Environmental Monitoring for IWRM

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Environmental Monitoring for IWRM


Prepared By


Dr. Samia El
-
Gendy






Egyptian Dutch Advisory Panel on Water Management/APP

Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation

Cairo, March 2010

1

2

Contents



Overview and general considerations



Environmental Dimensions within IWRM



Environmental Monitoring Processes and associated Challenges



Conclusions



Recommendations




1. Overview and general considerations

-
Water

is

the

key

to

sustainable

utilization

of

Land,

Plant

and

Animal

resources
.


-
Environmental

problems,

such

as

pollution,

erosion,

desertification

or

the

loss

of

biodiversity

are

closely

related

to

water

-
In

WRM,

if

environment

is

not

managed

and

properly

protected,

it

will

ultimately

not

be

able

to

sustain

human

life

3

Sources: Proceeding of International Symposium on Challenges Facing
water Resources Management in Arid and semi
-
arid regions, 2004












Source: World Bank,
2002
a,
2005
e

Annual cost of Environmental Degradation of water


0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Alageria
Egypt
Iran
Jordan
Lebanon
Morocco
Syria
Tunisia
Share of GDP
-
In

order

to

establish

whether

new

management

practices

under

IWRM

are

beneficial

to

the

protection

of

the

environment,

many

questions

and

issues

need

to

be

discussed
:

1. Overview and general considerations

(continued)




Simulation Results for the Self
-
Purification of
BOD along
Nishil

Drain before and after
Decentralized Treatment



0
20
40
60
80
100
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Present
With treatment
Figure
3.3
: Terrain image of lakes Burlus
and Edko

Figure 3.4: Spatial distribution of NO3 in
lake Edko

-
How

does

the

environment

use

water?

-
Why

is

the

environment

important

to

water

management?

-
What

are

the

implications

of

environmental

change?

-
How

does

the

environment

benefit

from

IWRM?


4

2. Environmental Dimensions within IWRM

Environmental Monitoring is the Cross Cutting issue

5

6

IWRM

Economic
Efficiency

Social
Equity

Sustainable
Environment

Environment &
Health

Environment &
Water

Environment &
Others

Best demonstration by the way they react

“Ecosystem”

Cooperation between Water
Resources and Environmental
Agencies

Proper Planning and
Decision making

Environmental
Monitoring

-

Pollution

-

Erosion

-

Desertification

-

Loss of biodiversity, etc

Environment
not fully recognized

in planning and management of
Water Resources

-

Awareness

-

Political will

-

Available Funds

-

Capable Staff

Feed
Back

Environmental Monitoring and Sustainability


Monitoring

objectives

are

to
:

Determine

present

conditions,

determine

trends,

understand

phenomena,

validate

and/or

calibrate

environmental

models,

make

short
-
term

predictions,

make

long
-
term

assessments,

optimize

utility

and/or

cost

effectiveness

of

any

of

the

above
.



Monitoring

system

Before

designing

a

monitoring

network,

we

have

to

answer
:

Why

do

we

measure?

For

whom

do

we

measure?

How

should

the

results

be

presented?

What

do

we

need

to

measure?

What

is

the

required

level

of

accuracy?

How

are

we

going

to

measure?


And

many

others

like

indicators

and

performance

evaluation
.


Monitoring

gaps

exist
:

when

such

questions

are

not

properly

dealt

with
.


3
. Environmental Monitoring

7

4
.
1

Implementation

considerations

and

responsibilities
:


-
Any

monitoring

program

requires

the

distribution

of

responsibilities
.


-
The

Assignment

of

roles

can

be

aided

by

the

use

of

matrices

developed

to

show

linkage

between

impacts

on

monitoring,

this

help

in

the

establishment

of
:




Appropriate

level

of

expertise

for

practical

tasks
.


Assigning

functions

to

different

organizations
.


-
Cross
-
checking

can

be

facilitated

by

comparison

of

results

from

different

monitoring

bodies
.

4. Environmental Monitoring Processes and
associated Challenges (1)

-

A

protocol

of

cooperation

program

should

be

initiated

between

agencies

of

the

same

field

of

interest

to

facilitate

the

appropriate

data

collection

and

information

exchange
.

8

4
.
2
.

