Honors Biology Final Review.pptx

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Honors Biology:
Final Exam Review

Quarter #1

Chapter 1: The
Scientififc

Study of Life


Tools for Studying Life


Microscope


observe living cells


Compound Microscope


uses multiple lenses to
magnify an image


Electron Microscope


uses a beam of electrons to
create high quality, high magnification images


Balance


take mass of objects


Meter Stick


measure length of an object


Graduated Cylinder


measure volume of a liquid

Chapter 1: The
Scientifc

Study of Life


8 Characteristics of Living Things:


1. made up of cells (smallest unit of life)


2. reproduce (sexually or
aesexually
)


3. based on universal genetic code (DNA)


4. grow & develop


5. obtain & use materials/energy (metabolism)


6. respond to their environment (stimuli)


7. maintain stable internal environment
(homeostasis)


8. change over time (evolution)

Chapter 1: The
Scientififc

Study of Life


Organization in Biology


Ecosystem


group of organisms that live in the same place together
with their non
-
living environment


Community


group of many populations that live in the same
general area


Population


group of organisms of the same species that live in the
same general area


Organism


individual life form


Organ System


group of organs that work together to complete a
common task


Organ


a group of tissues that work together to complete a common
task


Tissue


a group of cells that work together to complete a common
task


Cell


the smallest unit of life


Molecule


a group of elements that are

Darwin & Evolution


Charles Darwin


Struggle for Existence


organisms compete
against each other for necessary resources


Survival of the Fittest


those individuals
best fit for their environment secure
resources and survive


Adaptations


features or characteristics that
increase an organisms chance of survival


Natural Selection


Organisms with
beneficial adaptations survive and pass on
beneficial traits to offspring

Darwin & Evolution


Factors Leading to Evolution


Members of the same species become
separated from one another and develop
independently (speciation)


Change in Environmental Factors


due to
natural or unnatural causes


Migration of organisms to a new
environment (natural or unnatural)

Chapter 2: The Chemical
Basis of Life


Types of Chemical Bonds:


Ionic Bonds


attractions between ions of
opposite charge; involve one atom donating an
electron to another atom


Covalent Bond


the sharing of pairs of electrons
to join molecules together (single, double, triple)


Hydrogen Bonds


weak bonds formed by the
slightly charge regions on neighboring molecules;
responsible for H
2
O’s unique properties

Chapter 2: The Chemical
Basis of Life


Properties of Water (thanks to polarity)


Cohesion


the slight
-

charge of O attracts the slight
+ charge of H causing neighboring molecules to
“stick” together (H bonds)


Adhesion


the slight charges of H2O molecules
make it likely to “stick” to other things


Moderate Temperature


H bonds help H
2
O resist
changes in temperature (HIGH boiling point)


Density


liquidH
2
O is MORE dense than solid H
2
O


Solvent


polarity helps H
2
O to break down other
POLAR
substances (non
-
polar substances like oils
WILL NOT dissolve in H
2
O)

Quarter #2

Chapter 3: The Molecules
of Cells


The Magic of Carbon


Because of its 4 valence electrons, carbon:


has a tendency to form covalent bonds


is able to make single, double, or triple bonds


is able to form VERY LONG chains


is able to bond with up to 4 other atoms



Macromolecules


large chain molecules (polymers)
formed by subunits (monomers)


Chapter 3: The Molecules
of Cells


4 Main Organic (Carbon) Compounds:


Carbohydrates

(polysaccharides)


Main source of energy


Made up of
monosaccharides

(sugars)

***Isomers


two molecules
that has the SAME chemical
formula, but DIFFERENT
structures!

