J2EE 1.3 - On The Edge Software Consulting

tunisianbromidrosisInternet and Web Development

Feb 5, 2013 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Faxing Infrastructure

J2EE Application Development


Past, Present, Future

06/05/2008

Solution Architect: Mark Reha

2

Agenda



>
How did we get here?



Review/observations of the J2EE Platform from 2002
-
2004



Review/observations of a J2EE Web Application from 2002
-
2004



Trends in 2004/2005

>
Where are we today?


Review/observations of a J2EE Web Application from 2005
-
2007


Trends in 2007/present

>
Where should we be headed?


Potential Road Map and R&D Technologies


Potential POC


What are my next steps?

>
Closing


Questions


References





3

How did we get here (from the post .COM era)?

>
The .COM era (1995
-
2001, peaking in 2000) was really humorous in some
regards when you look back at how we really built web applications, the
technology stacks (or lack of) that were leveraged, and the functionality
deployed in some of the web applications. Lots of money was spent. But this
period laid the foundation for where we are today thru with very complex sites
that were developed by some successful companies : Ameritrade, AOL,
Amazon, DoubleClick, eBay, eToys, HotMail, PayPal, Yahoo.

>
Sometimes it doesn’t hurt to look back to understand how we got to where we
are so we better understand how to best move forward (for example: SOA,
Mashups, Agile Frameworks, Agile Methodologies, etc. are all “lessons
learned” from the .COM era period of time).

>
I am not going to discuss details on development tools, testing tools, build
tools, development methodologies, or BI/Reporting tools. These certainly could
be discussed in future presentations if desired.

>
The following slides represent my experience, opinions, observations, and
trends (taking into account my limited experience at AAA).


History of the J2EE Platform

J2EE Platform:



Java Platform Edition JPE announced in May 1998



J2EE 1.2 released in December 1999 (peak of the .COM era)



J2EE 1.3 released in September 2001 (end of .COM era)



J2EE 1.4 released in November 2003



EE 5 released in May 2006



EE 6 scheduled release for the end of 2008 (approval of JCP specification)



Lots of enterprises are still on J2EE 1.3 from 2002!


The Portlet Specification was not released until October 2003.


J2EE Platform from post .COM era (2002
-
2004)

J2EE 1.3


1.4

Web

JSP

Servlet

EJB

Session

Entity

MDB

JAX
-
RPC

JAX
-
R

JAXB

JMX

JAAS

JMS

Mail

JTA

JCA

J2SE 1.3


1.4

AWT

Swing

Java 2D

Java 3D

JavaBean

JDBC

JNDI

JNI

RMI

Application Server

Containers and Services for UI, Business, Database

Security

Administration and Deployment

Value Add Services (Proprietary Frameworks etc.)


Client (mostly browser based)

Web Application

UI: HTML, CSS/DHTML, JavaScript, AJAX, Applets, Flash

Application Logic, Business Logic, Data Access Logic

Enterprise Application Integration (EAI)

Governance

Standards, Best Practices/Guidelines

Architecture Review Boards etc.


Design Patterns

MVC

DAO

Command

Factory

Business Delegate

Business Façade

Decorator

Value Object

*

*


SDLC and Development Tools

XP, Scrum, RUP, Waterfall

Eclipse, IBM WSAD/RAD, NetBeans, JBuilder, IntelliJ

Code Analyzers (Checkstyle, FindBugs), Unit Test Frameworks (JUnit, TestNG)


Open Source

Struts 1.x (MVC)

JSTL (Tag Library)

MyFaces/Sun JSF RI

Apache Commons (Utility)

Apache Log4j (Logging)

Hibernate(Persistence)

iBatis (Persistence)

iText (PDF)

POE (MS Docs)

Quartz (Timer Service)

Castor (XML Framework)

Apache Xerces/Xalan (XML)

Apache Axis (Web Services)

SSO

OSCache/EHCache (Cache)

*


Integration/Middleware

Business Rule Engine

ETL

Messaging/MQ

FTP

Web Services

Proprietary Scripts etc.

Screen Scraping

*


Utilities and Core Services

Logging (Wrapper)

Tracing (Wrapper)

Exception Framework

Base Classes/Frameworks

Alert (like HP Open View)

Cache (Wrapper)

Static Data

Security/SSO

*


6

J2EE Platform Observations from 2002
-
2004



>
Leveraged lots of open source libraries to fill in the J2EE specification gaps (like Web MVC
Framework, XML, Web Services). Soon there would be competing and redundant technologies such
as XML, Web Services, Logging, etc.. The Enterprise and Application Architect definitely had their
work cut out for them. What technologies do we use?

>
Some J2EE specifications were of little value to the enterprise (for example, Entity Beans (CMP or
BMP) and Stateful EJB’s…..J2EE 1.2 only supported remote Session Beans!).