Data

Storage
:


-
Databases

are

required

for

storage

and

retrieval
.


-
The

types

of

databases

vary

from

simple

spreadsheets

via

general

database

programs

such

as

the

Geographical

Information

System

(GIS)
.


-
When

there

are

plenty

of

data

(IWRM,

where

tens

of

locations

usually

produce

daily

readings

for

a

number

of

parameters

for

decades

resulting

in

hundreds

or

even

thousands

of

entries),

more

tailored

programs

are

needed
.

9

4
. Environmental Monitoring Processes and
associated Challenges (
2
)

4
.
2
.

Data

Storage

(continued)
:


-
Comprehensive

system

may

include

the

following
:



Data

management

system

to

create

databases,

to

structure

databases,

etc
.;



Data

storage

and

retrieval

system,

covering

data

entry,

editing,

reporting

in

tabular

as

well

as

graphical

forms

and

transfer

and

receipt

of

data
;



Data

processing

system,

including

validation,

series

completion

by

interpolation,

simulation

and

regression

techniques,

elaboration

of

flow

data,

data

compilation,

statistical

analysis

and

time

series

analysis
.

10

4. Environmental Monitoring Processes and
associated Challenges (3)

11

Examples

of

data

management

system

Source: NAWQAM Project,
2009

4
.
3

Data

Interpretation

and

presentation
:



Interpretation

approach

basically

improve

understanding

the

issue

for

water

regulators,

environmentalists

,

policy

makers

and

communities

on

the

state

of

the

country’s

water

resources

and

environment

at

a

given

period

of

time
.

4
. Environmental Monitoring Processes and
associated Challenges (
4
)

12


Data

presentation

is

one

of

the

key

elements

for

information

dissemination

.

Data

should

be

presented

at

different

levels

according

to

the

targeted

recipient

as

follows
:


-
For

scientists,

technical

audience/professionals
:

interpreted

directly

accessible

from

computerized

database
.


-
Wider

dissemination

of

results
:

technical

analysis

must

be

tailored

to

the

needs

and

level

of

interest
.

(policy/decision

makers,

concerned

stakeholders,

private

sector/investors)
.


-

Education

and

awareness

raising

for

different

categories

in

the

civil

society,

should

be

simple

and

attractive
.

4
. Environmental Monitoring Processes and
associated Challenges (
5
)

4
.
3

Data

Interpretation

and

presentation

(continue)
:


Forms

of

Data
:


-
Maps,

graphs,

tables,

aggregate

data

(WQ

Indices

,

Env
.

Indices

),

diagrams,

pictures


.

etc
.


-
Graphs

are

more

effective

to

draw

the

attention

of

the

readers,

particularly

the

non
-
technical
.

Many

people

are

more

receptive

to

visual

presentations

than

written

arcticles
.


13

14

Water quality data presented in table form (????)

15

BOD in Nile Delta different locations compared with permissible
limit (Law
48
)

16

Aggregate data (no. of variables)

17

Environmental Magazines

4
.
4

Data

reliability
:


To

ensure

that

the

data

contained

in

the

storage

and

retrieval

system

are

accurate

and

precise,

the

following

should

be

considered
:



-
All

phases

of

data

collection

process

(i
.
e
.

planning,

right

parameters,

sampling

and

frequency,

transport,

laboratory

analyses,

data

storage



etc
.
)

should

efficiently

contribute

to

the

quality

of

the

finally

stored

data
.



-
It

is

absolutely

essential

to

have

high

level

of

confidence

in

the

validity

of

data

to

be

analyzed

and

interpreted
.



-
If

invalid

data

are

mixed

with

valid

data,

the

integrity

of

the

latter

is

impaired
.



-
Availability

of

qualified

staff

and

affordable

laboratory

facilities

are

often

limiting

factors

in

the

reliability

of

collected

data
.

4
. Environmental Monitoring Processes and
associated Challenges (
6
)

18

4
.
5

Reporting

and

information

utilization


-
Frequency

of

reporting,

reviewing,

editing,

formatting,

distribution

are

all

important

aspects

in

the

design

of

any

information

system
.


-
Reports

should,

in

general,

get

less

technicality

than

publicity
.


-
Graphical

displays

should

be

used,

for

demonstration,

as

much

as

possible
.


