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twoeggfinnishBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (5 years and 23 days ago)

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Mitosis &

Meiosis

Cloning &

Cancer

Mendellian

Genetics

DNA

Structure

Potpourri

How many autosomes would you
find in each autosomal cell?

44

What is another names for meiosis I?

Why is the name appropriate?

Reduction Division

What are homologous
chromosomes?

Homologous chromosomes are
similar but not identical (like a pair of
shoes) and each one has come from
each of your parents.


How does triploidy differ from
trisomy?

If a gamete with an extra chromosome is
fertilized by a normal gamete all the cells
that develop from the zygote will also have
an extra chromosome =
trisomy

If a diploid, rather then haploid, gamete
unites with a normal gamete the resulting
zygote will have three sets of chromosomes
(3n) and this is referred to as
triploidy.

Outline the major steps in
meiosis and mitosis indicating
how the two are different.

Mr. Leeder’s Discretion

What is another term for cloning?

It is a form of reproduction.

Asexual Reproduction

What is genetic engineering?

Intentional production of new genetic
material by substituting or altering
existing material.

What does enucleated mean?

Why is this important to the process
of cloning?

What is metastasis?

When a cancer cell breaks free from
the tumour and moves into another
tissue.

What is cancer?

In your answer include what can
cause cancer.

Cancer cells divide uncontrollably on their own.


Cancer cells can divide in culture about once every 24
hours. Not in living organisms though (thankfully!!!)


Cancer cells lack the ability to mature and specialize:
Therefore another threat is that cancer cells cannot
carry out some of the functions of normal cells.


Genetics plays a relatively small role in predicting
cancer (breast cancer is one of the few cases where
there is documented evidence)


Lifestyle!!!

What is the first law of heredity?

Also known as the law of
segregation.

Inherited traits are determined by
pairs of alleles from each parent.
These alleles separate during gamete
formation giving each offspring only
one allele from each parent


Examine the following pedigree

Is the trait dominant or recessive?

Is it sex linked or autosomal?

How do you know?


Recessive and Autosomal

When would a test cross be
completed?

Provide an example if possible

Unknown crossed with a
homozygous recessive

If any black sheep born, you
know the ram was
heterozygous


How are co
-
dominance, incomplete
dominance and multiple alleles
different?

Multiple Alleles



many genes have more
than two alleles and this occurs in human
blood typing and the glycoproteins that are
present on red blood cells.

Incomplete Dominance



a blending
whereby the heterozygote exhibits an
intermediate phenotype between two
homologous phenotypes.

Co
-
dominance



when both alleles for a
trait are equally dominant.

What is the second law of heredity?

Also known as the law of
independent assortment.

Inheritance of alleles for one trait does
not affect the inheritance of alleles for
another trait

Why is cytology closely related to
genetics?

An understanding of cells allowed for a
better understanding of what is going on
inside in terms of genetic information

What did Tomas Morgan discover?

Can you provide a Punnett square
example?

Some traits that are passed on depend
on the sex of the parent carrying the
trait.

Transmission of genes that are located
on one of the sex chromosomes, X or Y

How did Hershey and Chase discover
DNA was the genetic material?

Worked with bacteriophages

Viruses that attack bacteria and use the
bacteria’s structures to quickly reproduce
new viruses in the cell

Outer coating made of protein and inside
carries DNA

35
S on protein and
32
P on DNA

DNA went inside the cell, therein this is
what was being transmitted therein it must
be the genetic information.


What role did Watson and Crick
play in determining the structure of
DNA?

Double Helix

Complementary Base Pairs


Franklin?

What is recombinant DNA and why
is it useful?

What are autotrophs?

What is the haploid number for
humans?

23

What is a Barr body?

Females have two copies of the X
chromosome however the amount of
proteins in males and females is equal.

What happens is that one of the X
chromosomes is inactivated randomly, it is
referred to as a Barr body. It is important
to remember that different X chromosomes
are inactivated in different cells.


What is a karyotype?

Illustration or photograph of the
chromosomes in the nucleus of a
somatic cell in an organism

46 chromosomes paired according to
size, shape and appearance.


Identify and explain the two major
processes that contribute to genetic
variation.

Crossing over



occurs during prophase I
and the number of which is determined
by the chromosome size (usually 2 or 3
cross overs per chromosome).

Random Segregation



how each pair
of homologous chromosomes line up
during metaphase I is also extremely
important as that determines which
pole the chromosomes will go to.


How do we know that our genetic
code in read in groups of 3
nitrogenous bases known as a codon?

If each nucleotide coded for one amino
acid, we would only need 4 amino acids

If two nucleotides coded for one amino
acid, we still would not have enough
combinations.

So we have three nitrogenous bases to code
for one amino acid (although there are now
64 different combinations).

However, in some cases two or more
codons code for the same amino acid