
-
eaters

Trophic level

Secondary

consumers

Primary

consumers

Producers

Human

vegetarians

Corn

Human

meat
-
eaters

Cattle

Corn

Figure 37.14

Biomagnification


The increase of the concentration of a
substance that occurs in the food chain.


S
ubstances
-

pesticides or heavy metals


The substances become concentrated in
tissues or internal organs because the
substances are very slowly metabolized
or excreted.




Eutrophication


Occurs when a body
of water acquires a high
concentration
of nutrients (phosphates
and
nitrates).


This increases amount of algae in water.


As
the algae
die/decompose
, high levels of
organic matter and the decomposing
organisms deplete the
oxygen from the water.


This causes
the death of other
organisms
(fish).


Greenhouse Gases


Carbon Dioxide


fossil fuels, solid waste,
trees


Methane


production and transportation of
coal, natural gas, and oil


Nitrous Oxide


agricultural and industrial


Fluorinated gases


industrial, commercial,
and household uses


Fossil Fuels


Fuels formed from remains of
plants and animals


Ex: Natural gas, oil coal

Ozone Layer


Ozone
-

0


-

naturally
occurring in the
stratosphere


Ozone layer
-

Protects
earth from ultra violet
rays


CFC’s
––

destroy ozone
by releasing chlorine into
the atmosphere




Atmospheric CO2 is reflecting heat back
down to the planet’s surface.


Only by phasing out coal use, ending
deforestation and reducing the use of
other fossil fuels can the numbers be
reversed.

Other Causes


Clear cutting of
forests


Increased use of
fossil fuels



Methane pollution


Greenhouse Effect


Car in summer


Greenhouse gases absorb some the
energy radiated from the earth and
trap it in the atmosphere.


Human activities have INCREASED
the amount of greenhouse gases



Robert Hooke


Coined the name cell


Looked at cork cells under
microscope

Photosynthesis


Carbon Dioxide + Water


Glucose + Oxygen



Photosynthesis Recap

Primary Productivity


is the production of organic
compounds from atmospheric
or aquatic CO2 through the
process of photosynthesis

Meiosis


Occurs in plants and animals
that reproduce sexually.


Usually occurs in specialized
sex organs
-

Ovaries, Testes


Prophase I


Chromosomes form


Homologous pairs come
together


Crossing Over occurs




Frederick Griffith
-

studying 2 strains of
bacteria



1 causes pneumonia, 1 harmless



When killed pathogenic bacteria and mixed
with living healthy bacteria
-

some converted


Martha Chase and Alfred Hershey
-

showed that
DNA was genetic material



Used radio isotopes to label DNA and protein in
Phage T2 and
ecoli

cells




Sulfer

-

protein




Phosphate
-

DNA


The direct manipulation of
genes for practical
purposes

Genetic Engineering


Nuclear Transplantation
:
replaces the nucleus of
an egg cell or a zygote with a nucleus of an adult
somatic cell


Cells divides


creates
blastocyst


Reproductive Cloning
: If animal is a mammal, the
blastocyst

is implanted into uterus for further
development


Therapeutic Cloning:
Produce embryonic stem
cells for therapeutic treatments


Cloning


Combining genes from different
sources into a single DNA
molecule


Can use different species


Often uses plasmids

Recombinant DNA Technology


DNA from two different sources
are combined into the same DNA

Recombinant DNA



Polymerase Chain Reaction


DNA is copied many times in a
test tube.


Process can generate 100 billion
copies of DNA in 4 hours


PCR

Gel Electrophoresis

Human Genome Project


The main goals were to provide a complete
and accurate sequence of the 3 billion DNA
base pairs that make up the human genome
and to find all of the estimated 20,000 to
25,000 human genes.

Speciation


Evolution of a new
species


Allopatric
Speciation


Speciation due to being
separated by a geographic
barrier

Sympatric Speciation


New species develop without
geographic isolation


Formation of a new species as a
result of a genetic change that
produces reproductive barriers


Mostly in plants

Parapatric

Speciation


Speciation that occurs due to
variations in the mating habits
or rituals of a population
within a continuous
geographical area.

Punctuated Equilibrium


Abrupt Changes in species within very
long periods of
equillibrium


Evolutionary changes happens
radidly



Trilobites, some dinosaurs

Divergent Evolution


The process by which an interbreeding population
or species diverges into two or more descendant
species.


Occurs
when a group from a specific population
develops into a new
species



Ex: Human foot
vs

Monkey foot




Animal
:
Heterotrophs



consume
food


Plants
:
Autotrophs



make their
own food


Fungus
:
Heterotrophs
/
Decomposers


absorb food