>
Enterprise Integration was tightly coupled and reuse of enterprise assets not fully thought out or
realized.

>
Application Servers often provided proprietary (and competing) technologies and frameworks
(Portlets, Web, Security, etc.).

>
Lots of programming models to learn.

>
Governance was often over looked causing lots of inconsistencies in architecture and duplication of
code/frameworks.

>
Most development methodologies were still very “water fall”. XP was just taking off.

>
Development Tools needed improving.

>
Generally there was very high TCO for 1st generation (MVC
-
1) and 2nd generation (MVC
-
2)
applications.

>
De
-
facto Standard Application Servers: WebLogic, WebSphere, and some Oracle.

>
Increasing frustration with J2EE standard (some of it was justified and some was not).

J2EE Web 1.0 Application Architecture (2002
-
2004)

J2EE Application Server
(mostly commercial)

J2EE 1.3


1.4

J2SE 1.3


1.4

Utilities and Core
Services

Logging/Tracing (Wrapper)

Exception Framework

Base Classes/Frameworks

Alert (like HP Open View)

Cache (Wrapper)

Static Data

Security/SSO

*


Open Source

Struts 1.x (MVC)

JSTL (Tag Library)

MyFaces/Sun JSF RI

Apache Commons (Utility)

Apache Log4j (Logging)

Hibernate(Persistence)

iBatis (Persistence)

iText (PDF)

POE (MS Docs)

Quartz (Timer Service)

Castor (XML Framework)

Apache Xerces/Xalan (XML)

Apache Axis (Web Services)

SSO

OSCache/EHCache (Cache)

*


Client (mostly browser based)

Object Model(s)

Presentation Model


Application Domain Model



Data Domain Model



Web Application

Presentation

HTML, CSS, JavaScript, AJAX

JSP, Servlets


Struts or Custom Framework

Business

POJO (plus JTA)

Session (Mostly Local Stateless)

Message Driven Beans

Timer Beans

Web Services


Data Access

JDBC, SQL, SP

Hibernate/TopLink/iBatis

Business Rule Engine


EAI

JCA

JMS/MQ

ETL

RMI/Corba

XML/Web Services

Screen Scraping

Terminal
Emulation

Custom Scripts


OLTP DB

Legacy Systems

And

Legacy DB

8

J2EE Web Application Observations from 2002
-
2004



>
End of the .COM era, continue the migration from MVC Model 1 to MVC Model 2 (mostly
due to the adoption of Struts 1.x in 2001/2002).

>
Early adopters of the MVC Model 2 design pattern built their own MVC web framework
(bad in the long run but Struts was a young framework). Even Sun built their own for the
Blueprints and PetStore Application.

>
Lots of Silo based vertical applications.

>
Very tightly coupled “point to point” applications (with not a lot of reuse across the
enterprise and sometime with more then “one source for the truth” for data).

>
Still learning how to layer a web application properly (bad habits from MVC Model 1).

>
Lots of hard to maintain applications (due to MVC Model 1 and poor layering of software)
=> Mythical Man Month, “Plan to Throw One Away?”.

>
Most Web Frameworks each added their own tags so the handoff between the UI
designer and Developer was difficult (hard to reuse HTML and hard to keep in sync.,
some newer Web Frameworks prevent this problem).

>
Some applications were built with anywhere from 1 to 3 object models (bad and hard to
maintain).

>
J2EE finally had a competitor in the enterprise => .NET 1.0 released in 2002.


9

Trends from 2004
-
2005



>
Only 4 Years Ago: Remember this is not human time but Internet time


>
Productive (and usable) development tools (Eclipse 3, JBuilder, IntelliJ, NetBeans) finally
start to emerge. JBuilder was dying a slow death due to open source tools.

>
Rod Johnson => Author of “J2EE Design and Development” from 2002/2003 that
launched the concepts behind Spring, Dependency Injection, AOP, and a simpler
programming model (POJO based). Spring 1.0 was released in March 2005!

>
Finally a standards based Web Framework => JSF 1.0 was released in 2004 (although
not formally part of EE platform/specification, that would not happen until 2006 in EE 5).

>
XML everywhere (Configuration, BPEL, WSDL, Metadata, Data, etc)!

>
Web Services stack continues to mature.

>
AJAX starts to emerge, with lots of frameworks!

>
SOA starts to emerge (although conceptually this had been around for some time).

