ch 36 globalization.ppt - WilsonWorldHistory

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Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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Globalization

Chapter 36


After the fall of Communism, everyone
worked together to make Democracies &
Capitalism around the world


Everyone working together = not focused on
Nationalism anymore but GLOBALIZATION!


Everyone works together


Global economy


Global society

Time period we are in NOW!


Advances in Science & Tech.



improved communications & transportation


Goods & ideas = moved rapidly


Inventions & innovations


brought the nations of the world closer together


Blending cultures & customs


Nations have expanded trade



national boundaries have blurred & there’s a global
market


Nations have worked together to ensure security



terrorism

Globalization: Science,
Technology, & Culture

Part 1

Outer Space & the Solar system


1
st

arena where US & SU cooperated together


Sent international crews (
ppl

from all over the
world)


Most ambitious cooperative space venture:
International Space Station

International Space Station


Americans, Russians


A project in space to build a space station for
everyone in the world


1998
-
2009


Most ambitious cooperative space venture;
covers the size of a football field & can be
seen by the naked eye on earth

Technology
-

Communications


The world is a global village



Satellites


Can see what’s going on
on

the other side of the world
right now!


Computer


1940s
-

one huge room for 1 comp!!


Miniaturization of the computer = to help the space
program & put comps in the shuttles


Industries used comps to run businesses


People put them in homes


I
nternet

Scientific Advancements


New technologies: (1960s
-
1970s)


Microscopes


Laser


ultrasound


Effects of these technologies:


Advanced medicine & surgical techniques


Improved health care


Genetics became popular


Genetic Engineering


Cloning

Genetic Engineering


Scientists


A scientific technology where you isolate & examine
individual genes that are responsible for different traits


World


1980s


Scientists were then able to introduce new genes into
an organism to give that organism new traits = you can
manufacture certain traits that you want


=‘rents have babies that are genetically engineered =
lotsa

probs

& controversy

Cloning


Scientists


The creation of identical copies of DNA


World


1990s


Allows scientists to reproduce plants & animals
that are identical to existing plants & animals


Humans start to want to clone animals & people


(Ms. Wilson wants to clone her dog…


)

Green Revolution


Agricultural scientists


A campaign that was an attempt to increased
food production worldwide by promoting
fertilizer, pesticides, & high
-
yield disease
resistant crops


World


1960s


Why:


Helped avert famine & increase crop yields around the
world


Resistance to pests built into plants


Plants are bed to tolerate poor soil conditions


Holds promise for creating food for an expanding pop.


BUT fertilizers& pesticides = dangerous chemicals =
cancer, pollution


Cost = too high for avg. farmer = small farmers
gradually went away for larger agricultural businesses


Globalization: Economy

Part 2


Nations have expanded trade


national
boundaries have blurred & there’s a
global
market


Imports/exports


“Made in China”



After WWII
-

America has the $$
-

helps out
the rest of the world


As a result: Asia & W. Europe = advances in
science & tech.


= improvements in industry = change in Economy!


No longer factory focused = Information focused!


Transmit info quickly & cheaply


Financial services, insurance, market research, &
communication services boomed!


“Knowledge workers” , no longer factory workers


Expansion of the world’s economies


Increase in production of goods & services


Many nations benefitted


Economic base shifted:


Developed nations
: used to have manufacturing
jobs


Emerging nations
: now got the manufacturing jobs


Developed Nations


People of developed nations


Nations with industrialization, transportations,
business facilities for advanced production of
goods


US, Japan, GB, France, Germany


1950s
-
present


Manufacturing jobs moved away from these
nations towards Emerging nations;


instead they focused more on Information
industries w. Knowledge workers


Required more educated workers

Emerging Nations


Peoples of emerging nations


Nations that were in the process of becoming
industrialized after WWII


Asia, S. Africa (parts of the 3
rd

world)


1950s
-
present


Manufacturing left the developed nations & came to
the emerging nations to help them industrialize;


these became prime locations for new manufacturing
operations;


workers worked on less $ than in developed nations =
made goods cheaper


This led to a
Global Economy
-

where the
emerging nations made the goods & sold
them to the Developed nations
-

so nearly
everyone is industrialized and trading with
each other

Global Economy


All financial interactions among people, businesses, &
gov’ts that cross international borders


World


1900s
-

now


Multinational corporations
-

goods are distributed
throughout the world as if no national boundaries


Free trade
-

eliminating trade barriers, lowering of
tarriffs
, & free flow of goods, services


Regional trade blocs: EEC, EU, NAFTA

Free Trade


A major goal of globalization, the elimination of
trade barriers such as tariffs among nations


World


1940s
-

now


Nations discussed a way to bring about free trade
= GATT meeting


General lowering of protective tariffs


Expansion of free trade


Trade among nations flows smoothly & freely as
possible

Regional trade blocs..


EEC
-

European Economic Community(1957)
-

tariff free
-
trade among members of the
organization


Became the EU
-

European Union (1992)


Economic union


Europe exerted a powerful force in the world


Inspired other regional bloc agreements (NAFTA)

NAFTA (not a NC)


North
American Free Trade
Agreement


Gradual elimination of tariffs and trade
restrictions


Canada, US, Mexico

Controversy

FOR Globalization



Promotes peace through
trade


Raises the standard of living
throughout the world


Creates jobs in emerging
countries


Promotes investment in less
developed nations


Creates a sense of world
community

AGAINST Globalization


Creates conflict because of
an inherently unfair system


Benefits developed nations
disproportionately


Takes jobs from high
-
paid
laborers in developed jobs


Benefits those who already
have money


Erodes local cultures

Has led to problems…

Political
probs


Manufacturing = you need
energy


to get energy = OIL
for gas


Nations w. little oil reserve R
dependent on those with lots
of it


Nations w. lots of oil can
control those that don’t (ME)


Conflicts = war

Environmental
probs


Burning of coal & oil =
carbon dioxide


= air pollution & acid rain


Global warming


Destruction of
Ozone layer


Increase of ultraviolet rays


Skin cancer rises


Large
-
scale soil erosion


Habitat destruction


extinction

Ozone layer


The layer in earth’s upper atmosphere which is
our main protection against the sun’s damaging
ultraviolet rays


World


1900s
-

now


With an increase in UV radiation = the incidence
of skin cancer continues to rise throughout the
world


Damages plants & plankton @ the base of food
chains which sustain all life on earth


Economists & Scientists


reduce the negative
effects


Goal: Manage development so growth can
occur but
w.o

destroying air, water, land


=
Sustainable Growth

Sustainable Growth


Economists, Scientists


A concept of “Greener growth” to meet economic
needs, while ensuring the preservation of the
environment and the conservation of resources
for future generations


World


1990s
-

now


Leads to living “green”, more natural foods &
products to avoid destruction of our environment

1946


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Baby Boom

Consumerism

Suburban Living

“Teenager”


Specified Gender roles

THIS
IS
YOU!!!