CS 332: Introduction to AI

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Nov 7, 2013 (4 years ago)

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CS 332: Introduction to AI


Class Hour:

Section 1:
MWF
1:10PM
-

2:00PM.
Hyer

210


A little bit about the instructor


Graduated from the University of
Connecticut (05 Class), Ph.D in
Computer Science and Engineering



Bachelor of Science from Hanoi
University of Technology (86
-
91)


Master of Computer Science from
UW
-
Milwaukee (96
-
99)

Associate professor at UWW

A little bit about the instructor


Research Experience:


AI, User Modeling, Information Retrieval, Decision
Theory, Collaborative Filtering, Human Factors


Teaching Experience:


MCS 231, 220, COMPSCI 172, 173, 222, 181, 271,
322, 381 at UWW


Introductory courses at UOP and
Devry


TA for Computer Architecture, OO Design, Compiler,
Artificial Intelligence

Contact information

nguyenh@uww.edu

(fastest way to contact me)

MG 106

Office Hours: 9am


10:45am MWF,
noon


1pm W, 9
-
10am online on
skype

(Tuesday) or by appointment


262 472 5170

Course Objectives


Given a basic Artificial Intelligence(AI) problem such
as search, gaming, planning, machine learning,
understand the theory, and implement algorithms
being used to solve this problem.


Given a real world problem, be able to identify the
parts in which AI techniques can be applied.


Technology Requirement


Either Java Development Kit (JDK) Or C++ (Linux
version).


Weka

(machine learning):
http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/ml/weka/


Genie/Smile (free download for Bayesian networks)
from
http://genie.sis.pitt.edu/

Book requirement


Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (3rd
Edition) (Prentice Hall Series in Artificial
Intelligence). 2009. ISBN: 0136042597

Evaluation

GRADABLE

Percentage

4 Projects

50%

10
Homeworks

25%

Midterm exam

10%

Final exam

15%

Total

100%

Evaluation


Letter
Grade

Percentage

Letter
Grade

Percentage

A

94 to 100%

A
-

90 to 93%

B+

87 to 89%

B

84 to 86%

B
-

80 to 83%

C+

77 to 79%

C

74 to 76%

C
-

70 to 73%

D+

67 to 69%

D

64 to 66%

D
-

60 to 63%

F

Less than 60%

What is Artificial Intelligence?

Main topics


What is AI?


A brief history.


The State of the Art.

What is AI


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eq
-
AHmD8xz0



Discussion


AI systems are ….


Choose all that best describe AI systems:


Systems that think like humans


Systems that think rationally


Systems that act like humans


Systems that act rationally


Systems that make decisions for humans


Systems that play with humans


Acting humanly


Turing (1950) “Computing machinery and
intelligence": Can machines think?“ “Can machines
behave intelligently?” Operational test for
intelligent behavior: the Imitation Game


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jq0ELhpKevY



Predicted that by 2000, a machine might have a
30% chance of fooling a lay person for 5 minutes

Thinking humanly


1960s “cognitive revolution": information
-
processing
psychology replaced prevailing orthodoxy of behaviorism.


Requires
scientic

theories of internal activities of the brain


What level of abstraction? “Knowledge" or “circuits"?


How to validate? Requires


1) Predicting and testing behavior of human subjects (top
-
down)


or 2) Direct identification from neurological data (bottom
-
up)


Both share with AI the following characteristic:


the available theories do not explain (or engender) anything
resembling human
-
level general intelligence

Thinking rationally: Laws of Thought


Normative (or prescriptive) rather than descriptive


Direct line through mathematics and philosophy to
modern AI


Problems:


1) Not all intelligent behavior is mediated by logical
deliberation


2) What is the purpose of thinking? What thoughts
should I have out of all the thoughts (logical or
otherwise) that I could have?

Acting rationally


Rational behavior: doing the right thing (The right
thing: that which is expected to maximize goal
achievement, given the available information)


Doesn't necessarily involve but thinking should be in
the service of rational action

Supporting fields


Philosophy logic, methods of reasoning, mind as physical system,
foundations of learning, language, rationality


Mathematics formal representation and proof algorithms,
computation, (un)decidability, (in)tractability, probability


Psychology adaptation, phenomena of perception and motor
control, experimental techniques (psychophysics, etc.)


Economics formal theory of rational decisions


Linguistics knowledge representation, grammar


Neuroscience plastic physical substrate for mental activity


Control theory homeostatic systems, stability, simple optimal agent
designs


Control theory homeostatic systems, stability, simple optimal agent
designs

History of AI


1943 McCulloch & Pitts: Boolean circuit model of brain


1950 Turing's “Computing Machinery and Intelligence“


1950s Early AI programs, including Samuel's checkers program,


Newell & Simon's Logic Theorist, Gelernter's Geometry Engine


1956 Dartmouth meeting:
Articial

Intelligence" adopted


1965 Robinson's complete algorithm for logical reasoning


1966
-
74 AI discovers computational complexity


Neural network research almost disappears


1969
-
79 Early development of knowledge
-
based systems


1980
-
88 Expert systems industry booms


1988
-
93 Expert systems industry busts:
\
AI Winter"


1985
-
95 Neural networks return to popularity


1988 Resurgence of probability; general increase in technical depth,
Nouvelle AI":
ALife
,
GAs
,
soft
computing


1995: Agents, agents, everywhere : : :


2003: Human
-
level AI back on the agenda

State of the art


Which of the following can be done at present?


Play a decent game of table tennis


Drive safely along a curving mountain road


Drive safely through streets of a closed Air Force base


Buy a week's worth of groceries at Berkeley Bowl


Play a decent game of bridge


Discover and prove a new mathematical theorem


Design and execute a research program in molecular
biology

State of the art


Which of the following can be done at present?


Play a decent game of table tennis


Drive safely along a curving mountain road


Drive safely through streets of a closed Air Force base


Buy a week's worth of groceries at Berkeley Bowl (a
real grocery store)


Play a decent game of bridge


Discover and prove a new mathematical theorem


Design and execute a research program in molecular
biology

Discussion


To what extend are the following computer systems
instances of artificial intelligence


Supermarket bar code scanners


Web search engines


Voice
-
activated telephone menus


Internet routing algorithms that respond dynamically to
the state of the network

Discussion


“Sure computers cannot be intelligent


they can
only do what their programmers tell them.”


Is the latter statement true and does it imply the
former?