Science Create Synthetic Genome

twoeggfinnishBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

206 views

Author: Robert Lee Hotz

The Wall Street Journal

May 21, 2010

Main Idea


A unprecedented advance in science history:
Scientists successfully crafted a “
synthetic
cell
” completely controlled by man
-
made
genetic instructions(inserted genome).

Dr. John Craig Venter




One of
Time

magazine
's 100 most
influential people in the world
2007 and 2008.


He founded
Synthetic Genome Inc
.
in 2005 funding $30 million dollars
for experiment and intellectual
rights(patent).


Picture from:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Craig_Venter

Synthetic Biology


synthetic biology
is a interdisciplinary
subject
(computer science, chemistry, molecular biology,
genetics and cell biology)
, whose goal is to breed
industrial life forms which may be able to
secrete fuel, vaccine, or other commercial
products.


Supporting Details


Previously, researchers have been altering
DNA piecemeal to display multiple
phenotypes
(ex: production of insulin by yeast cell)
.


For the first time, scientists generated an
entire

artificial cell (a bacterium) with
predetermined properties.

Picture from: http://erahightech.blogspot.com/2010_05_01_archive.html


Bioengineer Daniel Gibson and J. C. Venter replaced the
genome inside bacteria
Mycoplasma capricolum

with a
modified genome of another bacteria
Mycoplasma
mycoides.
They called the synthetic cell
Mycoplasma
mycoides

JCVI
-
syn1.0.



http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/whats
-
synthetic
-
biology
-
1083/

http://www.smartplanet.com/business/blog/smart
-
takes/scientists
-
unveil
-
first
-
self
-
replicating
-
synthetic
-
bacterial
-
cell/7256/

Mycoplasma
capricolum


Mycoplasma
mycoides

JCVI
-
syn1.0

Supporting Details


They documented the sequence of 1 million
base pairs of the genome of
Mycoplasma
mycoides
into file
,
edited the file and sent to
a DNA sequencing company to produce real
DNA fragments according to the file.


Then they meld the pieces by yeasts and
bacteria, assembled into the whole sequence
and inserted it into
Mycoplasma capricolum


Supporting Details

Posed Issues


An advance on synthetic life raised new
questions on the nature of life: is the cell a
real “synthetic life”? Or merely a genetic
engineering product?




The research also raised ethical issues on
artificial life: Is it ethically permissible to
manipulate life? If yes, to what extent?



Comments


"It has the potential to transform genetic engineering.
The research is going to explode.“(David Magnus,
Stanford University Center for Biomedical Ethics)



http://med.stanford.edu/profiles/bioethics/faculty/David_Magnus

Comments


"I don't think it represents the creation of an artificial
life form, I view this as an organism with a synthetic
genome, not as a synthetic organism. It is tough to
draw where the line is.“

(James Collins, biomedical engineer, Boston University)


http://www.bu.edu/bme/people/primary/collins/

Comments


Friends of the Earth quickly issued a
statement to “fully regulate” all synthetic
biology experiments and products.




The ETC group even claimed global
moratorium on synthetic biology.


"It is very much within divine mandate that we do
these things." (theologian Nancey Murphy)





"You have to have a way of tracking it.”


(Stanford ethicist Mildred Cho)

http://www.ratemyprof
essors.com/ShowRating
s.jsp?tid=263292

http://med.stanford.edu/profiles/bioethics/faculty/Mildred_Cho/

Comments

Poll conducted on online.wsj.com


Word Bank


Oversee (v.)
監督


Piecemeal

(n
.
)
片段




Menagerie(n
.
)
供展覽的野生動物


Craft

(v
.
)
精心製作


Leery (adj.)
機敏的、猜疑的


Advent(n.)
來臨


Play down (v.phr.)
貶低

的重要性


Solely (adv.)
僅僅、完全
(=merely)


Microbe (n.)
微生物










Word Bank


Patent (n.)
專利權
(
智慧財產權
intellectual property rights)


Moratorium(n.)
暫停、中止


Theologian

(n.)
神學家


Denomination (n.)
宗派


Seminary (n.)
神學院


Culmination (n.)
頂點、高峰


Scrutiny (n.)
仔細檢查、監督


Panel (n.)
面板;專門小組


Consortium (n.)
合夥

Word Bank


Customize (v.)
定做


Meld (v.)
合併


Stitch (v.)
縫合


Apt (adj.)
適合的


Watermark (n.)
水印


Pose (v.)
造成、引起
(
問題、爭議等等
)

References


http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/21/science/21cell.ht
ml


http://www.smartplanet.com/business/blog/smart
-
takes/scientists
-
unveil
-
first
-
self
-
replicating
-
synthetic
-
bacterial
-
cell/7256/


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Craig_Venter


http://online.wsj.com/article/SB1000142405274870355
9004575256470152341984.html