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twoeggfinnishBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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Binomial Nomenclature


Each species is assigned a 2
-
word name


First word is the genus & second word is species


Example: Canis familiaris


Escherichia Coli (E. Coli)


7 Levels of Order


Kingdom


Phylum


Class


Order


Family


Genus


Species

Kingdoms or Domains


Kingdoms




Monera


Bacteria


Protista


Fungi


Animalia


Plantae

Domains (Kingdoms)


In this model, K. Monera is split into 2 kingdoms


K. Monera is separated into:


Domain Archaebacteria


Domain Eubacteria


Other Domain: Eukarya


Consists of K. Fungi, K. Plantae, K. Animalia



Also, much of K. Protista has been classified into 1 of
the other 3 kingdoms


What are the other 3 kingdoms called?

3 Domains

1.
Archea


Extremeophiles


Halophiles


Thermophiles


Methanogens


2.
Bacteria (Eubacteria)


Gram
-
Positive


Chlamydia


Cyanobacteria


Spirochetes

3
rd

Domain
-

Eukarya


Eukaryotes



Superkingdom that incorporates 4 of the kingdoms
from the kingdom model


Protista


Fungi


Plantae


Animalia

3 Domains Compared

Feature

Archae

Bacteria

Eukarya

Membrane
-
bound
organelles

NO

NO

YES

Peptidoglycan in
Cell Walls

NO

YES

NO

Introns

Some

NO

YES

Antibiotic
Sensitivity

NO

YES

NO

Domains vs. Kingdoms

Domains vs. Kingdoms (Page 2)

Questions


In the Kingdom classification, how many kingdoms
are there?


5




What are the names of the Kingdoms?


Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia


In the Domain classification, how many Domains are
there and what are they?


Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya

Fill in the Table
-


Feature

Archae

Bacteria

Eukarya

Membrane
-
bound
organelles

Peptidoglycan in
Cell Walls

Introns

Antibiotic
Sensitivity

Kingdom Monera


Prokaryotes


Unicellular (Single
-
celled) organisms that lack
membrane
-
bound organelles and nuclei


Divided by


1. Domain


2. Nutritional Classification


3. Reactivity with Oxygen


Domain Classification


Nutritional Class

AUTOTROPHS

1.
Photoautotrophs


Photosynthetic autotrophs


Like plants


Light energy


Energy (ATP)


Carbon dioxide


organic compounds (Glucose)


2.
Chemoautotrophs


Inorganic substances


Energy (ATP)


Carbon dioxide


organic compounds (Glucose)



Nutritional Class (Page 2)

HETEROTROPHS

3.
Photoheterotrophs


Light energy


Energy (ATP)


Get carbon from consuming other organisms


3.
Chemoheterotrophs


Get both carbon & energy from consuming other
organisms



Reactivity with Oxygen


Whether they must react with O2, must be in absence
of O2, or they can be in absence or not of O2



Obligate aerobe


Require O2 for respiration


Obligate anaerobe


O2 is a poison to them


Facultative anaerobe


Prefer to use O2,






but don’t need to use it to live


Nutritional Class & O
2

Reactivity


Which of the 3 classifications is appropriate for
humans?


Heterotroph


What would you call something that uses light for
energy, but must obtain carbon in an organic form?


Photoheterotroph


Aerobes would do what form of catabolism?


Aerobic respiration


What about anaerobes?


Fermentation or Anaerobic respiration

Bacteria’s Roles


Decomposers



recycle dead organic manner


Pathogens



organisms that cause disease


Nitrogen Fixation


Atmospheric N2


NH4


ONLY way to fix nitrogen into organic systems


Play a vital role in
genetic engineering


E. Coli is used to manufacture human insulin


Bacteria’s Roles (Page 2)


Symbionts

in the gut


Manufacture vitamins


Digest cellulose


Digest Food



Bioremediation



remove pollutants



Used in production of
cheese

Symbiotic Roles


Symbiotic


relationships with other species


Mutualism



Both symbionts benefit


Pollinators & Flowering plants



Commensalism



One organism benefits other is
unharmed


Fern growing in the shade of a tree



Parasitism



One benefits at the expense of another

Bacterial Sex


3 Mechanisms for genetic material transfer in bacteria


Transformation



DNA uptake from the environment



Transduction



Viruses transfer DNA among bacteria



Conjugation



primitive form of sexual reproduction



Archaebacteria


Unicellular


Prokaryotes


No Peptidoglycan
in their cell walls



Able to live in extreme environments


Resemble the first cells on Earth


Extreme Halophiles


Salt lovers


Methanogens


Produce methane as a by
-
product


Thermoacidophiles


bacteria that love hot, acidic
environments



Examples of Archaebacteria

Thermoacidophiles

Hot Springs
-

Thermophiles

Eubacteria


3 Basic Bacterial Shapes

1.
Rod
-
shaped


(bacilli)
-

bacillus antharcis

2.
Spiral
-
shaped


(spirilla OR Helical)