Chapter 3: The Molecules
of Cells


4 Main Organic (Carbon) Compounds:


Proteins


Control reaction rates, allow molecules in and
out of cells, fight disease, make up muscles


Made up of amino acids



20 + amino acids are used to express
genes


each amino acid in a polypeptide
chain is joined to by a peptide bond

Chapter 3: The Molecules
of Cells


4 Main Organic (Carbon) Compounds:


Lipids


Comprise membranes, energy storage,
insulation


Made up of glycerol
& fatty acids



Phospholipids make up
bilayer

of cell membrane

Chapter 3: The Molecules
of Cells


4 Main Organic (Carbon) Compounds:


Nucleic Acids


Store and transmit genetic information


Made up of nucleotides (sugar, phosphate
group & nitrogenous base)



5 Nitrogenous Bases:



Adenine (DNA & RNA)



Thymine (DNA ONLY)



Guanine (DNA & RNA)



Cytosine (DNA & RNA)



Uracil

( RNA ONLY)

Chapter 3: The Molecules
of Cells


Dehydration Synthesis


joining of two or more
organic molecules by REMOVING H
2
O


one molecule loses a hydroxyl (
-
OH); one loses a
hydronium

(
-
H)


covalent bonds form (sharing
e
-
)


Hydrolysis


breaking apart of two or more
organic molecules by ADDING H
2
O


one molecule gains a
hydorxyl

(
-
OH); one gains a
hydronium

(
-
H)


covalent bonds are broken

Early Earth


Stanley Miller & Howard Urey


showed that amino acids & other organic
componds

could have arisen from a lifeless Earth (chemical soup +
lightening)


Evolution of oxygen
-
producing bacteria resulted in:


oxygenation of the atmosphere


massive extinction of many early anaerobic forms of life


extincting

of bacteria unable to tolerate oxygen


anarobic

bacteria engulfing aerobic bacteria for survival
(
endosymbiotic

theory)

Chapter 4: A Tour of the
Cell


Types of Cells


Prokaryotes


lack a “true” nucleus; lack membrane
-
bound organelles; bacteria


Eukaryotes


have a “true” nucleus; have specialized
membrane
-
bound organelles


Plant Cells


contain cell walls, large vacuoles;
chloroplasts; square
-
ish

in shape


Animal Cells


contain only a cell membrane; contain
centrioles
; irregular in shape


Chapter 4: A Tour of the
Cell


Plasma Membrane


“proteins floating in a sea of
lipids”


Phsopholipid

Bilayer



primary component; made
up of glycerol, phosphate group (polar &
hydrophilic), and 2





fatty acid tails






(non
-
polar &




hydrophobic);





arranged with tails






facing the interior &






heads facing exterior

Chapter 4: A Tour of the
Cekk


Receptor Proteins


receive messages from outside
the cell


Anchor Proteins


inside of membrane; aid in
tethering organelles


Transport Proteins


transmembrane

proteins that
serves as passageways for larger molecules


Cholesterol


within
bilayer
; prevent solidifying of
fatty acid tails


Glycoproteins

&
Glycolipids



used for
identification



Chapter 4: A Tour of the
Cell


Fluidity of the
Phospholipid

Bilayer


ALL
components of the
bilayer

are able to move
freely about one another; this is because:


phosphoipids

are unable to pack closely together


kinks in the fatty acid chains allow for movement


fatty acid chains are typically unsaturated (not solid at
room temperature)


cholesterol prevents fatty acid tails from “sticking”


Permeability


ability to allow some molecules to
pass through while blocking others (
phenylthalanine

& ammonia)

Chapter 4: A Tour of the
Cell


Cellular Transport


Diffusion


“passive transport;” no ATP required;

random movement of molecules from an area of
HIGH concentration to an area of LOW
concentration


Osmosis


diffusion of water from an area of HIGH
H
2
O concentration to an area of LOW H
2
O
concentration (
osmoregulation



regulation of H2O
inside a cell)


Active Transport


use of ATP energy to molecule
molecules (or maintain molecules) AGAINST a
concentration gradient

