Sustainable Construction Kate Mills

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Sustainable Construction

Kate Mills

Principal Consultant, Sustainable Development

BRE Scotland, East Kilbride

millsk@bre.co.uk

“Meeting the Needs” 2002



Sustainable development is about holistic thinking and
promoting integration rather than about making trade
-
offs.



It will not be achieved simply by weighing competing
demands in the balance. It is not a matter of economic
development versus environment but of development
based on proper management of environmental resources
and consideration of full life cycle impacts and costs.



We are committed to development but it must be
development which both protects our environment and
enhances our quality of life.”

National Planning Framework for Scotland 2004

“The Executive is committed to integrating the principles of
sustainable development into all of its policies.”


“Action is required to address the threat posed by climate
change and on the sourcing and use of materials and
waste recycling. There is a need to use resources more
efficiently, reduce energy consumption and CO2
emissions, and develop renewable sources of energy. We
need to move towards more environmentally sustainable
and socially inclusive modes and patterns of transport.”

UK sustainable development strategy
-

March
2005

Priorities:



Sustainable consumption and
production


Climate Change and Energy


Protection of Natural Resources
& Environment enhancement


Creating sustainable
communities

And three key themes:


Involving people


Government leading by
example


Getting serious about delivery


One future


different paths

The UK’s shared framework for sustainable
development 2005

“The goal of sustainable development is to enable all people
throughout the world to satisfy their basic needs and enjoy
a better quality of life without compromising the quality of
life of future generations.”

“that goal will be pursued in an integrated way through a
sustainable, innovative and productive economy that
delivers high levels of employment, and a just society that
promotes social inclusion, sustainable communities and
personal well
-
being. This will be done in ways that protect
and enhance the physical and natural environment, and
use resources and energy as efficiently as possible.”

Scottish Executive Guidance “Choosing Our Future:
Scotland’s Sustainable Development Strategy”





Dec 2005



Ch 12: Making the Links: Built Environment




Principles applied through building regs


Scottish Executive Construction Procurement Manual
-

Sustainable Development section of website


Nov 05


Applies if audited by Auditor General for Scotland


10% of total value of materials used in projects over £1m
should derive from recycled or re
-
used content


Targets for energy consumption


Targets for water consumption


Targets for waste management




Scottish Executive Construction Procurement Manual
-

Sustainable Development section of website


Nov 05


Targets for construction pollution


Use of BREEAM or similar


Take account of current future govnt legislation


Take account of views of stakeholders


Supply team should give evidence of
knowledge/competence of sustainable construction


Planning (Scotland) Act 2006


3D Sustainable development: exercise of functions by
Scottish Ministers


(1) This section applies to the Scottish Ministers in the
exercise of their functions


of preparing and revising the National Planning
Framework.


(2) The Scottish Ministers must exercise those functions
with the objective of


contributing to sustainable development.

Planning etc. (Scotland) Act 2006


3E Sustainable development

(1) This section applies to a planning authority in the exercise
of any function under this Part.

Part 2

Development plans

(2) The planning authority must exercise the function with the
objective of contributing to sustainable development.

(3) The Scottish Ministers may issue guidance to a planning
authority for the purposes of this section and that authority
must have regard to any guidance so issued.

Building Regulations 2007


Revised tougher Building Regs 2007


energy and
environment sections


Ongoing revisions to support policy documents

Climate Change Bill 2007
-
2008


On June 21 2007, the Cabinet Secretary for Finance and
Sustainable Growth, John Swinney announced that the
Scottish Government would consult on a Climate Change
Bill to set a mandatory target of cutting emissions by 80%
by 2050.



The Scottish Government hopes to introduce a draft
Scottish Climate Change Bill to Parliament before the end
of 2008.

EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive


Requires:


Minimum energy performance standards for new blgs and
large existing blgs subject to major renovation


Energy performance certificates


Provided to prospective purchaser/tenant


Prominent display of the energy certificate in all public buildings and
institutions providing public services


Low Carbon Building Standards Strategy for
Scotland
-

2007


New buildings


Net zero carbon buildings by 2016


2017


U
-
values and airtightness standards to match those of
Nordic countries by 2010


“Total life” zero carbon buildings by 2030


Existing buildings


Developing practical performance standards for
existing buildings (aligned with EPC’s)






Guidance on Planning and Sustainable
Development Consultation Paper 2007

Planning’s Contribution


Location of new development


Assess the potential of existing settlements to
accommodate further development and regeneration


Promote urban regeneration


Promote rural development and regeneration


Reduce the need to travel and encourage public transport


Encourage re
-
use of existing buildings


Promote efficient use of land through higher density dev


Maintain and enhance open space


Guidance on Planning and Sustainable
Development Consultation Paper 2007


Protect and enhance the cultural heritage


Prevent further development with significant flood risk


Consider long
-
term impacts on coastal areas


Consider energy systems on a strategic basis


Manage waste effectively


Conserve air quality


Take account of the capacity of existing infrastructure

Guidance on Planning and Sustainable
Development Consultation Paper 2007

Buildings:


Accessibility


Energy efficiency


Water efficiency


Waste reduction


Lifecycles


Building materials and performance


Achieving a Low Carbon Future 2008


Work underway to consider the first stage of reducing
carbon emissions by 2010 inline with Sullivan Report.


