the Caribbean Perspective

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Workshops of the Americas Targets and Solutions Groups

on the road to the

6
th

World Water Forum

Mexico City, Mexico

September 7


8
th

2011

Theme: Integrated Water Resources
Management


the Caribbean Perspective

Dr. Christopher Cox

Programme Director

Caribbean Environmental Health Institute

St. Lucia

Presentation outline


About the Caribbean Environmental
Health Institute


About the Caribbean


Status of water resources and challenges


Climate change challenges and impacts


Institutional reforms and capacity needs


Progress toward improved IWRM
governance in the Caribbean


About the Caribbean Environmental
Health Institute (CEHI)


CEHI was established by the
Governments of the Caribbean
Community (CARICOM) in the late
1980’s to respond to the
Environmental Health and
Management concerns of its
Member States. Through CARICOM
Protocols it is an Institution of the
Community


Has 16 Member States including all
OECS countries


CEHI mandate


Located in St. Lucia


CEHI work derived from the following mandates:


Agreement Establishing CEHI: Environmental
Management focusing on Environmental Health;


Caribbean Cooperation in Health
-

Lead Agency for
EH priority: Water (water resources and WQ
Management), Solid and Liquid Waste & Excreta
Disposal and Workers' Health.


The Barbados SIDS/POA (1994) by Ministers of
Environment for Water and Waste Management


About the Caribbean


Type/geography: (coral,
volcanic, continental)


Size: 10,831 km
2

(Jamaica)
-

102 km
2

(Montserrat)


Demographics:


Total pop. can vary from 42,000
(St. Kitts/Nevis)

2,627,000
(Jamaica)


Urban pop. can vary from 34%
(St. Kitts)


89% (Bahamas)


Pop. under 14 can span 20%
(Barbados)


37% (St. Vincent)



Biophysical aspects


Variable topography & geographical
characteristics


Lesser Antilles
-

volcanic arc


Greater Antilles


mixed origin


Tropical marine climates
-

little temperature
variation throughout the year.


Individual climatic conditions strongly dependent
on elevation.



Rainfall is variable from country to country; rainfall
variation within countries


Maximum annual


between 3,000 to 7,000 mm in
interior areas; minimum annual 1,000 to 1,500 mm


Water availability is influenced by the topography;
bulk of rainfall during June to December


hurricane season


Dominica annual
rainfall distribution

Socio
-
Economic aspects


Open and vulnerable economies,


Limited diversity in production,


Exports concentrated on a few
products,


Thin markets, and high
transportation costs


Transformation away from
agriculture


light manufacturing
and tourism

Status of water resources


Water supply


Surface (rivers, springs, ponds)


dominant overall


Groundwater


drier islands/karstic environments


Desalination
-

drier, more populous islands


Rainwater harvesting


micro
-
islands; isolated communities


Internal Renewable Water Resources (IRWR) (source: FAO)


Antigua & Barbuda


800 m3/capita/yr


Bahamas
-

66 m3/capita/yr


Barbados


301 m3/capita/yr


Jamaica


3,651 m3/capita/yr


Main demand sectors:


Tourism


Agriculture


Industry


Residential


Hydroelectricity

Jamaica

Bahamas

Antigua &

Barbuda

Barbados

Water resources management
challenges


Uneven rainfall distribution, periodic
drought conditions;


Vulnerability to hurricane / flood
damage


Poor and aging water distribution and
sanitary system networks


Undercapitalization


limited cost recovery;


Land
-
based pollution
-

poor solid and
liquid waste management &
unsustainable land management


associated with localized high population
densities/rapid urbanisation; land
degradation


Improper utilization of agro
-
chemicals

Water resources management
challenges


Institutional and regulatory frameworks not ideal


General absence of national “apex” bodies
-

core mandate for
comprehensive management of water resources;


Inadequate national water laws to protect and preserve the
resources;


Multiple agencies for management of water resources;
fragmentation


Water not valued as an economic good


Low level of priority; only regarded during times of emergency


Cost recovery


Inadequate data to make informed decisions




Water service efficiency issues


Access to water exceeds 90% in most Caribbean states
(exception


Haiti); generally meet or close to national
targets for service coverage


Municipal systems piped to households


Communal standpipes


Key issues related to efficiencies:


Variable achievement of potable WQ standards (WHO guideline
commonly used)


Spatially and temporally


Of concern


drought and extreme weather events associated with
hurricanes


High unaccounted for water


range between 30 to 50%


Aged infrastructure


Illegal connections


Financial resource constraints


Sanitation services


Generally, improved sanitation is available in most
communities; exceptions


very rural communities;
significant challenges n Haiti


Septic tank and soak
-
away/leachfields


Most common for domestic application


Pit latrines


Formerly common prior to municipal water supply; still used in
lower income communities


