Module 0: A backround in environmental science and management

tubacitychiropractorManagement

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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EMAS Technical Implementation and Verification

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A Background In Environmental Science & Management

Project

ETIV


EMAS TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION
AND VERIFICATION



Prepared by
:


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A Background In Environmental Science & Management

This project has been funded with support from the
European Commission. This publication

reflects the views
only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held
responsible for any use which may be made of the
information contained therein.

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A Background In Environmental Science & Management

A BACKGROUND IN
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &
MANAGEMENT

1) Environmental Issues of Today

2) Environmental Science & Management


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A Background In Environmental Science & Management

1. Environmental Issues of Today

1.1. THE SETTING

1.2. THE ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

1.3. THE GLOBAL CLIMATE

1.4. TECHNOLOGY AND ENERGY

1.5. THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

1.6. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Content

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A Background In Environmental Science & Management

2. Environmental Science & Management (1)

2.1. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS & THEORY

2.2. GAIA HYPOTHESIS

2.3. ENTROPY AND THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

2.4. THE USE OF ENERGY

2.5. MATERIAL FLOW & LIFE
-
CYCLE ANALYSIS

2.6. ECOLOGY, ECOSYSTEMS & BIODIVERSITY

Content

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A Background In Environmental Science & Management

2. Environmental Science & Management (2)

2.7. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY


THE CYCLING OF


NUTRIENTS IN THE BIOSPHERE

2.8. ENERGY, ELEMENTS & CYCLES

2.9. SUMMARY


Content

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A Background In Environmental Science & Management

A BACKGROUND IN
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &
MANAGEMENT

1) Environmental Issues of Today

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A Background In Environmental Science & Management

1. Environmental Issues of Today



The role of the environment as a global


resource and support system



Environmental, political and social change



Globalisation (economic, cultural)



Development of environmental awareness

The Setting (1)

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1. Environmental Issues of Today



Imbalance of wealth



Unequal natural resources distribution



Scarcity of resources



Changes in social and cultural patterns



Hedonism & consumerism


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Quality of life


-

‘life styles’

The Setting (2)

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1. Environmental Issues of Today



Ethical values



Equilibrium and the need for sustainable


development strategies



The Earth Summit
(Rio de Janeiro 1992)



The Precautionary Principle

The Setting (3)

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A Background In Environmental Science & Management

1. Environmental Issues of Today



Human population growth



Carrying capacity


The Ecological Challenge (1)

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A Background In Environmental Science & Management

World Population Growth

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A Background In Environmental Science & Management

1. Environmental Issues of Today



The development of the science of ecology



Ecosystem context



‘Environmentalists’



The Ecological Challenge (2)

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1. Environmental Issues of Today



Companies and firms as intermediaries of


resource consumption



Primary industries


(e.g. mining, agriculture, forestry, fishing)



Manufacturing industries
(e.g. provisions, equipment)



Service industries
(e.g. telecommunications)

The Ecological Challenge (3)

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1. Environmental Issues of Today



Impacts through development



Infrastructure
(e.g. harbours, roads, bridges, airports)



Waste management
(e.g. solid, liquid, gaseous)



Nuclear Waste



Nimbyism



Not in my backyard”


The Ecological Challenge (4)

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1. Environmental Issues of Today



Global warming



Climate change



Kyoto Protocol



Role of exhaust gases
(e.g. CFC, NO
x
, SO
x
)



Ozone layer



Greenhouse effect


The Global Climate

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1. Environmental Issues of Today



New technologies


friend or foe?



Fossil fuels
(oil, gas, coal)



Alternative energy sources
(geothermal, solar, wind,


wave, CHP, fuel cells)



Energy efficiency & conservation



Renewable energies
(biomass, e.g. wood, fibres)

Technology & Energy

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1. Environmental Issues of Today



Deforestation



Erosion and desertification



Wilderness areas



Integrated land use & coastal zone


management



Environmental management

The Natural Environment

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1. Environmental Issues of Today



Meeting the needs of the present generation without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet
their own needs”
(G H Brundtland)

Sustainable Development (1)

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A Background In Environmental Science & Management

1. Environmental Issues of Today



The 4 Pillars
(economics, environment, sociology, governance)



Dependence on:



a fair global society and



efficient distribution of resources


Sustainable Development (2)

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1. Environmental Issues of Today



Externalities
(Triple Bottom Line Accounting)



Humans as an integral component of the


global ecosystem



Sustainable Development (3)

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A Background In Environmental Science & Management

A BACKGROUND IN
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &
MANAGEMENT

2) Environmental Science & Management


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A Background In Environmental Science & Management

2. Environmental Science &
Management



Laws of natural science



Nature as a system


models for change



Reductionism
vs

Holism


Environmental Systems and Theory

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2. Environmental Science &
Management



The need for
Systems
-
thinking



Open and Closed Systems



Chaos Theory



Environmental Systems and Theory

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Inputs and Outputs in an Environmental System


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2. Environmental Science &
Management



Earth as a self
-
organising system



Uniformitarianism & the origin of the world



The noospheric paradigm


The GAIA Hypothesis

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2. Environmental Science &
Management



Life affects the planet



…for the benefit of Life



...and does so deliberately (?)


