Sustainable Construction Kate Mills


Nov 8, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)


Sustainable Construction

Kate Mills

Principal Consultant, Sustainable Development

BRE Scotland, East Kilbride

“Meeting the Needs” 2002

Sustainable development is about holistic thinking and
promoting integration rather than about making trade

It will not be achieved simply by weighing competing
demands in the balance. It is not a matter of economic
development versus environment but of development
based on proper management of environmental resources
and consideration of full life cycle impacts and costs.

We are committed to development but it must be
development which both protects our environment and
enhances our quality of life.”

National Planning Framework for Scotland 2004

“The Executive is committed to integrating the principles of
sustainable development into all of its policies.”

“Action is required to address the threat posed by climate
change and on the sourcing and use of materials and
waste recycling. There is a need to use resources more
efficiently, reduce energy consumption and CO2
emissions, and develop renewable sources of energy. We
need to move towards more environmentally sustainable
and socially inclusive modes and patterns of transport.”

UK sustainable development strategy



Sustainable consumption and

Climate Change and Energy

Protection of Natural Resources
& Environment enhancement

Creating sustainable

And three key themes:

Involving people

Government leading by

Getting serious about delivery

One future

different paths

The UK’s shared framework for sustainable
development 2005

“The goal of sustainable development is to enable all people
throughout the world to satisfy their basic needs and enjoy
a better quality of life without compromising the quality of
life of future generations.”

“that goal will be pursued in an integrated way through a
sustainable, innovative and productive economy that
delivers high levels of employment, and a just society that
promotes social inclusion, sustainable communities and
personal well
being. This will be done in ways that protect
and enhance the physical and natural environment, and
use resources and energy as efficiently as possible.”

Scottish Executive Guidance “Choosing Our Future:
Scotland’s Sustainable Development Strategy”

Dec 2005

Ch 12: Making the Links: Built Environment

Principles applied through building regs

Scottish Executive Construction Procurement Manual

Sustainable Development section of website

Nov 05

Applies if audited by Auditor General for Scotland

10% of total value of materials used in projects over £1m
should derive from recycled or re
used content

Targets for energy consumption

Targets for water consumption

Targets for waste management

Scottish Executive Construction Procurement Manual

Sustainable Development section of website

Nov 05

Targets for construction pollution

Use of BREEAM or similar

Take account of current future govnt legislation

Take account of views of stakeholders

Supply team should give evidence of
knowledge/competence of sustainable construction

Planning (Scotland) Act 2006

3D Sustainable development: exercise of functions by
Scottish Ministers

(1) This section applies to the Scottish Ministers in the
exercise of their functions

of preparing and revising the National Planning

(2) The Scottish Ministers must exercise those functions
with the objective of

contributing to sustainable development.

Planning etc. (Scotland) Act 2006

3E Sustainable development

(1) This section applies to a planning authority in the exercise
of any function under this Part.

Part 2

Development plans

(2) The planning authority must exercise the function with the
objective of contributing to sustainable development.

(3) The Scottish Ministers may issue guidance to a planning
authority for the purposes of this section and that authority
must have regard to any guidance so issued.

Building Regulations 2007

Revised tougher Building Regs 2007

energy and
environment sections

Ongoing revisions to support policy documents

Climate Change Bill 2007

On June 21 2007, the Cabinet Secretary for Finance and
Sustainable Growth, John Swinney announced that the
Scottish Government would consult on a Climate Change
Bill to set a mandatory target of cutting emissions by 80%
by 2050.

The Scottish Government hopes to introduce a draft
Scottish Climate Change Bill to Parliament before the end
of 2008.

EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive


Minimum energy performance standards for new blgs and
large existing blgs subject to major renovation

Energy performance certificates

Provided to prospective purchaser/tenant

Prominent display of the energy certificate in all public buildings and
institutions providing public services

Low Carbon Building Standards Strategy for


New buildings

Net zero carbon buildings by 2016


values and airtightness standards to match those of
Nordic countries by 2010

“Total life” zero carbon buildings by 2030

Existing buildings

Developing practical performance standards for
existing buildings (aligned with EPC’s)

Guidance on Planning and Sustainable
Development Consultation Paper 2007

Planning’s Contribution

Location of new development

Assess the potential of existing settlements to
accommodate further development and regeneration

Promote urban regeneration

Promote rural development and regeneration

Reduce the need to travel and encourage public transport

Encourage re
use of existing buildings

Promote efficient use of land through higher density dev

Maintain and enhance open space

Guidance on Planning and Sustainable
Development Consultation Paper 2007

Protect and enhance the cultural heritage

Prevent further development with significant flood risk

Consider long
term impacts on coastal areas

Consider energy systems on a strategic basis

Manage waste effectively

Conserve air quality

Take account of the capacity of existing infrastructure

Guidance on Planning and Sustainable
Development Consultation Paper 2007



Energy efficiency

Water efficiency

Waste reduction


Building materials and performance

Achieving a Low Carbon Future 2008

Work underway to consider the first stage of reducing
carbon emissions by 2010 inline with Sullivan Report.

