13.2 DNA Technology Genetics and Biotechnology

twoeggfinnishBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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Biotechnology

Genetic Engineering


Technology that involves manipulating
the DNA of one organism in order to insert
the DNA of another organism


Agricultural


Medicinal


Forensic Science

Genetics and Biotechnology

13.2 DNA Technology

Genetics and Biotechnology


An

electric current is used to separate
DNA fragments according to the size of
the fragments in a process called
gel
electrophoresis
.


When an electric current is applied, the
DNA fragments move toward the positive
end of the gel.


The smaller fragments move farther faster
than the larger ones.

13.2 DNA Technology

Gel Electrophoresis

Gel Electrophoresis

Genetics and Biotechnology


The unique pattern
created based on the
size of the DNA
fragment can be
compared to known
DNA fragments for
identification.

13.2 DNA Technology

Gel electrophoresis

DNA fingerprinting




Gel Electrophoresis

is
an example of how
this is done.



Every person is
genetically different,
so DNA fingerprints
are different except for
identical twins.

DNA fingerprinting applications


used to identify or
eliminate suspects


determine paternity of
a child, or establish
other family
relationships


identify a deceased
person


Genetically engineered organisms

Genetics and Biotechnology


to study the expression of a particular gene.


to select traits that might be beneficial to
humans.

13.2 DNA Technology

Genetically engineered

bollworm

DNA Tools

Genetics and Biotechnology


Genome


total DNA in the nucleus of
each cell.

13.2 DNA Technology

Transgenic
Tobacco Plant

with Firefly gene

Genetics and Biotechnology


Isolate specific genes of the genome.

13.2 DNA Technology


Restriction enzymes

recognize and bind to
specific DNA sequences and cuts the DNA
within the sequence.


Used for recombinant DNA or gene cloning.

Genetics and Biotechnology


The ends of the DNA
fragments, called
sticky
ends

13.2 DNA Technology


EcoRI

specifically cuts
DNA containing the
sequence GAATTC.

Restriction Enzyme Ends


Some ends are considered
blunt

also
because it does not leave “open”
nucleotides

Genetics and Biotechnology


The newly generated DNA molecule with DNA from
different sources is called
recombinant DNA
.


Often use circular DNA of bacteria called a

plasmid

13.2 DNA Technology

Genetic Engineering

AKA: Recombinant DNA or transgenic
organisms



DNA is split(restriction enzymes) /new inserted



Applications of recombinant DNA


Bacteria:

used to
produce hormones and
antibiotics


Plants:

made to be
resistant to herbicides


Animals:

cloning,
replacement of genes
which cause disorders

Genetics and Biotechnology


Some of the bacterial cells take up the recombinant
plasmid DNA through a process called
transformation
.

13.2 DNA Technology

Genetics and Biotechnology


Large numbers of identical bacteria, each
containing the inserted DNA molecules, can
be produced through a process called
cloning
.


Gene Cloning

13.2 DNA Technology

Cloning

Cloning is an asexual form of reproduction. All the child's genes would come
from a
body cell

of a
single

individual:


Dolly

1st clone

Genetics and Biotechnology

13.2 DNA Technology


Polymerase chain reaction

(PCR) a

technique for
making billions of copies of a piece of DNA.


The process creates a chain of many nucleotides,
and the chain is a strand of DNA.


Used in genetic fingerprinting

Genetics and Biotechnology

Biotechnology


Organisms, genetically engineered by
inserting a gene from another organism, are
called
transgenic organisms
.

13.2 DNA Technology

Genetics and Biotechnology

Transgenic Animals


Scientists produce most transgenic
animals in laboratories for biological
research.


Mice, fruit flies, and the roundworm
Caenorhabditis elegans

13.2 DNA Technology

Genetics and Biotechnology

Transgenic Plants


Genetically engineered cotton resists
insect infestation of the bolls.


Sweet
-
potato plants are resistant to a virus
that could kill most of the African harvest.


Rice plants with increased iron and
vitamins could decrease malnutrition.

13.2 DNA Technology

The Human Genome Project


The goal of the Human Genome Project
(HGP) was to determine the sequence of the
approximately three billion nucleotides that
make up human DNA and to identify all of
the approximately 20,000

25,000 human
genes.

Genetics and Biotechnology

13.3 The Human Genome

Genetics and Biotechnology


Decoding the
sequence of the
human genome can
be compared to

reading a book that was printed in code.

13.3 The Human Genome


Genomics

is the study of an organism’s
genome.


A technique aimed at correcting mutated
genes


that cause human

diseases is called
gene

therapy
.

Genetics and Biotechnology


Scientists insert a
normal gene into a
chromosome to replace
a dysfunctional gene.

13.3 The Human Genome

Genetics and Biotechnology

13.2 DNA Technology