Introduction to DBA Responsibilities of a DBA

triangledriprockInternet and Web Development

Aug 7, 2012 (5 years and 2 months ago)

293 views

Introduction to DBA

Responsibilities of a DBA


Installing
and upgrading the Oracle server and application tools


Allocating system storage and planning future storage requirements for the
database system


Creating primary database storage structures (
tablespaces
) after application
developers have designed an application


Creating primary objects (tables, views, indexes) once application developers have
designed an application


Modifying the database structure, as necessary, from information given by
application developers


Enrolling users and maintaining system security


Ensuring compliance with your Oracle license agreement


Controlling and monitoring user access to the database


Monitoring and optimizing the performance of the database


Planning for backup and recovery of database information


Maintaining archived data on tape


Backing up and restoring the database


Contacting Oracle Corporation for technical support


What is grid computing?



Grid computing

is a term referring to the
federation of computer
resources from multiple administrative domains to reach a common goal
.


I
slands

of computing within organizations make inefficient use of

resources.


Systems are slow to change and expensive to maintain.


Grid computing addresses these problems by providing an a
daptive
software

infrastructure



makes efficient use of low
-
cost servers and modular storage,



balances workloads more effectively and provides capacity on demand.


By scaling out with small servers in small increments


performance and

reliability at low
-
cost.


New unified management


manage

everything cheaply and simply in the grid

Grid computing


E
nables

groups of networked computers to be pooled and
provisioned on demand to meet the changing needs of business.


Instead of dedicated servers and storage for each application,
grid computing enables multiple applications to share
computing infrastructure


resulting in much greater flexibility, cost, power efficiency,
performance, scalability and availability, all at the same time.


I
nstead

of buying oversized systems for peak periods or
uncertain growth
,

s
cale

out computing capacity on demand in
smaller units.


Remove unneeded or failed machines without interruptions in
service, saving cost and ensuring business continuity.


Manage all your systems end
-
to
-
end with integrated and
automated administration and monitoring.

Fundamental Attributes of Grid
Computing

1.
Virtualization,

2.
Dynamic

Provisioning,

3.
Resource Pooling,

4.
Self
-
adaptive Systems,

5.
Unified Management

B
enefits

Of Grid Computing
Using
Oracle 11g


Ending
the paralysis that results from having computer
and storage
systems

locked
down on specific
applications, databases, and files


Enabling
operations and administrative staff to flexibly
assign compute
and

storage
resources as needed,
enabling them to avoid locked
-
down
and

overprovisioned
resources


Providing
a means for easily assigning and tuning
resources to meet
the

business
’ service levels


Reducing
cost and enhancing business agility by more
effective utilization
of

resources
using commodity
hardware

Oracle Database 11
g
:


g
” Stands for Grid


Open Grid Forum (OGF)


Oracle’s grid infrastructure:


Low cost


High quality of service


Easy to manage

Automatic

Storage

Management

Real

Application

Clusters

Application

Server

Clusters

Enterprise

Manager

Grid Control

Storage

grid

Database

grid

Application

grid

Grid

control

Oracle Database 11
g
: “
g
” Stands for
Grid


Oracle grid
computing infrastructure
software


balances
all types of workloads across servers and


enables
all those servers to be managed as one complete
system.


Grid
computing
achieves
the same very high level of
reliability as mainframe computing because all
components are clustered.


U
nlike
mainframes and large UNIX symmetric
multiprocessing (SMP) servers, a grid can be built with
open system technologies, such as Intel processors and
the Linux operating system, at a very low cost.


Oracle Database 11
g
: “
g
” Stands for
Grid


Oracle’s grid computing technology includes:


Automatic
Storage Management (ASM)


Real Application Clusters (RAC)


Application Server Clusters


Enterprise Manager Grid Control


Automatic Storage Management


S
preads
database data across all disks,


C
reates
and maintains a storage grid, and
provides the highest input/output (I/O)
throughput with minimal management
costs


As
disks are added or dropped, ASM redistributes
the data
automatically


There
is no need for a logical volume manager to
manage the file
system


Data
availability increases with optional
mirroring


you
can add or drop disks online.


Real Application Clusters


Runs
and scales all application workloads on a cluster of servers and offers
the following features:


Integrated
clusterware
:

This includes functionality for cluster connectivity,
messaging and locking, cluster control, and recovery. It is available on all
platforms that are supported by Oracle Database 10
g
or later.


Automatic workload management:

Rules can be defined to automatically
allocate processing resources to each service both during normal operations
and in response to failures. These rules can be dynamically modified to meet
the changing business needs. This dynamic resource allocation within a
database grid is unique to Oracle RAC.


Automatic event notification to the mid
-
tier:

When a cluster configuration
changes, the mid
-
tier can immediately adapt to instance failover or availability
of a new instance. This enables end users to continue working in the event of
instance failover without the delays typically caused by network timeouts. In
the event of new instance availability, the mid
-
tier can immediately start load
balancing connections to that instance. Oracle Database 10
g
or later Java
Database Connectivity (JDBC) drivers have the “fast connection failover”
functionality that can be automatically enabled to handle these events
.

Oracle
WebLogic

Application Grid


works
with any application
server


Oracle
WebLogic

Server, IBM
WebSphere

Application Server,
and
JBoss

Application Server
-

or in a pure grid environment
without an application server.


provides
extreme and predictable application scalability
and performance.


With
capacity on demand,
can
linearly scale out
middleware infrastructure from a few to thousands of
servers.


it
provides fast access to frequently used data. Leveraging
this grid capability, computation can be done in parallel,
further improving application
performance

Enterprise Manager Grid Control


manages
gridwide

operations that include managing
the entire stack of software, provisioning users, cloning
databases, and managing patches.


monitors
the performance of all applications from the
point of view of your end users.


Grid
Control views the performance and availability of
the grid infrastructure as a unified whole rather than as
isolated storage units, databases, and application
servers.


Makes it possible to
group hardware nodes, databases,
and application servers into single logical entities and
manage a group of targets as one
unit

Grid Infrastructure for Single
-
Instance


Grid Infrastructure for Single
-
Instance is introduced
with Oracle Database 11
g

Release 2.


Is installed from the
clusterware

media, separate from
Oracle database software


Contains Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM)


Contains Oracle Restart


a high availability solution for
non
-
clustered databases


Can monitor and restart the following components:


Database Instances


Oracle Net Listener


Database Services


Automatic Storage Management (ASM) Instance


ASM Disk Groups


Oracle Notification Services (ONS/
eONS
) for Data Guard

Grid infrastructure for
Single
-
Instance


Oracle
Restart is designed to improve the availability of your Oracle
database.


It
implements a high availability solution for single instance (non
-
clustered) environments only.


For
Oracle Real Application Cluster (Oracle RAC) environments, the
functionality to automatically restart components is provided by
Oracle
Clusterware
.


Oracle
Restart ensures that the components are started in the
proper order, in accordance with component dependencies.


If
a component must be shut down, it ensures that the dependent
components are cleanly shut down first.


Oracle
Restart runs out of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home,
which you install separately from Oracle database homes
.