>
Other technologies start to become more popular in web application architectures:


Portal Servers


Business Rule Engines (Blaze, iLog, Drools)


ORM Frameworks (Hibernate/TopLink)


Still more web frameworks



EE 5 Platform (2005
-
present)

J2SE 5

AWT

Swing

Java 2D

Java 3D

JavaBean

JDBC

JNDI

JNI

RMI

EE 5

Web

JSP

Servlet

JSF

JSTL

EJB

Session
(POJO)

Entity/
JPA

MDB

Some DI and AOP

JAX
-
RPC

JAX
-
R

JAXB

JMX

JAAS

JMS

Mail

JTA

JCA

JAX
-
WS

StAX

Logging

Java Language Enhancements

Annotations

Generics

Auto
-
boxing

Enum’s

For loop

Print

Logging

*

*


Languages on JVM

Ruby

Groovy

Python

Scala

*

*


J2EE Platform Enhancements

JSF

JSTL Tag Library

POJO Programming Model

JPA (Persistence)

JDO 2.0

DI and AOP Features

JAXB 2.0

JAX
-
WS 2.0

WS
-
Metadata

StAX XML Parser

*

*


J2EE Web 1.5/2.0 Application Architecture (2005
-
present)

J2EE Application Server
(
now some open source
)

EE 5

J2SE 5

Java,
Ruby, Groovy, Python, Scala

Utilities and Core
Services

Logging/Tracing (Wrapper)

Exception Framework

Base Classes/Frameworks

Alert (like HP Open View)

Cache (Wrapper)

Static Data

Security/SSO

*


Open Source

Struts2 (MVC)

Apache Commons (Utility)

iBatis (Persistence)

iText (PDF)

POE (MS Docs)

Quartz (Timer Service)

Apache Axis (Web Services)

OSCache/EHCache (Cache)

*


Object Model


Application Domain Model



Web Application

Open JDK

Spring

DI

AOP

SpringMVC

WebFlow

Security

Presentation

HTML, CSS, JavaScript, AJAX

JSF, SpringMVC
, JSP, Servlets, JSTL

Facelets, Seam, Spring WebFlow

Business

POJO (via Spring or Session)

Message Driven Beans

Timer Beans

Web Services


Data Access

JDBC, SQL, SP

JPA
/Hibernate/TopLink/iBatis

Client (not just browser based anymore)

Struts2 Framework

Rails/Grails Framework

GWT Framework

Business Rule Engine


SOA

ESB, BPM

WS
-
*

UDDI

WSDL

XML

OLTP DB

Legacy Systems

And

Legacy DB

Or DW

EAI

JCA

ETL

JMS/MQ

12

J2EE Web Application Observations from 2005
-
2007



>
Move away from Struts 1.x or proprietary frameworks to newer web frameworks like JSF (plus
Facelets, Seam, and Ajax4Jsf) or Struts2 or SpringMVC (with WebFlow).

>
Move toward annotation based configuration (versus mass of XML configuration files).

>
Less Open Source required (due to maturity of EE specification, Spring, and open source application
servers like JBoss, Glassfish, Tomcat 5/6). Apache Foundation, Spring, Craig McClanahan (JSF),

Rod Johnson(String/EJB3), Gavin King(Hibernate/JPA) were really influencing and pushing the
Java/J2EE platform forward.

>
Spring getting lots of traction in the industry (dependency injection (simple but powerful!), POJO
based for simpler programming model, AOP (for security, transactions, tracing, etc), wrappers for
integration with EJB, WS, etc.).

>
A single Object Model now really could be achieved (no Struts FormBeans and maturity of mapping
capabilities in ORM frameworks (that better supported legacy database schemas)).

>
NetBeans IDE is becoming a viable and powerful IDE (Eclipse finally has some competition). Eclipse
Foundation followed suite and also released Eclipse Europa. No need to buy a J2EE IDE now.

>
Rather then reinvent we must reuse in the Enterprise, move from vertical applications to Enterprise
wide applications => SOA and leverage full Web Service stack, ESB, BPM.

>
New EE web applications can be built much quicker and with much less code. My last project, using
JSF and Spring and iBatis, was built with 50% less code, delivered on time (actually over delivered
by adding more features requested from our customer), and was 25% under budget.

>
Google influence => Google Web Toolkit, Google Docs, Google Maps, etc.

>
Sun and Microsoft finally working together (WS
-
* in 2006) => that is a good thing for everybody!



13

Trends from 2007
-
present



>
Web 2.0 => What is it? How do we really get there? Build new applications?
Adopt/integrate new technologies into existing applications? What technologies do we
use?

>
New programming languages running on the JVM: Ruby, Groovy, Scala, PHP, Python

>
New agile web frameworks: Ruby on Rails, Groovy on Rails,
GWT
.

>
New web technologies starting to emerge: HTML 5, Adobe Flex, JavaFX.

>
Must consider other devices like Smart Phones: Apple iPhone (rapidly achieved 20
-
25%
market share), BlackBerry (44% market share), Palm (14% market share)) with
technologies like Google Android, JavaME, or build pure web based applications.

>
Low cost solutions starting to be accepted by large enterprises: For example,
JSF/Struts2/SpringMVC + Spring + Hibernate on Tomcat/JBoss/Glassfish.

