Introduction to IWRM

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Introduction to IWRM

D. Thalmeinerova

based upon GWP ToolBox resources

Local, Regional, National, Fluvial, Global

Ancient


1200 A.D.



1900



1990s



Future

Community

Basic management

of water quantity

Sectoral

management

of water quantity and quality

institutional fragmentation

spatial fragmentation

local co
-
ordination

Integrated

multifunctional use

river basin as unit

institutionalised cooperation

Multi
-
level Comprehensive Governance

Before we start….


The basis of IWRM is that different uses of water are
interdependent



Integrated management means that all the different uses of
water resources are considered together

WATER CYCLE

Driving forces on water resources


Population growth
: demands for more water and producing more waste
water and pollution


Urbanization
: migration from rural to urban areas which increases the
current level of difficulty in water delivery and waste water treatment


Economic growth
: mainly in developing countries with large populations
contributes to increased demand for economic activities


Globalization of trade
: production is relocated to “labor
-
cheap” areas that
takes place without consideration for water resources




Climate variability
: more intense floods and droughts increase vulnerability
of people


Climate change
: increase uncertainty about water cycle regimes

IWRM concept is


an empirical concept which is built up from the on
-
the
-
ground experience of
practitioners,


a flexible approach to water management that can adapt to diverse national
and local contexts,


thus


it is not a scientific theory that needs to be proved or disproved by scholars.



and (but)


it requires policy
-
makers to make judgments about which set of
suggestions, reform measures, management tools and institutional
arrangements are most appropriate in a particular cultural, social, political,
economic and environmental context.

IWRM definition


IWRM is a process which promotes the
coordinated development and
management of water, land and related
resources, in order to maximize the
resultant economic and social welfare in
an equitable manner without
compromising the sustainability of vital
ecosystems.


GWP, TEC Background Paper No. 4:
Integrated Water Resources Management

IWRM:

What does it really mean?


More coordinated development and management of:


Land and water


Surface water and ground water


Upstream and downstream interests

Discussion questions
:

Who should propose measures to protect against floods?

Who should bear a cost to implement measures to mitigate
floods?

Key water resources management functions


Water allocation


Pollution control


Monitoring


Financial management


Flood and drought management


Information management


Basin planning


Stakeholder participation

IWRM

Three pillars of IWRM



Implementing IWRM process is a question of getting the “three
pillars” right:


1.
Moving towards enabling environment of appropriate policies, strategies
and legislation


2.
Putting in place the institutional framework (through which policies can be
implemented)


3.
Setting up the management instruments required by these institutions to do
their job


Areas of Change

A. Enabling environment

A1. Policies

A2. Legislation

A3. Financing & incentive structures

B. Institutional roles

B1. Creating an organization frameworks

B2. Institutional capacity building



C. Management instruments

C1. Water resources assessment

C2. Plans for IWRM

C3. Demand management

C4. Social change instrument

C5. Conflict resolution

C6. Regulatory instruments

C7. Economic instruments

C8. Information management

CHANGE AREAS

Environmental

Sustainability

Economic

Efficiency

Social Equity

CHANGES ARE MADE TO SEEK

TO REACH

SUSTAINABILITY

Managing competing uses

Water for
people

Water for

food

Water for
nature

Water for

other

uses

Cross
-
sectoral integration


Enabling
environment


Institutions


Management


instruments












Integrating across levels and sectors

National

Basin

Local

Fisheries

Envir
onme
nt

Tourism

Industry

Finance

Agriculture

Energy

Water

IWRM PRINCIPLES


Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain
life, development and the environment.


Water development and management should be based on a
participatory approach, involving users, planners and policymakers
at all levels.


Women play a central part in the provision, management and safe
-
guarding of water.


Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should
be recognized as an economic good as well as social good.


Dublin, 1992

IWRM Principles


Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain
life, development and the environment.


Respecting the basin


IWRM Principles


Water development and management should be based on a
participatory approach, involving users, planners and policymakers
at all levels.


Difficult to ensure “active involvement”


50



decision

200



work

2 000


participation

200 000


information

2 500 000


population

Pitfalls in putting IWRM into practice

Trying to establish management relations between too many
variables risks getting mired in complexity at the expense of
effectiveness
.

When putting IWRM into
practice it’s important to
think strategically about
where and to what degree
coordination and new
management instruments
are necessary.


IWRM Principles


Women play a central part
in the provision,
management and safe
-
guarding of water

IWRM Principles


Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be
recognized as an economic good as well as social good



Water is becoming scarcer and its value rising


Recognition that costs should be borne by those who benefit


Source: The Economist

Why IWRM?