Consultation in Spring 09 on improving building regs
compliance


Scottish Govnt leading by example


50% renewable electricity by 2020


Removal of barriers for microgeneration

Planning Policy Docs


Designing Places: a policy statement on design 2001 and
Building our Legacy 2007


SPP1: The Planning System


SPP3: Planning for Housing


SPP6: Renewable Energy


SPP7: Planning and Flooding


SPP17: Planning for Transport


NPPG14: Natural Heritage


Annex to PAN 45: Planning for micro
-
renewables





Other drivers


Scottish Sustainable Communities Initiative


Corporate social responsibility


Insurance


climate change and risk


Consultation on Carbon Reduction Commitment (carbon
trading scheme schools/NHS likely to be included)


Other bodies


Scottish Funding Council all new major capital projects
must achieve BREEAM Excellent


Supplementary Planning Guidance from Local Authorities


NHS Scotland looking to achieve BREEAM Health
excellent on all new builds


The Scottish Govnt Health
Directorates support that from July 2008 all new BREEAM
healthcare blgs must achieve an Excellent rating and very
good for refurbished.

What is sustainable construction


Long life, loose fit


Places, communities where people want to live and work


Buildings well built and maintained


Flexible adaptable buildings


Reduce demand for energy, water


Reduce waste


Social


Whole life cost decisions


Efficient


Economically sustainable



Lessons learnt?

Lessons learnt
-
1980’s Estate

Public spaces
-

Manchester

Flexibility and future proofing:


Average residency is 7 years
(home.co.uk)
.


Length of residency increases with age (require less mobility)


People often have to move to increase the size of their family


but
frequently move locally
(JRF)


Less well off tends to mean less mobile


Importance of garden increases and then decreases with age


91% of single pensioners and 53% of pensioner couples do not own a
car and are dependent on public transport
(DFT)


Turn over of housing stock


Embedded energy and water in materials


Climate change



Stewart Milne’s

Sigma Home


Code Level 5


Design


Three bedroom house


Split floor design


Closed panel timber frame
system


Wall U value: 0.15


Bathroom pods


Windturbines, solar water
heating and PV panels


Dupont’s Energain system





The Osborne House


The Osborne House


designed to comply with Housing Corporation Scheme
design standards and Lifetime Homes


requires just one
-
third of the energy for heating and
cooling required by a house constructed to the 2006
Building Regulations.


airtight to one
-
tenth of the 2007 Building Regulations and
has a whole house heat recovery system.


The house achieves a 40 per cent improvement on target
carbon emissions as assessed in the 2006 Building
Regulations.

The Osborne House


Siberian larch has been used to clad the front of the
house, with recycled plastic slates to the side, Eternit
boarding to the rear, and a zinc finish to the roof,
permeable paving


heat recovery ventilation system, under floor heating using
hot water circulation, electric skirting board heating, low
use sanitary ware and temperature control taps.


Smart technology is used throughout, including a data
delivery system showing energy consumption, live public
transport information and the ability to manage an on
-
site
car club.

The Barratt Green House

The Barratt Green House


Designed to meet both level six of the Code for
Sustainable Homes and the Government's criteria for zero
stamp duty



won the 2007 Home for the Future Design Award, run by
the Mail on Sunday. Architects had been invited to design
a home that would have excellent sustainability
credentials, excellent design qualities and be buildable by
a mainstream volume builder

Offices


Great Glen House Inverness

Offices


Great Glen House Inverness

Procurement


Good advice at the start


Sustainability expertise as part of core team


Budget


Choice and use of procurement method?


Site and transport


Orientation


Writing the brief


Quantifiable benchmarks


Reporting requirements


Environmental Management System


Monitoring strategy



The process


Use the procurement method


Measurable benchmarks


Selection of developer


Evaluation process and interviews

Monitoring and reporting


Environmental policy


Environmental Management System


Monthly reporting by constructor


Use of BREEAM


Considerate Constructors Scheme


Client monitoring


Eastside Locks, Birmingham

Eastside Locks, Birmingham


Eastside Locks, part of Eastside,15.24 acres alongside the
new Learning and Leisure Quarter and the proposed City
Park


55,000 sq m of Class B1 office/science and technology
uses


Residential


Leisure and amenity uses


Hotels


High quality public space


Car parking

Eastside Locks, Birmingham


Sustainable Development Framework


Contract


Targets


Process


Eastside Locks, Birmingham

Putting a price on sustainability


BRE/Cyril Sweett
2005


Many sustainability measures can be implemented at little
or no additional cost


Cost increase significantly if sustainability advice is
received too late


Site conditions have major impact on achieving Very Good
or Excellent rating


Effective management ensuring all low cost options are
met

Low or no
-
cost options at design stage:


Water efficient appliances


Timber procured sustainably


Considerate Constructors Scheme


Low energy lighting


Enhanced thermal performance through insulation


Avoiding a/c, use of mechanical or passive ventilation


‘Putting a price on Sustainability’


Naturally Ventilated Office

‘Putting a price on Sustainability’



Ecohomes

% increase in capital cost for a secondary school to
achieve Pass, Good Very Good and Excellent BREEAM
schools


BRE/Faithful Gould 2008

% increase in capital cost to achieve a Pass/Good/ Very
Good/ Excellent

Location

BREEAM
score and
rating for
base case
school

Pass

Good

Very Good

Excellent

Good

21.1
unclassified

0.0

0.2

0.8

3.9

Poor

12.8
unclassified

0.1

0.5

2.7

4.4


Key points to a higher BREEAM rating


Acquire knowledge of BREEAM


Build relationship with Assessor over several projects


Present a clear definition of responsibilities at the design
team mtgs


Obtain clear pre
-
assessment advice


Bring the Assessor in at an early stage to influence design
process


Draw up RIBA Stage B strategic brief preparation


Advise on site choices/transport facilities

Costings


SBSA Research

SBSA Report
-

www.sbsa.gov.uk/research/turtow.htm

Other factors


Productivity


Sick buildings


Retention of staff


Future proofing


Climate Change


Insurance


Saleability


Operational costs


Whole life cost


Social value