semester 1 test review.pptx - LeMars Community Schools

triteritzyBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

196 views

Semester 1

TEST REVIEW

This is a comprehensive test review


This is a review over the info. that we
have covered in this first semester of
biology.


Therefore: I cannot guarantee we’ll
cover EVERY question on the final.



Test questions will not go in order of
chapters on the actual test.


Details to add to your review sheet…


Page numbers are given on several slides to
help you to quickly find the information that
you may want to review.


Use them as needed.


Write down additional information as we
discuss and go over each topic.


Ask questions about information that you
don’t remember, want clarification on, but
wait for the slide to finish first please.

The details…


110
mult
. choice questions



You may use 1 side of a piece of notebook
paper, 8 1/2 x 11 inches as a “cheat sheet”



Your cheat sheet must be
handwritten
, (not
typed),
have
your name
on it, and will need to
be
turned in
with your test.

Ch. 1


What is the goal of science?


To understand the ___________ around you.



Scientific Method

1. State the problem

2.Make Hypothesis

3.Experiment

4.Collect and record data

5.Come to a conclusion


Experiment


Control Group
-



Stays the same


Experimental Group


(variable), it’s what changes





*Measurements (basic units) p. 14



Length

m



Mass
-

kg



Volume
-

L



Temp
-

degrees C


*Study prefixes, metric system

*Metric system is based on powers of…

10




Lab Safety


Inside cover of your
book, go over


Single most
important rule
is…


Follow the teachers
directions.


Characteristics of Life


Made of cell(s)


Reproduce


Growth


Use energy


Respond to stimuli

Homeostasis


Known as the _______________ __________.



Ex. Water levels


Blood sugar level



Body temp.

Need to know…


Observation


Theory


Hypothesis


Ethical vs. Unethical
behavior in science

Ch. 2


Chunk words
-

to get the
meaning

Ex. Zoology

(zoo=animal,
ology
=study of)

Branches of biology


Nanotechnology p. 34


Biomimetics

p. 35


Genetic Engineering p. 33


Ex. Bt corn, you can use
less…

pesticides



Branches of bio. (cont.)


Assistive Technology p. 32


Battlefield medicine p.32


Biomolecular

materials p. 35


p.30
-
31 Low Tech solution for Cholera


Read over the info. on p. 30 for Health in the
21
st

Century.


A
sari

is mentioned on the test, know what it is
and how it is used.


P. 31, look over the info. on
vaccinations
.


How have vaccinations changed
our world population?


Microscopes


Compound light
-
(we use these)


Electron microscopes
-





T.E.M.
-

bounces electrons off an
object


S.E.M.
-
a scanning beam of electrons
moves back and forth

Ch. 3 Properties of Matter


Characteristic by which they are
identified


Should describe to the 5 senses


Describe physical properties,
length, mass, volume



Physical

and
Chemical

properties;


Physical, can be observed
and measured


Chemical, when a
substance is permanently
altered.



Structure of
ATOM


Nucleus




-

protons (positive)

-
neutrons (neutral)


Energy levels


-

electrons (negative)

Atom cont.

*
Atomic Number
= number of protons



= number of electrons too!


*
Mass number
= # of protons + # of
neutrons



=
p+n


?
-
What is the smallest particle that can


still be identified as an element?



Elements and Compounds



E
-

Pure, made of only 1 type of atom



C
-
Made of 2 or more elements p. 51
-
52



Radioactive isotope
-

used in medicine



Isotope

= different number of neutrons



Radioactive
= Greater
tha

n
83 on


periodic table are radioactive.


Chemical Reactions


Any process where a chemical change
occurs


Usually use equation…


Ex. O
2

+ 2H
2

2H
2
O


Know the reactants and products:


R P

Ch. 3
Properties Of Water


When water freezes it expands


It is a bent molecule; + on one end,
-

on
other


This makes it good as dissolving


“Universal Solvent”


BENT WATER
MOLECULE

In the human body, nearly 60 % is water




Mixtures


-
2 or more substances mixed
but not chemically combined.


