The ecosystem approach to

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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The ecosystem approach to
fisheries: rationale, history and
institutional foundations


Tentative implications for West Africa

Outline


Timing of environmental concerns


Contemporary problem


Terminology


Institutional foundations of EAF


Conclusions


Implications for West Africa

Timing of environmental concerns


EAF is a product of the 20
th

century


Main forces:
global commons and human pressure


1950s:
N. Atlantic fish resources and shipping risk;


1950
-
1970s:
oil and dumping industries;


1970
-
1990s:
oil and gas, aggregates, risk of collision, non
-
indigenous species, endangered species and overfishing.


Since 1990:
Impacts of fishing, of non
-
fishing activities,
natural variability, climate change


In the future:

add deep seabed minerals;

Contemporary problem


Fishing impacts:
overfishing,

associated and dependent
species, bottom and habitat, ghost fishing, By
-
catch and
discards, destructive fishing, deep
-
sea resources, genetic
impacts, coastal aquaculture and ranching;


Non
-
fishing impacts:
Pollution, Eutrophication, Biological
impacts (hormones), Habitat degradation, Invasive species,
Contamination (Food quality)


Variability / uncertainty:
El Niño, decadal change, global
change


Recurrent signals:

whaling; shrimp
-
turtle; tuna
-
dolphin;
large
-
scale pelagic drifnets; CITES listing of fishery species;
ecolabelling; protected areas;


Terminology


Fisheries management


Ecosystem management:
Wildlife
management; Environment management;
Biodiversity management;


Ecosystem
-
based fishery management or
Ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF)


Ecosystem approach (CBD)

Criteria

Fisheries management

Ecosystem management

Paradigm

Sector
-
based. Vertically integrated.
Focusing on target resource and
people.

Area
-
based. Holistic. Loosely cross
-
sectoral.
Focusing on habitats and ecosystem
integrity

Decision
-
making

Science
-
based, top
-
down decision
-
making (evolving towards more
participation).

Aimed at “optimal fishing”.

More participative decision
-
making, with
stronger involvement of NGOs, advocacy
science and the media to influence
decisions.

Aimed at ”ecosystem health and integrity”

Global governance

A central role of FAO and Regional
Fisheries Organizations

Growing role of UNEP and the Regional Seas
Conventions

Geographical basis

A process of overlapping and cascading
subdivision of the oceans for
allocation of resources and
responsibilities

A progressive consideration of larger
-
scale
ecosystems for more comprehensive
management, e.g. from specific areas, to
entire coastal zones and LMEs;

Stakeholder and
political base

Narrow. Essentially fishery stakeholders.
Progressively opening to other
interests.

Much broader societal base of environment
stakeholders with support from
recreational and small
-
scale fisheries

Global Instruments

1982 LOS Convention, UN Fish Stock
Agreement and FAO Code of
conduct

Ramsar Convention, UNCED and 1992
Agenda 21, CBD and Jakarta Mandate

Measures

Regulation of human activity inputs (gear,
effort, capacity) or output (removals,
quotas) and trade.

Protection of specified areas and habitats
including limitation or exclusion of
extractive human activities.

Convergence of paradigms



Merging terminology:

Ecosystem approach and
ecosystem
-
based management


2 families of institutions:
ministries, commissions,
research institutions


2 different processes:
formal, media
-
driven


Confluence or collision?

Terminology


1902: ICES Charter. Periodically revised;


1969: Establishment of GESAMP;



1971: Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar Conv.). SD, PAs;


1971: Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB). PAs.


1972: Prevention of Marine Pollution (London Conv.)


1972: UN Conference on marine environment (Stockholm)


1973: UNCLOS III process


1973: CITES Embodies an ecosystem
-
based approach.


1979: Conservation of Migratory Species (Bonn Conv.)


1979: Indian Ocean whale sanctuary;


1980: CCAMLR


1981: Regional conventions: WC Africa and SE Pacific;


1982: LOS Convention: integrates all others;

Institutional foundations (1)


1982: Protocol on Specially Protected Areas;


1985: IWC moratorium on whaling;


1985
-
1986: a number of regional seas conventions


1989: Basel Convention (
prior consent);


1989
-
1991: UNGA Res. on Large
-
Scale Pelagic Driftnet;


1989: Exxon Valdez oil spill


1990: North Pacific Marine Science Org. (PISCES);


1991: MARPOL Guidelines for PSSAs;


1992: UNCED Declaration and Agenda 21;


1992: Convention on Biological Diversity;


1994: Code on Introductions and Transfers of Marine
Organisms;


Institutional foundations (2)


1994: Antarctic whale sanctuary;


1995: Global Programme of Action (GPA);


1995: UN Fish Stock Agreement;


1995: Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries;


1997: International Guidelines for Ballast Water;


1999: ITLOS and Pacific Southern Bluefin Tuna


1999
-
2001 FAO International Plans of Action (IPOAs)


2001: FAO Reykjavik Conference


Institutional foundations (3)

EAF and the Code of Conduct

Institutional foundations

The Code provides for:


“Due respect to the ecosystem”;


the role of environmental factors;


minimizing impacts of fisheries;


facing impacts of other users, pollution;


habitat protection;


maintenance, safeguard of biodiversity;

EAF and the Code of Conduct

Institutional foundations

The Code provides for:


protection of dependent, associated species;


protection of endangered species;


rehabilitation / maintenance of populations


Integration of fisheries management in CAM


better selectivity, minimization of discards


reduction of gear loss and ghost fishing,


uncertainty, risk and precaution


Conclusions


environmental concern: at least 30 years ago;


2 “old” paradigms: fisheries and ecosystems;


2 processes and sets of institutions;


2 sets of tools: capacity control and MPAs;


Recognition of limitations and complementarity;


The Code of Conduct at the junction

Implications for West Africa


Governments are globally aware of the problem


Pollution is still low


Regional cooperation has improved (CSRP, SIAP)


There is a nucleus of trained scientists


Laws have already evolved in some countries


presence of foreign fleets


Others?

Conclusions

Positive

factors:

Negative
factors:

Implications for West Africa


Incomplete knowledge of resources and environment


Limited human and financial resources


Complexity of small
-
scale fisheries (capacity reduction)


Presence of foreign fleets


Absence of formal fishing rights


Little experience with the precautionary approach


Low participation of fisheries authorities to WTO negotiations


No cooperation between RFMOs and RECs


Little experience in ICAM


Little transparency and participation in decision
-
making


Globalization (market demand, subsidies)


Population growth


Poverty and food deficiency (low discount rate)


Decreasing ODA

Conclusions

Concluding remarks


Most factors are relevant to sustainable
development of fisheries in general and not
specific to EAF. They needed to be faced
anyway!


Effectively implementing the Code of
Conduct will come very close to
implementing an EAF;


West Africa may be facing a difficult
challenge. It it is not much behind developed
countries but it needs collaboration and
resources.



Implications for W. Africa

The ecosystem approach to
fisheries: rationale, history and
institutional foundations


Tentative implications for West Africa