Centralized municipal wastewater systems


Mainly in major urban centres


challenges of treatment; often
primary treatment or near raw discharge



Small
-
scale dedicated WW treatment systems


Hotels and industrial plants


Sanitation and wastewater discharge issues

Pollution of Caribbean Sea


85% of wastewater untreated


51.5% of households lack
connections


central systems


17% connected to acceptable
connections


< 2% of urban sewage treated
before disposal


Outfalls often located close to shore;
sewage plants poorly functioning


Significant public risk and
environmental degradation


Greywater discharge is major
concern


Environmental impacts
-

eutrophication

Fall out….


Long
-
term diminished economic benefits;
reduced market value; loss of competitive
advantage


Dive sites


Beaches; hotel development


Fisheries


Implications for local and national
economy


High relevance in consideration of global
economy and climate change threats


Climate Change Challenges


CC will force additional stresses


Caribbean climate modeling predictions:


Likely experience changes in patterns of rainfall
accumulation and distribution, overall trend to less
annual rainfall


25 to 30% reduction


more extreme events in the form of intense
hurricanes and severe droughts.


Serious implications for water security


Reduced rainfall; reduced aquifer recharge rates


impact surface and ground and surface water supply


Critical on water
-
scarce islands


Shallow ground water aquifers could be impacted by
sea
-
level rise through saline intrusion
-

Bahamas,
Barbados


Storm damage to infrastructure and contamination:
landslides, floods


Threat in all islands


Sea
-
level rise


Salt water intrusion

Institutional reforms


Designation of apex water resource management bodies


Clear mandate for coordination of actions


IWRM framework


Capacities to effectively operate under emergency situations


Separation of water service provision and regulatory
functions


In many countries the water service providers are water resource
managers by statute; hampers integrative CC adaptation


Some progress being made; legal revisions


Limited financial resources


governments unlikely to
significant resources in new institutional structures


issue in smaller countries


Redeployment of existing personnel / retooling of skills


Strengthen existing agencies to provide needed support


Seek out new opportunities for financing


Institutional capacity needs


Sensor installation and maintenance for water
volume monitoring


Resource Modeling for water abstraction


Resource Modeling and Risk Assessment for
early warning system (drought and flood)
management


Land degradation research and assessment
methods


Database development and management


Legislation and Regulation Review and
Development

Institutional capacity needs


Water Pricing Structure development and
management


Development of payment for environmental
services schemes


National natural resources/environmental macro
economics


Project planning and management methods


Public education and outreach methods


Negotiation, arbitration, conflict resolution,
alternative dispute resolution methods and
procedures

Progress
-

IWRM governance


GEF
-
IWCAM Project contributed toward advances in IWRM
governance


Climate change adaptation heavily featured


Jamaica


National water sector plan exists; advanced IWRM governance
processes


dialogues supported by Project


Barbados; Grenada; St. Lucia; St. Vincent & Grenadines


IWRM roadmaps developed (STL has national policy)


Antigua & Barbuda


Roadmap and national policy developed


Dominica


National water policy formulated


Cuba; Bahamas; St.
Kitts
& Nevis; Trinidad & Tobago


National dialogues


charting future course


Status in
select

countries


National water governance/regulation at
state/governmental level


resource mgmt; regulaton


Jamaica; St. Lucia; Cuba


Statutory national apex bodes for overall water resources
management


Grenada; St. Vincent & Grenadines; Antigua & Barbuda;
Trinidad & Tobago


Apex bodes being considered; mainly emerging from national water
utility bodies


There exists variable capacity (within countries) for water
quality regulation by Ministries of Health


Non
-
state participation


Considered to be generally weak


community based
organizations; water users groups are stronger in some
countries eg Jamaica




Regional support to IWRM


Caribbean Water & Wastewater Association (CWWA)


Association of professionals; water utility membership


Caribbean Water & Sewerage Association (CAWASA)


Association of water utilities of several countries


Main focus on capacity building for operators


Caribbean Environmental Health Institute (CEHI)


Support to national
-
level IWRM governance


Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH)


Resource assessment and monitoring for water


Global Water Partnership


Caribbean (GWP
-
C)


Main focus on capacity building


various


Have been efforts to be consolidate a regional framework for water
resources management through the Caribbean Community
Secretariat


Progress as been slow


Thank You…Questions

Caribbean Environmental Health Institute

P.O. Box 1111, The Morne

Castries, St. Lucia

Tel: 758 452
-
2501

Fax: 758 453
-
2721

E
-
mail:
cehi@candw.lc

Web: www.cehi.org.lc