Anaerobic metabolism - Personal Web Space

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Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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Chapters 13 & 17 combined

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Health Benefits of Exercise


In addition to increased flexibility and the
ability to easily perform daily activities,
benefits of regular exercise include:


Weight management


Cardiovascular health


Diabetes prevention or management


Bone and joint health


Possible reduction of cancer risk


Psychological health

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Exercise Recommendations

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Target Heart
Rates During
Aerobic
Exercise


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Components of a Good Exercise Regimen


Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Fueling Exercise


Aerobic metabolism

is metabolism in the presence of
oxygen. Glucose, fatty acids and amino acids are completely
broken down to form CO
2

and H
2
0 and to produce ATP.


Anaerobic metabolism

is metabolism in the absence of
oxygen. Each molecule of glucose produces two molecules of
ATP. Glucose is metabolized in this way when oxygen cannot
be supplied quickly enough to the tissues to support aerobic
metabolism.


Anaerobic metabolism is also called
anaerobic glycolysis.

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Fueling Exercise by the Minute

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

The Process of Anaerobic Metabolism

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The Effect of Exercise Intensity

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Fluid Needs for Physical Activity


During exercise, water is needed to eliminate heat, to transport
oxygen and nutrients to the muscles and to remove waste
products such as lactic acid from the muscles.


The ability to dissipate heat depends on hydration levels.


At rest in a temperate climate, an adult loses about 4½ cups of
water per day through evaporation from the skin and lungs.


Even with regular consumption, it may not be possible to consume
sufficient fluid to remain properly hydrated.


Failure to compensate for fluid losses can result in dehydration.


If heat cannot be lost from the body, body temperature rises and
exercise performance as well as health can be jeopardized.

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Heat
-
Related Illnesses

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Recommended Fluid Intake

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Food and Beverages to Maximize
Performance

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What Are You
Getting From
That Sports
Bar?


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Impact of Diet versus Supplements

Chapter 17

Food Safety

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Food Safety Talk


Foodborne illness: any illness that is related to the consumption of
food or contaminants or toxins in food


Pathogens: microorganisms that can cause disease


Toxins: substances that can cause harm at some level of exposure


Cross
-
contamination: the transfer of one contaminant from one
food, piece of equipment or person to another


Threshold effect: up to a certain point, many microorganisms do
not cause harm. After reaching their threshold, however, they can
cause foodborne illness.


FDA Food Code: a federal document which provides
recommendations for safeguarding public health when food is
offered to the consumer.

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Food Safety Talk


FATTOM: an acronym used to remember the factors that
contribute to microbial growth


Standards of identity: defines exactly the ingredients that
can be used in certain foods, such as whole wheat bread or
mayonnaise. If a food does not meet the standards of
identity, it cannot be labeled as that product.


Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938: gave the FDA
authority over food and food ingredients and defined
requirements for truth
-
in
-
labeling

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Food Safety Talk


GRAS: generally recognized as safe. GRAS
substances are those whose use is generally
recognized as safe based on extensive use in
food prior to 1958.


Delaney Clause: The 1958 Food Additives
Amendment included the Delaney Clause,
designed to protect the public from additives
found to be carcinogenic.

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Agencies
Responsible
for Food
Safety

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

HACCP: A Science
-
Based Approach to
Food Safety


Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

HACCP: A Science
-
Based Approach to
Food Safety


Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

How to Report a Possible Foodborne
Illness Occurrence

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Pathogens Found in Food

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Pathogens Found in Food

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Tips for Handling Food Safely

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How Long Can Food Be Safely Stored?

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

How Long Can Food Be Safely Stored?

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Temperature Danger Zone for Food
Handling

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Safe Cooking
Temperatures

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Benefits and Risks of Pesticides


Benefits:


Pesticides increase crop yields.


Plant foods can look more appealing if pest
damage is minimized.


Risks:


Pesticide residues remain on produce.


Pesticides can contaminate water supplies.



Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Reducing the Need for Pesticides


Integrated pest management
combines chemical
and nonchemical methods.


Use of natural toxins that occur in plants, including
genetic engineering


Organic

techniques based on biological methods
which avoid the use of chemicals

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Labeling of Organic Foods

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Food Additives

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Food Additives

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Food Additives

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Food Processing and Packaging


There are many methods for processing food
for preservation. Some of these methods
include:


Pasteurization


Aseptic processing


Irradiation, also known as cold pasteurization


MAP: Modified atmosphere packaging



Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Food Additives


Food Additives can be classified as :


Direct or intentional additives


Indirect or unintentional additives


Additives that prevent spoilage


Additives that maintain or improve nutritional quality


Additives to improve and maintain texture


Additives to affect flavor and color

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Terms Used in Genetic
Engineering

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Passing Traits
from Parent to
Offspring

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Genetically
Engineered
Traits

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Outcomes of Genetic Engineering

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Outcomes of Genetic Engineering

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Outcomes of Genetic Engineering

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 17



Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


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