Chapter 4: A Tour of the
Cell

40 % Sucrose

60 % H
2
O

20 % Sucrose

80 % H
2
O



Outside environment is
HYPERTONIC
(less H
2
O;
more sucrose) to inside


Inside environment is
HYPOTONIC
(more H
2
O;
less sucrose) to outside



THEREFORE H
2
O will
LEAVE the cell

ISOTONIC solutions


have
equal concentrations of both
SOLUTES and H2O

Chapter 4: A Tour of the
Cell


In order to effectively transport nutrients to the
cell, the cell must have a LARGE surface area to
volume ratio


Chapter 4: A Tour of the
Cell


Organelles of the Cell


Mitochondria


“powerhouse;” responsible for
Cellular Respiration; resemble early prokaryotes;
have their own DNA; reproduce independently;
incorporated by heterotrophic prokaryotes


Chloroplast


responsible for Photosynthesis;
resemble early prokaryotes; have their own DNA;
reproduce independently; incorporated by
heterotrophic prokaryotes

Chapter 4: A Tour of the
Cell


Organelles of the Cell


Golgi Apparatus


modifies, sorts, and distributes
proteins


Nucleus


controls all activity of the cell


Endoplasmic Reticulum


allows for intracellular
transport


Ribosome


site of protein synthesis


Cytoplasm


cellular matrix

Chapter 5: The Working
Cell


Enzymes


biological catalysts that speed up
chemical reactions by lowering activation energy


Enzymes are recyclable



they are not used up or
altered and can be used over and over


Enzymes are VERY specific


each enzyme only
does ONE job; 3D structure determines its function


Enzymes have ideal temperatures and pHs
-

if an
an enzyme’s environment changes, it will become
denatured (change shape) and not be able to
function

Chapter 5: The Working
Cell


Exergonic

Reactions


Products contain less energy
than reactants; proceed spontaneously; release
energy (heat)


Endergonic

Reactions



Products contain more
energy than reactants; DO NOT proceed
spontaneously; absorb energy (heat)*


* feel cold to the touch


Exergonic

and
Endergonic

reactions are usually
coupled… the energy released from
exergonic

reactions can be used to power
endergonic

reactions!

Chapter 5: The Working
Cell


Oxidation
-
Reduction (
Redox
) Reactions


LEO says GER


LOSE electrons OXIDATION


GAIN electrons REDUCTION

Quarter #3

Chapter 6: How Cells
Harvest Chemical Energy


Cellular Respiration


the process by which energy
is obtained from organic compounds (mitochondria)


ATP is produced by the joining of ADP molecules
with inorganic phosphates


C
6
H
12
O
6

+ 6O
2



㙃6
2

+ 6H
2
O + ATP Energy


Lipids
contain the MOST energy/gram, but our
bodies do not readily break down these molecules


Carbohydrates
contain the next highest amount of
energy/gram and our bodies can readily break them
down

Chapter 6: How Cells
Harvest Chemical Energy


Step 1:
Glycolysis

(anaerobic)


A glucose molecule (C
6
H
12
O
6
) is broken down to create 2
molecules of
Pyruvic

Acid


Step 2:
Kreb’s

Cycle
(aerobic)


P
yruvic

Acid is broken down to form CO
2

waste


Step 3: Electron Transport
(aerobic)


High energy electrons are passed along a chain of electron
acceptors to produce a charge gradient


Chemiosmosis


The movement of protons through ATP
Synthase

powers
the joining of ADP and P to make ATP

Chapter 6: How Cells
Harvest Chemical Energy


Fermentation


an anaerobic form of respiration
employed by organisms in the absence of oxygen or
by organisms unable to use/incorporate oxygen


LESS
efficient at producing ATP molecules


Glycolysis

CAN still proceed


Ethyl Alcohol and/or Lactic Acid may form is
byproducts


2 Net ATP will result from the process

Chapter 7: Photosynthesis:
Using Light to Make Food


Leaf Structure


Stoma (
stomata)


openings in the leaf that allow
gasses, such as O
2

and CO
2

to pass in and out


Mesophyll



layer of leaf tissue that contains
chloroplasts


Chloroplast


organelle that contains
photosynthetic pigments



(chlorophyll) that REFLECT




green light and absorb other




colors (giving plants their




green
color)