-
Reports

are

often

confidential

and

very

few

copies

are

printed
.

They

should

be

published

and

distributed

to

the

identified

information

users
.


-
To

ensure

utilization

of

the

information,

reports

should

be

checked

by

the

users

before

finalization

(to

ensure

information

use)
.

19

4
. Environmental Monitoring Processes and
associated Challenges (
7
)

4.5
Reporting and information utilization



Lack of trained human resources


could lead to


Reports which are not suitable as decision makers tool (being too
long, too descriptive and insufficiently analytical, and failing to
address the main issues pertinent).


20

4
. Environmental Monitoring Processes and
associated Challenges (
8
)

21

4
.
6

Information

dissemination

and

electronic

resources
:


-
Results

should

be

communicated

and

disseminated

to

water

resources

managers,

environmental

authorities

and

protection

agencies,

education

institutes

and

the

publics



etc
.


-
Recently,

many

countries

have

witnessed

the

emergence

of

several

academic

magazines

and

newsletters

that

are

dedicated

to

environmental

issues

and

awareness

(EI
-
Biaa

wal

Tanmia
)
.


-
Publishing

metadata

on

the

net

is

another

way

for

information

dissemination
.


4
. Environmental Monitoring Processes and
associated Challenges (
9
)

4
.
6

Information

dissemination

and

electronic

resources
:


-
Reports

on

the

state

of

Arab

human

development

prepared

by

UNDP

stated

that
:


“The

rate

of

internet

users

in

Arab

countries

is

still

among

the

lowest

in

the

world

(
8
.
5
%

in

Arab

countries

compared

with

14
%

world

wide)
.


22

4
. Environmental Monitoring Processes and
associated Challenges (
10
)

-
Arab

policies

which

attempt

to

fill

the

information

gap

concentrates

on

the

infrastructure

at

the

expense

of

the

content
.


-
Most

of

the

available

contents

on

the

internet

are

presented

only

in

English,

which

can’t

be

readable

for

some

users

.


-
Many

engineers

in

Arab

countries

have

limited

experience

with

computers
.


-
Limited

high
-
level

support

arising

from

the

poor

linkage

between

the

monitoring

programs

and

management

activities
.

23

4
.
6

Information

dissemination

and

electronic

resources
:




(per
100
population)


Personal computers by region

0
.
7
0
.
5
4
.
3
0
.
1
0
.
9
3
.
8
2
.
2
29
.
5
5
.
3
6
.
5
0
10
20
30
40
Mashreq Countries
Maghreb Countries
GCC Countries
Arab LDC's
Arab Region
2005
1996
Source: UN
-
ESCWA,
2007
a.


4
. Environmental Monitoring Processes and
associated Challenges (
11
)

4
.
7

Challenges
:


-

Lack

of

information

on

the

structure

and

function

of

ecosystem

(basic

information)
.


-

Poor

data

availability

and

reliability
.



-

Available

data

are

not

easily

accessible

(confidential)


-

The

locations

of

available

environmental

data

and

information

are

not

known

to

many

users
.


-

Lack

of

sustainable

infrastructure

for

environmental

statistics
.


-

Several

departments

collect

data

on

environment

without

following

the

same

methodology
.

Appropriate

cooperation

and

networks

virtually

absent
.

24

4
. Environmental Monitoring Processes and
associated Challenges (
12
)

Overlapping of responsibilities

Ministries and Organization responsible for water quality management in Egypt

Ministry of Interior (MI)

Ministry of Agriculture (MOA)

Ministry of Local Development

Ministry of Environment (MOE)

Ministry of Health (MOHP)

Ministry of Housing & new

Communities (MHNC)

Ministry of Industry (MOI)

Ministry of Water Resources &

Irrigation (MWRI)

Ministry of Scientific Research

Irrigation Department

Water Research Center

Environmental Health Department

Central Laboratories

Environmental and occupational Health

center

National Organization for potable water &

Sanitary

General organization for Industrialization (GOFI)

Water Bodies Police

Agricultural Research Center

Organization for restructure & Development of

Egyptian Villages

Academy of Science

-

National Research Center

Law

4
/
94


Monitoring coastal, standards

coastal, Preservation: action plan

Law

48
/
82

, standard, enforcement

Monitoring

Monitoring

Monitoring

Law

93
/
62

, Law

44
/
2000

, treatment

Treatment

Monitoring, Studies

Prevention agro

-

chemicals

Treatment

Monitoring,Researches

(

Compliance

Drainage (NOPWASD)& Holding companies

25

4
.
7

Challenges

(continue)



Inadequate

monitoring

of

the

state

of

environment
.



