Evolution Ch. 3.pptx

twoeggfinnishBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 9 months ago)

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Movement of our Continents

1.) CLIMATE

2.) Species can move
-
Adaptation

3.) Natural Disasters
-
Mass Extinction



Leads to the theory of evolution!


Speciation= new species
-
members are isolated and
adapted, so they can no longer produce offspring.


Geographical Isolation


Reproductive
Isolation



http://news.discovery.com/dinosaurs/frilly
-
horned
-
dinosaur
-
utah.html



Evolutionary Convergence
-

describes the acquisition of the same biological trait
in unrelated lineages


Evolutionary Divergence
-
is the accumulation of differences between groups
which can lead to the formation of new species, usually a result of diffusion of
the same species adapting to different environments, leading to natural
selection defining the success of specific mutations.



Microevolution VS. Macroevolution


Analogous
-
similar in features and function
-
not in structure (wings: bird vs.
insect)

Homologous
-
two anatomical or behavior which originated from a structure of a
common ancestor .

NATURAL SELECTION

VS.


ARTIFICAL SELECTION

better survival traits will become
Human
perferred

Traits


more
prevalant

in future populations.

1.) Genetic Engineering

1.) Genetic
Variablity




2.) Recombinant DNA

2.) Heritable
GMO’s/Transgenic

3.) Differential Reproduction



-

CO
-
EVOLUTION


-

Hybridization



Genetic Drift


Leads to the change in allele frequencies


Genotypes/Phenotypes/Gene Pool


Hardy

Weinberg law

: states that both allele and
genotype frequencies in a population remain
constant

that is, they are in equilibrium

from
generation to generation unless specific disturbing
influences are introduced.


Non
-
random mating


Mutations


Limited population size


Random Genetic Drift


(migration/emigration)



Species

Richness









Shannon Index
-
species equation


used to indicate the number of


species and the evenness of space


Peppered Moth
-
Pre industrial
revolution (white) Post (black)

Adapt, Migrate, or Extinction!


About 99.9% of all species are extinct


Endemic Species
-
found in one area


Background Extinction: Disappearance at






a low rate


Mass Extinction (Depletion): Catastrophe


*Speciation
-
Extinction=
Biodiverstiy




Holocene Extinction
-
Humans


HIPPO


Adf