Chapter 7: Photosynthesis:
Using Light to Make Food


Photosynthesis


the process by which energy from
the sun is converted into
starches


Organisms that make their own food in this manner
are called
photosynthetic
autotrophs


6CO
2

+ 6H
2
O


C
6
H
12
O
6

+ 6O
2


Chloroplasts contain:


Grana



stacks of disc
-
shaped
thylakoid

membranes;
site of Light
-
Dependant Reactions


Stroma



fluid portion; site of Carbon Fixation

Chapter 7: Photosynthesis:
Using Light to Make Food


Light Dependant Reactions


H
2
O is broken down
(released waste O
2

gas) and high energy electrons
are passed down the Electron Transport Chain
creating ATP


End products:
waste O
2
,

&

{
ATP, NADPH, FADH
2
}


used to produce glucose during Carbon
FIxation


Carbon Fixation


occurs when carbon in the form
of CO
2

is incorporated into organic storage
molecules


End products:
glucose

Chapter 8: Mitosis &
Meiosis


Cell Cycle


Interphase


G1


growth; normal function


S


synthesis; DNA is copied


G2


additional growth; preparation for mitosis

Chapter 8: Mitosis &
Meiosis


Cell Cycle


Mitosis


Prophase


DNA condenses; nuclear envelope breaks
down;
centrioles

form


Metaphase


Chromosomes line up along equator of the
cell


Anaphase


Spindle fibers pull
chromatids

apart


Telophase



nuclear division; 2 new nuclei form


Cytokinesis



cytoplasmic

division; cell plate or cleavage
furrow form and split cells

Chapter 8: Mitosis &
Meiosis


Regulation of Cell Growth:


chromosomes DO NOT separate until spindle is
attached to each
centromere


cells are prevented from dividing unless they are
anchored


cells DO NOT grow in the absence of growth
factors


Mitosis DOES NOT occur until DNA Replication is
complete

Chapter 8: Mitosis &
Meiosis


Meiosis


reductive cell division used to create gametes (with
½ the genetic information of somatic cells)


create unique gametes due to:


crossing over (exchange of segments of genetic code
by homologous chromosomes)


random positioning of chromosomes during
Metaphase I


random fertilization

Quarter #4

Chapter 9: Patterns of
Inheritance


Gregor

Mendel


father of genetics


Heterozygous


two different alleles for a trait


Homozygous


two IDENTICAL alleles for a trait


Dominant


trait will be
phenotypically

expressed in
either homozygous dominant or heterozygous
genotypes


Recessive


trait will ONLY be expressed
phenotypically

in homozygous recessive individuals


Sex

Linked


alleles are found on the sex
chromosomes (both X in females and one X in males


NOT FOUND ON Y CHROMOSOMES!)

Chapter 9: Patterns of
Inheritance


A Basic
Punnett

Square


Dimples (
d
) are a recessive trait. Two heterozygous
individuals want to have children together…






What is the chance their child will have dimples?


What is the expected genotypic ratio?


What is the chance their child will be without dimples?


What is the expected phenotypic ratio?

Chapter 9: Patterns of
Inheritance


A Sex
-
Linked
Punnett

Square


Hemophilia is a sex
-
linked, recessive trait. A non
-
carrier
female and a hemophiliac male want to have children…






What is the chance their child will have hemophilia?


What is the chance any of their children will be carriers?


What are the genotypes of the parents?


What are the genotypes for a hemophiliac male? female?

Chapter 9: Patterns of
Inheritance


Hardy
-
Weinberg Equilibrium


To be in equilibrium


NO mutations must arise


NO natural selection can occur


NO migration can occur


There must be a HUGE population


Completely random mating must occur

Chapter 9: Patterns of
Inheritance


Hardy
-
Weinberg Equation

p

+
q

= 1




Where…



p

= frequency of the
dominant allele



q

= frequency of the
recessive allele

p
2

+ 2pq + q
2

= 1




Where…



p
2

= frequency of
the AA genotype



2pq = frequency of
the
Aa

genotype



q
2

= frequency of
the
aa

genotype

Chapter 9: Patterns of
Inheritance


Hardy
-
Weinberg Equation


You have sampled a population in which you know
that the % of the
aa

(albino) genotype is 36%.