Globally accepted and makes good sense.


Key element in national water policy.


Incorporates social and environmental considerations directly into policy and
decision making.


Directly involves the stakeholders.


Is a tool for optimizing investments under tight financing climate.

…in order to understand better “integrated” approach…


Traditional approach


One sector


Limited institutions involved


Decision making at one sector


Specific issues addressed


Specific interests solved


Sectoral allocation of funds


Integrated approach


Multi sectors


Various institutions involved


“collective” decision making


Complex issues addressed


Overriding interests solved


National allocation of funds

In order to understand better “integrated” approach

Traditional approach:


Hydrological/hydraulic


What is expected yield of the
catchment?


Engineering


How much water leaks from
the system?


How can leakage be reduced?


Management


What is the economic level of
leakage?

Integrated approach:


How will new investment be
agreed upon?


How can local management
structures balance competing
uses?


How will stakeholders negotiate
water rights in different conditions
of water availability (scarcity)?


How will consumers respond to
periodic water shortages or to
increasing environmental
concerns?

Lessons learnt

IWRM is not a fixed prescription but an iterative process
.

This means that the specific form
IWRM takes will vary from country to
country and from region to region.

It also means that
IWRM is an
inherently adaptive approach


one that can accommodate
emerging challenges,
constraints and changing
social priorities.

What tools from the IWRM arsenal are appropriate is
highly context
-
specific.


Although certain tools such as
water pricing and river basin
organisations have come to be
seen as pillars of IWRM, they are
not appropriate in every situation
and many of the successful
examples of IWRM in practice do
not include either.

The nature of IWRM: Lessons from IWRM in practice

How water is developed and managed must reflect
country
priorities (including environmental standards) and governance
approaches.

Water management will not be
successful if it is set up as a
stand
-
alone system of
governance and administration,
separate to the rest of
government.

The nature of IWRM: Lessons from IWRM in practice

IWRM includes both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ components:
the infrastructure
needed to harness water for productive use and protect from droughts
and floods and the institutions and management interventions needed
to ensure its efficient use, safeguard the resource and the ecosystems
that depend on it, and mediate between competing users and uses.


Examples: IWRM is linked to

key development issues

Key development issue

How IWRM helps

Example

Securing food production

Assists the efficient production of
food crops in irrigated
agriculture

FAO round table (2003, Rome)
agreed that all African
countries should improve
efficiency in irrigated
agriculture for food
production by adopting
IWRM approach

Reducing health risks

Better management of water
quality

UNECE Protocol on Water and
Health (2007) requires to set
health targets. Progress
towards IWRM has been
chosen as an indicator for
improved water management

Freshwater and coastal water

IWRM recognizes freshwater and
coastal zone as a continuum

Integrated Coastal Area and River
Basin Management (ICARM)
is endorsed by GWP as a basic
concept for the GEF projects
portfolio

Key development issue

How IWRM helps

Example

Mitigating disaster risks

Assists disaster
preparedness

WMO adopted IFM
approach within the
framework of IWRM in
2000

Planning transboundary
cooperation

Assists water management
of shared basins

ECOWAS adopted the West
African Regional Action
Plan for IWRM in 2000.
The IWRM is a
framework for
transboundary Niger,
Volta and Senegal rivers

Adapting to climate change

Assist appropriate planning
of water use with better
resilience

IPCC emphasizes IWRM
approach that is based
on the concepts of
flexibility and
adaptability

Critical elements for successful IWRM
approach


Political will (at highest possible level)


Knowledge (not science alone, but through multi
-
sector sources
of information and expertise)


Institutional arrangements (start with existing institutions, but
(re)
-
define mandates clearly)


Community involvement (it takes time to put it in place and it is
a long
-
term, investment)


Economic prosperity (difficult to manage without financial
support; it is not only direct project funding; it is about
mobilization of whole range of economic and financial
incentives)

Summary about IWRM: what we have learnt


IWRM is linked to sustainable development


IWRM is not a one
-
size
-
fits
-
all prescription and cannot be applied as a
checklist of actions


IWRM is not a prescription but an iterative process and an adaptive
approach


IWRM implementation must reflect country priorities


Water management will not be successful if it is set up as a stand
-
alone
system of governance


IWRM includes both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ components

Lessons from IWRM in practice

IWRM is a means not an end.

None of the successful case studies
analysed set out to achieve IWRM. Rather they set out to solve
particular water
-
related problems or achieve development goals by
looking at water holistically within larger physical and development
contexts.


IWRM

Equity

Sustainability

Efficiency