>
Java 7 and EE 6 => Move toward modularity via Profiles, continued maturity of EE
specification with Common Annotations, Servlet 3.0, WS
-
RS (REST), JPA 2.0, etc.

>
Multi
-
core processors: Some new JSR’s being developed and some support in Java 7

>
Grid Technology: All major DB vendors (Oracle and IBM) now have them in their stack.

>
“Real” Data Warehouse (not just a big relational database) => Teradata, IBM, Oracle.

>
Offline Applications (integration with Google Gears and Sun JavaDB)

14

Where should we be headed?



>
Potential J2EE Road Map (1
-
3 years):


We really need to Deprecate the Web 1.0 Frameworks (Struts and NO pure JSP with Scriplets)


Invest in Agile Web 1.5 Frameworks:


JSF(+Seam+Facelets), Struts2(+Tiles), SpringMVC, AJAX and COMET


We can then use more Agile Programming Models in all tiers (and likewise do proper unit testing)


Agile Programming Models are all found in Struts2, Spring, EE 5 (EJB3, JSF, and JPA), SCA


UI Work Flow (like Spring WebFlow)


Technology can help us be more agile and productive but we also need to make sure we have a solid
suite of Standards, Best Practices/Guidelines along with solid
Development Tools (including unit test and
static code analysis tools) and a Development Methodology

for all new web applications


R&D in Agile Web 2.0 Frameworks:


GWT, Ruby on Rails, Groovy on Rails


These frameworks all show very good promise


But are they ready for the Enterprise today? Maybe not.


R&D in a Portal Solution => 268 Portlets, WSRP, low cost JBoss Portal Server


R&D in Web 3.0/RIA => HTML 5, Adobe Flex, JavaFX, Google Gears, Java 6/7 “Applets”


UI Code reuse strategy (just like we promote the reuse of business services):


JSF libraries (ICEFaces, Apache Tomahawk)


WSRP for Portlets


jMaki for pure client side widgets (DOJO, Yahoo Widgets, etc.)


Mobile Strategy => iPhone, BlackBerry, Palm or what?


Low Cost Platform Strategy => Tomcat, JBoss, Sun Glassfish, IBM Geronimo


15

Where should we be headed?



>
Need a complete suite of J2EE Standards, Best Practices/Guidelines, and Ref Arch

>
Potential Proof of Concept Projects:


JSF and/or Struts2 and/or SpringMVC


Core technology demonstration


Integrate Struts 1.x with JSF or Struts2 or SpringMVC


GWT (very interesting programming model and high scalability potential)


Ruby on Rails and/or Groovy on Rails


Port Vignette PortalBean to 168/268 Portlet


Also look into Vignette Struts or JSF Portal Framework


Eliminate the use of proprietary API’s


Integrate with Spring + SOA


Alternative and low cost Portal Server (or Portlet like framework, why Portlets?)


Vignette seems to be a very difficult and complex environment (both runtime and
development)


Vignette is proprietary and costly (VPS + VCM + WebSphere)


We should look into other alternatives (and have a Road Map as well)


Low cost J2EE platform strategy (How much can we save the business?)


Low cost J2EE development tools strategy (How much can we save the business?)


Mobile platform strategy (How does it fit in and with what technologies?)

16

What are my next steps?



>
Java/J2EE Platform:


Possible J2EE Platform Standards:


J2EE Web Application Framework Standard


J2EE Business/Services Tier Standard


J2EE Data Access Standard (Persistence Framework, Etc)


J2EE Development Tool Standard


J2EE Utilities Standard


J2EE Low Cost Platform Standard


J2EE Portal Server Standard


Establish a J2EE Reference Architecture:


J2EE Taxonomy


J2EE Best Practices and Design Patterns


J2EE Reference Architecture


Socialize the Java/J2EE Standards via presentations and EA Sharepoint Site

>
Work with Scott to align .NET and J2EE from standards, reference architecture,
best practices, etc. to form a common approach to documenting our application
vision via the PARIS portal site

>
Align J2EE EA with CSAA.com (and any other J2EE Projects)



17

Closing



>
Thank you

>
Resources Leveraged for this Presentation:


Experience in Java since 1997 and J2EE/web applications since 2000


Daily review of JavaSite Portal at
www.javasight.com


Subscriber to the weekly Java Posse Podcast


J2EE Books (anything by WROX or Rod Johnson)


Sun SDN (JavaOne Presentations from 2008)


Burton Group that backs my vision/suggestions:


The Rebel Frameworks: J2EE Open Source Alternatives and Supplements


Web Application Frameworks: Evolving to Support the Interactive Web


Rich Internet Applications: Creating an Effective Web Experience


VantagePoint 2006
-
2007: Back to Basics


VantagePoint 2007
-
2008: Think Big; Take Small Steps <= really good read!

>
Questions?