What is the allele frequency for albinism?


What % of the population would be homozygous for
“normal” pigmenting?


Chapter 10: Molecular
Biology of the Gene


DNA Structure


Hydrogen Bonds
connect
nitrogenous bases
(A


T &
G


C)




=
deoxyribose

(sugar)




= phosphate



Chapter 10: Molecular
Biology of the Gene


Replication


What?

Copying of genetic material


When?

Prior to cell division (mitosis)


Where?

inside the nucleus


Why?

to ensure all new cells have copies of genetic
information


How?

Base
-
pairing rule! (A


T, G


C)


DNA
Helicase

unzips the double helix.


DNA Polymerase

adds on new nucleotides (base
pairing) & then “proofreads” the new strands

Chapter 10: Molecular
Biology of the Gene


Replication


What?

Copying of genetic material


When?

Prior to cell division (mitosis)


Where?

inside the nucleus


Why?

ensure all new cells have copies of genetic info


How?

Base
-
pairing rule! (A


T, G


C)


DNA
Helicase

unzips the double helix.


DNA Polymerase

adds on new nucleotides (base
pairing) & then “proofreads” the new strands


DNA
Ligase

joins together the completed Okazaki
fragments of the discontinuous (lagging) strand

Chapter 10: Molecular
Biology of the Gene


Replication


Semi
-
Conservative Process


each “daughter”
strand is made up of one new strand and one
original strand



Original Strand:


CTAATGT


Complimentary Strand:

GATTACA

Chapter 10: Molecular
Biology of the Gene


Transcription


What?

Creation of an mRNA “copy” of a gene


When?

Prior to gene expression


Where?

inside the nucleus


Why?

the express genes without endangering actual
DNA


How?

Base
-
pairing rule! (A


U, G


C)


RNA Polymerase

creates a strand of mRNA
complimentary to the segment of DNA being
expressed

Chapter 10: Molecular
Biology of the Gene


Translation


What?
“Reading” of the mRNA to create a
polypeptide


When?

Following transcription


Where?

On/In the ribosome


Why?
To create proteins that express genes


How?


mRNA attached to ribosome


ribosome “reads”
codons

(3
-
nucleotide segments)


tRNA

transfers individual amino acids to ribosome


ribosome joins amino acids until a STOP
codon

is
reached and the chain is released

Chapter 10: Molecular
Biology of the Gene


Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering:


have improved crop yields


have led to pest resistant crops


have led to new varieties of fruits and veggies


have aided in crime investigations


have led to the development of more effective
medical treatments

Chapter 10: Molecular
Biology of the Gene


DNA Fingerprinting


Restriction enzymes
are used to break DNA into
specific segments


Treated DNA is placed in a chamber with a positive
& negative end


Electrophoresis is used to separate the DNA
fragments


The banding patterns created are compared to
determine DNA matches & paternity

Ecology & the
Environment


Goals of Conservation Biology:


enforce environmental laws


protect habitats


protects not only habitats, but also interactions between
many different species


the rainforest has been particularly valuable in
discovering new species that provide ingredients for
new medications, food, and other goods


manage natural resources


using alternative energy, decreasing reliance on coal,
and driving more efficient autos are sustainable
practices that reduce acid precipitation

Ecology & the
Environment


Integrated Pest Management


using a variety of approaches including biological control,
pesticides when necessary and monitoring of pest
populations


Problems Related to Pesticides


biological magnification


pesticide resistance


good bugs can be killed
along with pests


Introduced Species


often become pests because they have no natural
predators to keep their population in check

Questions?
??