Consultation in Spring 09 on improving building regs

Scottish Govnt leading by example

50% renewable electricity by 2020

Removal of barriers for microgeneration

Planning Policy Docs

Designing Places: a policy statement on design 2001 and
Building our Legacy 2007

SPP1: The Planning System

SPP3: Planning for Housing

SPP6: Renewable Energy

SPP7: Planning and Flooding

SPP17: Planning for Transport

NPPG14: Natural Heritage

Annex to PAN 45: Planning for micro

Other drivers

Scottish Sustainable Communities Initiative

Corporate social responsibility


climate change and risk

Consultation on Carbon Reduction Commitment (carbon
trading scheme schools/NHS likely to be included)

Other bodies

Scottish Funding Council all new major capital projects
must achieve BREEAM Excellent

Supplementary Planning Guidance from Local Authorities

NHS Scotland looking to achieve BREEAM Health
excellent on all new builds

The Scottish Govnt Health
Directorates support that from July 2008 all new BREEAM
healthcare blgs must achieve an Excellent rating and very
good for refurbished.

What is sustainable construction

Long life, loose fit

Places, communities where people want to live and work

Buildings well built and maintained

Flexible adaptable buildings

Reduce demand for energy, water

Reduce waste


Whole life cost decisions


Economically sustainable

Lessons learnt?

Lessons learnt
1980’s Estate

Public spaces


Flexibility and future proofing:

Average residency is 7 years

Length of residency increases with age (require less mobility)

People often have to move to increase the size of their family

frequently move locally

Less well off tends to mean less mobile

Importance of garden increases and then decreases with age

91% of single pensioners and 53% of pensioner couples do not own a
car and are dependent on public transport

Turn over of housing stock

Embedded energy and water in materials

Climate change

Stewart Milne’s

Sigma Home

Code Level 5


Three bedroom house

Split floor design

Closed panel timber frame

Wall U value: 0.15

Bathroom pods

Windturbines, solar water
heating and PV panels

Dupont’s Energain system

The Osborne House

The Osborne House

designed to comply with Housing Corporation Scheme
design standards and Lifetime Homes

requires just one
third of the energy for heating and
cooling required by a house constructed to the 2006
Building Regulations.

airtight to one
tenth of the 2007 Building Regulations and
has a whole house heat recovery system.

The house achieves a 40 per cent improvement on target
carbon emissions as assessed in the 2006 Building

The Osborne House

Siberian larch has been used to clad the front of the
house, with recycled plastic slates to the side, Eternit
boarding to the rear, and a zinc finish to the roof,
permeable paving

heat recovery ventilation system, under floor heating using
hot water circulation, electric skirting board heating, low
use sanitary ware and temperature control taps.

Smart technology is used throughout, including a data
delivery system showing energy consumption, live public
transport information and the ability to manage an on
car club.

The Barratt Green House

The Barratt Green House

Designed to meet both level six of the Code for
Sustainable Homes and the Government's criteria for zero
stamp duty

won the 2007 Home for the Future Design Award, run by
the Mail on Sunday. Architects had been invited to design
a home that would have excellent sustainability
credentials, excellent design qualities and be buildable by
a mainstream volume builder


Great Glen House Inverness


Great Glen House Inverness


Good advice at the start

Sustainability expertise as part of core team


Choice and use of procurement method?

Site and transport


Writing the brief

Quantifiable benchmarks

Reporting requirements

Environmental Management System

Monitoring strategy

The process

Use the procurement method

Measurable benchmarks

Selection of developer

Evaluation process and interviews

Monitoring and reporting

Environmental policy

Environmental Management System

Monthly reporting by constructor


Considerate Constructors Scheme

Client monitoring

Eastside Locks, Birmingham

Eastside Locks, Birmingham

Eastside Locks, part of Eastside,15.24 acres alongside the
new Learning and Leisure Quarter and the proposed City

55,000 sq m of Class B1 office/science and technology


Leisure and amenity uses


High quality public space

Car parking

Eastside Locks, Birmingham

Sustainable Development Framework




Eastside Locks, Birmingham

Putting a price on sustainability

BRE/Cyril Sweett

Many sustainability measures can be implemented at little
or no additional cost

Cost increase significantly if sustainability advice is
received too late

Site conditions have major impact on achieving Very Good
or Excellent rating

Effective management ensuring all low cost options are

Low or no
cost options at design stage:

Water efficient appliances

Timber procured sustainably

Considerate Constructors Scheme

Low energy lighting

Enhanced thermal performance through insulation

Avoiding a/c, use of mechanical or passive ventilation

‘Putting a price on Sustainability’

Naturally Ventilated Office

‘Putting a price on Sustainability’


% increase in capital cost for a secondary school to
achieve Pass, Good Very Good and Excellent BREEAM

BRE/Faithful Gould 2008

% increase in capital cost to achieve a Pass/Good/ Very
Good/ Excellent


score and
rating for
base case



Very Good














Key points to a higher BREEAM rating

Acquire knowledge of BREEAM

Build relationship with Assessor over several projects

Present a clear definition of responsibilities at the design
team mtgs

Obtain clear pre
assessment advice

Bring the Assessor in at an early stage to influence design

Draw up RIBA Stage B strategic brief preparation

Advise on site choices/transport facilities


SBSA Research

SBSA Report

Other factors


Sick buildings

Retention of staff

Future proofing

Climate Change



Operational costs

Whole life cost

Social value