Funding

constraints
.



Lack

of

commitment

from

the

management

level

to

provide

environmental

data

on

periodical

basis
.



Lack

of

incentives

to

provide

reliable

data
.



Regards

to

electronic

sites

for

research

cooperation,

a

considerable

number

of

these

sites

are

not

up

to

the

required

level,

which

disappoint

visitors
.



No

enough

specialized

scientific

journals

published

which

are

especially

dedicated

to

issues

related

to

environment

4
. Environmental Monitoring Processes and
associated Challenges (
13
)

26

Conclusions

1.
Environmental

monitoring

is

one

of

the

main

instruments

for

achieving

IWRM
.

It

should

be

guided

by

clear

objectives
.


2.
An

effective

knowledge

base

is

essential

to

achieve

sustainable

IWRM
.


3.
Relevance

and

reliability

of

the

required

environmental

information

are

essential
.


4.
Collaboration

between

different

sectors

in

many

countries

still

need

more

improvement

,

strengthening

and

coordination
.


5.
Data

interpretation

must

be

undertaken

by

specialized

professionals

such

as
:

environmentalists,

hydrologists,

hydro
-
biologists,

chemists

or

geologists



etc
.

27

Conclusions (continue)

6.
The

key

to

establish

advanced

information

system

is

to

develop

capacity

building

programs

including

training

materials,

toolkits,

manuals,

data

interpretation

and

presentation,

reporting



etc
.


7.
Pursue

alternative

economic

arrangements

by

specifying

regular

funding

mechanisms

for

the

establishment

and

sustainability

of

an

adequate

environmental

information

system
.


8.
The

development

of

electronic

sites

(on

the

internet)

should

be

given

top

priority
.


9.
There

is

also

huge

opportunities

to

exchange

knowledge

and

information

at

regional

level

as

different

parts

of

the

world

utilizing

current

development

in

Information

and

Communication

Technology

(ICT)

and

the

wide

global

networking

opportunities
.

28

Recommendation for the Arab region

In

General,

the

Arab

States

need

among

other

things
:



Invest

in

environmental

data

collection

and

interpretation

(financial,

technical,

human

resources)
.



Set
-
up

environmental

monitoring

systems

to

compile

comprehensive

data

based

on

systematic

measurements
.



Ensure

quality

assurance

and

quality

control

practices

(QA/QC)

according

to

international

standards
.



Increase

temporal

and

spatial

coverage

to

generate

time
-
series

data

to

be

used

for

monitoring

environmental

trends

across

the

country
.



Disseminate

environmental

data

regularly
.


29

Recommendations for the Arab region (continue)



Countries

should

put

emphasis

on

the

use

of

modern

technologies

like

remote

sensing

and

automated

data

loggers

for

data

acquisition
.



Establishment

of

a

national

focal

point

is

recommended

to

act

as

a

liaison

between

sectors,

promoting

network

for

environmental

information

system
.



Enhance

regional

cooperation

in

the

field

of

environmental

monitoring,

data

collection

and

interpretation
.


30

Overall Recommendation

Establish a Regional (Arab)


Environmental Information Network
(REIN)


That

should

start

with
:



Assessing

the

gaps

and

drawbacks
.


Preparing

action

plans

that

include

financial

and

implementation

mechanisms
.


Making

use

of

the

available

resources

in

the

region

as

much

as

possible
.


And

publishing

data

and

information

in

both

Arabic

and

English

languages
.


Political will is a must

31

32

Advantages



Arab

Water

Council
.



Arab

Council

for

Water

Ministers

(established

recently

under

the

auspices

of

the

League

of

Arab

States)



The

Arab

Water

Academy,

which

is

an

innovative

regional

capacity

development

facility

operating

as

a

Center

of

Excellence

in

the

Arab

region

33

Thank you

app@link.net

www.app
-
wm.org