-
Ex. Soil, air, salad


Solutions
-
solute dissolved by
solvent


-

Ex. Salt water, sugar water

Acids & Bases


Acids
, give off H+




-
low numbers


Bases
, give off OH
-



-
high numbers


pH Scale





Stronger Acids


1, 2, 3 7 10, 11 14


Stronger Bases


Neutral


(Ex. Water)


Organic vs. Inorganic

O
-

If it has carbon (is or was
alive)


I
-

If it doesn’t have carbon,
wasn’t ever alive


Note: Carbon is reactive, so
bonds very well.

4 Compounds of Life



1.
Carbohydrates

(sugars)p.60


Monomer=
monosaccharides


Polymer = Polysaccharide


*Give you energy



2.
Lipids

(fats, oils, waxes)p.61


Store energy




Chemical messengers


Form membranes

3.
Proteins p.62


Monomer= Amino Acid


Polymer=polypeptide


Ex. AA+AA =
Dipeptide
,
AA+AA+AA=
Tripeptide

*Enzymes are proteins, proteins
help cells move



4.
Nucleic Acids p.63


(RNA & DNA)


Monomer=Nucleotide

* Job is to store hereditary
info., or to be the blue
prints for a new organism.


Ch. 5 Populations & communities

Know terms:


Population p. 103


Carrying capacity p.105


Exponential growth p. 104


J
-
shaped


graph example is the human population


Logistic Growth p. 105


S
-
shaped

Abiotic

vs. Biotic


Abiotic

=



Non living




Biotic =



Living

Human Population…


Has now exceeded



6 billion

*As of 1/7/11


6.89 billion


Relationships

Know terms & examples for each:

Predator, prey

Co
-
evolution

Parasite, host

Symbiosis

Mutualism

Commensalism

Keystone species


More terms to know…


Niche


Fundamental niche(where
it
COULD survive)


Realized niche
(where it actually
DOES survive)

Ch. 7 Cells

Cell Theory


-
All cells come from cells


-
Cells are basic unit of life


-
All living things are made
of cells.

Scientists
p. 151


-
Van Leeuwenhoek
, first microscope


-
Hooke
, named the cell


-
Schleiden
, all plants made of cells


-
Schwann
, all animals made of cells


-
Virchow
, all cells come from cells



Cell Structure
(found in MOST cells)


-
Nucleus


-
Cytoplasm


-
Cell membrane


Prokaryote
= no nucleus
(bacteria)


Eukaryote
= has a nucleus


Organelles

(p. 156)


Smooth ER
-
transport system


R
ough ER
-
has
ribosomes

on it,
makes and transports proteins too.


Mitochondria
-
power house


Golgi apparatus
-

packages, sorts
and sends substances



Nucleus
-
nuclear envelope (covering)


-
nucleolus
-
made of RNA & proteins


-
chromosomes(made up of DNA)


Plant vs. Animal Cell

*cell wall




*
lysosome


*Chloroplast


*lg. water vacuole


*plastids


Diffusion
-
molecules move from high
to low concentration.


Osmosis
, diffusion of water



Hypotonic
, low amount of solute


Hypertonic
, high amount of solute


Isotonic
, equal amount of solute in
& outside cell


*
Facilitated diffusion
-
NO
energy
used

Ex. Sodium/Potassium pump,
pumps K+ into the cell and Na
out of the cell.

*
Active transport
-
uses energy


-
Pinocytosis
=“cell drinking”


-
Phagocytosis
=“cell eating”


Ch. 9 Photosynthesis

&
Cellular Respiration


3
Scientists


Van
Helmont


Priestly


Ingenhous


CO
2
+H
2
O C
6
H
12
O
6
+ O
2


Know where this occurs


Thylakoid
=Light Reaction


Stroma
= Dark Reaction


Light Reaction


Uses
: H
2
O

Produces:

O
2


ADP



ATP
-
(fuels
Dk.Rxn
)




NADP+



NADPH(fuels Dk.
Rxn
)


*
Dark Reaction

a.k.a. “Calvin Cycle” p.
206


*
Glycolysis


Where does this occur?

CYTOPLASM


-
End product is
pyruvic

acid/
pyruvate


Cellular Respiration
p.208


Occurs in mitochondria


Fermentation

p.212


No oxygen=anaerobic


2 kinds


Lactic acid & Alcoholic