The GAIA Hypothesis

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2. Environmental Science &
Management

Entropy & the Laws of Thermodynamics



1
st

Law of Thermodynamics



Energy


䵡瑴敲t I渽O畴



2nd Law of Thermodynamics



From useful to less useful = inefficient





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2. Environmental Science &
Management

Entropy & the Laws of Thermodynamics



Entropy



negative entropy


creates order



positive entropy


creates disorder

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The Earth’s Thermodynamic System

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Supply & Demand



Efficiency, Conservation, Cogeneration



Alternatives and diversification



Material Flow



Life
-
Cycle Analysis

The Use of Energy

2. Environmental Science &
Management

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World Energy Consumption

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Growth of Utilisation of World Wind Capacity

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A Background In Environmental Science & Management



Supply & Demand



Efficiency, Conservation, Cogeneration



Alternatives and diversification



Material Flow



Life
-
Cycle Analysis

The Use of Energy

2. Environmental Science &
Management

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Generated Capacity of Electricity Output

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‘Cradle
-
to
-
Grave’



Eco
-
labelling



Resource
-
use efficiency



Strategic planning of production



Boundary

Material Flow & Life Cycle Analysis

2. Environmental Science &
Management

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Material Flow & Life Cycle Analysis

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Ecology & Ecosystems



Trophic chains and webs



Ecological pyramids



Biomass

-

numbers, energy flow

Ecology, Ecosystems & Biodiversity

2. Environmental Science &
Management

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Pyramid of Biomass

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Biodiversity



From genes to species



Extinction, mutation, selection, migration, genetic drift



Genetic
-
, habitat
-
, species diversity



Competition & mutual assistance



Symbiosis, parasitism



Ecology, Ecosystems & Biodiversity

2. Environmental Science &
Management

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Ecology, Ecosystems & Biodiversity

2. Environmental Science &
Management


Interactive processes


recognition, understanding,


management

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Rate of Human Population Growth & The Extinction of Species

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Cycling of Nutrients in the Biosphere



Sinks


Quantity & time, rate of transformation



Macro
-
Nutrients


e.g. carbon, hydrogen, oxygen ,


nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur



Micro
-
Nutrients


e.g. copper, molybdenum, boron


Biogeochemistry (1)

2. Environmental Science &
Management

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General Layout of Biogeochemical Cycle

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Hydrological Cycle



Role of organisms



Respiration



Photosynthesis

Biogeochemistry (2)

2. Environmental Science &
Management

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Hydrological Cycle

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Carbon Cycle



Role of organisms



Respiration



Photosynthesis

Biogeochemistry (3)

2. Environmental Science &
Management

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Global Carbon Cycle

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Carbon Cycle (Detail)

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Oxygen Cycle



autotrophs



heterotrophs

Biogeochemistry (4)

2. Environmental Science &
Management

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Nitrogen Cycle



Amino
-
acids and proteins



Role of organisms



Mutualistic associations



Different chemical compounds and pathways

Biogeochemistry (5)

2. Environmental Science &
Management

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Nitrogen Cycle

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Phosphorus Cycle



Cell processes



Phosphate



Sulphur Cycle



Sulphur dioxide



Role of bacteria

Biogeochemistry (6)

2. Environmental Science &
Management

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Phosphorus Cycle

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Energy, storage and chemical reactions



Availability



Storage



Human Intervention



Malfunctioning: e.g. algal blooms



Partial & complete loss

Energy, Elements & Cycles (1)

2. Environmental Science &
Management

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Global Cycle Of Chemical Elements

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Erosion & sedimentation



Availability of elements



Land use practices

Energy, Elements & Cycles (2)

2. Environmental Science &
Management

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Energy, Elements & Cycles (3)

2. Environmental Science &
Management



Technology



Re
-
design of processes


production & management


e.g. organic farming; paper
-
making.

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A BACKGROUND IN
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &
MANAGEMENT

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