Genetic Engineering.pptx

twoeggfinnishBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Genetic Engineering

Genetically Modified Organisms

Should genetically modified foods be labeled?
Why? Why not?

Recombinant DNA


Use of bacterial enzymes called
Restriction enzymes


Each recognizes a short,
specific nucleotide sequence
in DNA and cuts the
backbones resulting in DNA
fragments with “sticky
-
ends”


“Sticky
-
ends” can base
pair joining DNA pieces
from other sources


Recombinant DNA must be
useful and have ability to
replicate within a cell



-
one method
includes the use of
plasmid DNA from
bacteria





Gene Therapy

Gene Therapy

Uses of gene therapy

Gene therapy is being used in many ways. For example, to:


-

Replace missing or defective genes;

-

Deliver genes that speed the destruction of
cancer

cells;

-

Supply genes that cause cancer cells to revert back to normal cells;

-

Deliver
bacterial

or
viral

genes as a form of
vaccination
;

-

Provide genes that promote or impede the growth of new
tissue
; and;

-

Deliver genes that stimulate the healing of damaged tissue.


http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Therapy/Gene

Potential Uses in Battling Cancer

http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4566

Potential Uses in Treating Heart Disease

Clinical Trials beginning in HIV patients

http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/02/hivtreatment.html

DNA Fingerprinting

Use in Forensics

DNA fingerprinting used in Forensics

“A Link for the Missing”

DNA Fingerprinting

Rising use as evidence in court cases to identify criminals and in
domestic cases to identify biological parents

DNA is unique from person to person but the same from cell to
cell

The Process:

1.
Apply restriction enzymes to DNA
to cut it into fragments

2.
Perform
PCR (polymerase chain
reaction)

to make many copies of
DNA

3.
Insert DNA fragments into wells of
a gel electrophoresis unit

4.
Turn on electric current in
electrophoresis unit


the DNA
fragments will separate based on
size and weight


the lightest
travel furthest

5.
Stain the gel to make DNA
fragments visible or apply nylon
film and take an X
-
Ray image of
the DNA fingerprint

DNA fingerprinting process

Who did it?

Helena O. is a 21 year old female. She
attended Mardi Gras festivities in New
Orleans last year with her boyfriend and
several other friends of theirs. Helena went
to the police during the early am hours
claiming she had been raped. She stated she
and her friends had been drinking heavily
throughout the day and she had gone back to
the room to rest. She remembers somebody
being on top of her, and herself trying to get
the person off. She did not see the person
and only recalls waking up to an empty room
with her bottoms removed. She thinks it may
have been one of her boyfriend’s friends.
They told police it wasn’t them and that her
boyfriend had left them to go check on her.
The boyfriend claims he never made it to the
room and decided to gamble on the slots in a
nearby casino instead. DNA evidence was
collected from Helena and processed. Was it
the boyfriend?


On the afternoon of February
9
th
, the fire alarm sounded at Avon High School. Since the alarm was
not a planned drill, the fire department needed to come to the school and investigate. While the firefighters
found that there was no fire in the building, they did discover that the glass casing around the pulled alarm
(which needs broken prior to pulling the alarm) had a few drops of blood on it. Mr.
Beaudin
, Mr.
Sunblade

and
Mr.
Vojtek
,
who were all extremely upset by the loss of instructional time, have vowed to catch the person who
pulled the alarm. Teachers were directed to take note of any students not in class when the fire alarm was
pulled.


Only two students, Johnny
Badappleseed

(suspect #1) and Sara
Skincancer

(Suspect #2) were not
accounted for during the false alarm. Johnny has been known to cause trouble whenever he gets the chance.
In fact, it is rumored that the Saturday school attendance sheet has his name permanently printed on it.
Clearly he has the motive to be the one who has pulled the alarm. However, Sara also had motivation to pull
the alarm. This was a beautiful sunny day and everyone knows Sara likes to go tanning whenever possible.


With this information the AHS administrators thought they had hit a dead end. Neither suspect
admitted to pulling the alarm so it seemed that the mystery might never be solved. But then they remembered
that the biology classes could possibly help find the solution. They gathered a DNA sample from the blood on
the alarm and also from each suspect. A sample of DNA from each source was then treated with Eco R1
(enzyme #1) and then a second sample of DNA from each source was treated with Ava II (enzyme #2).

Your Task:

Use the given DNA samples to perform DNA fingerprinting and solve the mystery of who pulled the fire alarm.
Once you obtain your results you will need to write a letter to Mr.
Beaudin

explaining:


Who pulled the alarm


How the process of DNA fingerprinting works (be clear and specific)

Why you know that this person is the one that pulled the
alar


The Case of the False Fire Alarm

Cloning

Are there practical applications or not?


What is cloning?

Is this century old or really something new?



http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/01/5/quicktime/l_015_01_56.html

HHMI: Stem Cells and Cloning


Newt
Video

Cloning

Therapeutic
vs

Reproductive

Beloved Pets Everlasting?

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/01/garden/01clones.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1

The creation of a tissue or organism that is an exact genetic
replica of the original




Therapeutic Cloning


Reproductive Cloning

-
Creating replicas of cells,


-
Creating replicas of

t
issues, or organs for



whole organisms

t
ransplant




“mini
-
me’s”


The Process of Cloning

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer(SCNT)

Differences between Reproductive and
Therapeutic Cloning

What are the pros and cons of
cloning?

Pros

Cons









How do you feel about cloning?

Imagine for a moment:

Your five
-
year
-
old has drowned in a lake and your
grief has made it impossible to get your mind
around the fact that he is gone forever.

Will you support re
-
creation of your child’s embryo?

or


T
hat your daughter needs a bone
-
marrow
transplant and no one can provide a match;

Will you support re
-
creation and destruction of her
embryo in order to save her?



How might cloning be impactful?

Gibbs, Nancy “Baby It’s You! And You, And
Y
ou…” Time Magazine; Feb. 19, 2001

Our two
-
year
-
old daughter died in a car crash;
we saved a lock of her hair in a baby book.
Can you clone her?


Why does the law
allow people more
freedom to destroy
fetuses than to
create them?