Syphilis bacteria

3.
Sphere
-
shaped


(cocci)


Streptococcus

Eubacteria


Proteobacteria


Photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, & heterotrophs


Anaerobic, other are aerobic


5 Subgroups



Gram
-
Positive Bacteria


Almost as diverse as Proteobacteria


May colonize or be solitary


Bacillus anthracis & Clostridium Botulinum


Staphylococcus & Streptococcus


Proteobacteria


Chemosynthetic bacteria


Oxidize sulfuric acid and release sulfur as a by
-
product


Gamma Proteobacteria



Nitrogen
-
fixing bacteria


Soil bacteria that are able to fix nitrogen


Rhizoboids


live in nodules within the roots of legumes


Convert atmospheric nitrogen to a usable form


Gram
-
Positive Bacteria


Botulinus toxin is produced by
the anerobic bacillus
Clostridium botulinum
,

--

Enteric Botulism
-

may be
found in improperly canned
food

--

One of the most potent toxins
known

--

Blocks the release of vesicles.
--

Leads to muscle paralysis


and, if the diaphragm


becomes affected, can


be fatal.

Gram
-
Positive Bacteria

--

Anthrax was sent to
Democratic Congressmen shortly
following 9/11/01

--

Sender has never been
determined???

--

Potential Bioweapon

Mycobacterium genitalium


Has one of the smallest genomes of all organisms



On 1/24/08 a team led by J. Craig Venter synthetically
created the most important region of M. gentialium’s
genome (582,970 base pairs)


Largest chemically defined structure ever synthesized


Eubacteria Continued


Chlamydias


Lack peptidoglycan cell
-
walls


Cause of the most common STD


Can only survive within animal cells



Spirochetes


Can be motile & free
-
living or parasitic


Syphilis & Lyme disease



Cyanobacteria


Perform plant
-
like photosynthesis


Questions

1. What are the three basic shapes of eubacteria?

Rod, Spiral, and Spherical


2. What are the 5 types of eubacteria?

1. Proteobacteria 2.Gram
-
Positive bacteria
3.Cyanobacteria 4. Spirochetes 5. Chlamydia



Endosymbiont Exercise


Answer the following questions without using
textbook or any other resources:


a. If prokaryotes were the first cell type on earth and therefore
the ancestor to all eukaryotes, how did eukaryotes develop all of
the cellular components that they have?



b. Explain how the endomembrane system could have
developed.



c. How could mitochondria and chloroplasts evolve?

Intentionally Blank


Answers


Ask each group for their final hypothesis story, and
then compare the stories to the most current
hypotheses.


b) Infoldings of the plasma membrane are likely the
origin of ER, Golgi, & nuclear membrane


c) Smaller, specialized prokaryotes living symbiotically
inside other, larger prokaryotes is the most widely
accepted explanation of the origin of mitochondria and
chloroplasts)

Endosymbiotic Theory


Eukaryotic cells originated from a symbiotic
partnership of prokaryotic cells


Aerobic heterotrophs and photosynthetic prokaryotes


Archezoa


eukaryotic organism that closely resembles
a prokaryote


No mitochondria


Diplomonads


Giardia (causes a GI illness) typically
infection occurs from ingestion of contaminated water

Endosymbiosis

Prokaryote Summary


Prokaryotes are about 1/10
th

of a euakaryote


No true nuclei or membrane
-
bound organelles


DNA is concentrated in the nucleoid region


Simple genome compared to eukaryotes



Prokaryotes have plasmids (extra0chromosomal DNA)


Plasmids are circular pieces of DNA


Used for generating genetic diversity in asexual
organisms (Binary Fission)


Prokaryotic Summary (Page 2)


Prokaryotes reproduce asexually by binary fission


Continual synthesis of DNA


Prokaryotes have a peptidoglycan cell wall


Gram
-
Positive = simpler walls with more peptidoglycans


Gram
-
Negative = more complex structure



Pili used for adherence to each other or to surfaces



Motile due to flagella




What about viruses & Prions?


Where do they fit & Why?