IT infrastructure

triangledriprockInternet and Web Development

Aug 7, 2012 (5 years and 2 months ago)

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IT infrastructure

Week 4

Defining IT infrastructure


Includes hardware, software, and services



A set of physical devices and software
applications that are required to operate the
entire enterprise



Your firm is largely dependent on its
infrastructure for delivering services to
customers, employees, and suppliers.



The importance of IT services


Information
technology
infrastructure is often
taken to mean
just hardware and software.


In
fact, the most important and often most
-
ignored component is that of
services.


Integrating
all three components forces a
business to think in terms of the value of the
whole and not just the parts.


As technology advances the types of hardware
and software available, it becomes more critical
for the firm to focus on the services that it can
provide to customers, suppliers, employees,

Examples of IT services


Telecommunications services:

connecting
employees, customers, and suppliers


Data management services:

not just storing, but
managing massive amounts of corporate data
and making it available to internal and external
users


IT education services:

training employees on how
to properly use the system


IT research and development services:

researching future IT projects and investments


Significance of IT infrastructure


IT infrastructure (ITI) is the foundation for


Serving customers


Working with suppliers and


Managing internal business processes


ITI is critical component of any business
strategy


The Connection between the Firm, IT
Infrastructure, and Business
Capabilities

Levels of IT infrastructure


Three major levels of infrastructure:




Public



Enterprise



Business unit



Public level


Includes the Internet, public telephone
networks on which businesses are increasingly
reliant, industry
-
operated networks, cable
systems, satellite systems, and mobile
telephone networks


Enterprise Level


Includes
email, Web sites, intranets, extranets,
and enterprise applications.

Business unit level


Concentrates
on those infrastructure
components that service the four functional
areas of a typical business: sales & marketing,
production & manufacturing, finance, and
human resources.

Levels of IT infrastructure


Figure 6
-
2

Evolution of IT Infrastructure: 1950

Present



General
-
purpose mainframe and
minicomputer era: (1959 to present)


Personal computer era: (1981 to present)


Client/server era: (1983 to present)


Enterprise internet computing era: (1992 to
present)


Cloud computing era (2000 to present)

M
ainframe and minicomputer era


The
mainframe era began with highly centralized
computing with networks of terminals
concentrated in the computing department.


Dominated by IBM


While
early models contained proprietary
software and data, today's mainframes are able
to process a wide variety of software and data.


IBM
mainframes
still process
two thirds of the
world’s business information every
day

Personal Computer era


First PCs in 1970s were limited to computer
enthusiasts


IBM PC 1981 generally considered the
beginning of the PC era


Proliferation in 80s, 90s resulted in growth of
personal software


Client/Server era


At the heart of every network is a
server
. It can be a
mainframe, midrange, minicomputer, workstation, or a
souped
-
up personal computer. It's where some of the data,
applications software, and other instructions are stored
that network users need in order to communicate with and
process transactions on the network.


The
client

computer is the node on the network that users
need to access and process transactions and data through
the network. Rather than one server trying to do it all, each
server is assigned a specific task on an
application server
.


Large companies use a
multitiered

client/server
architecture

that has several different levels of servers.


Enterprise internet computing era


Move toward integrating disparate networks,
applications using Internet standards and
enterprise applications


Cloud computing era


Refers to a model of computing where firms
and individuals obtain computing power and
software applications over the Internet


Fastest growing form
of computing

Eras in IT infrastructure evolution

Eras in IT infrastructure evolution (2)

A MULTITIERED CLIENT/SERVER
NETWORK (N
-
TIER)


Technology Drivers of Infrastructure
Evolution


Moore’s law and
microprocessing

power


The law of mass digital storage


Metcalfe’s law and network economics


Declining communications costs and the
Internet


Technology standards


Moore’s law

"
The number of transistors incorporated in a chip
will approximately double every 24 months."



Gordon Moore, Intel
Co
-
Founder


Law has been interpreted in multiple ways

1.
Microprocessor power (MIPS) doubles every 18 months

2.
Number of transistors on a chip doubles every 18 months

3.
Cost of computing falls by ½ every 18
months


Predicted to last for at least another decade


Driven by multiple technological breakthroughs


Currently heat dissipation and efficiency areas of
development

Falling cost of chips


Packing more transistors into less space has
driven down transistor cost dramatically as
well as the cost of the products in which they
are used. An Intel® processor today can
contain as many as 1 billion transistors, run at
3.2 GHz and higher, deliver over 10,000 MIPS,
and can be manufactured in high volumes
with transistors that cost less than
1/10,000th of a cent

Moore’s Law


Moore’s Law

The end of Moore’s Law


But this process cannot go on forever. At some point, it will be physically impossible
to etch transistors in this way that are the size of atoms. You can even calculate
roughly when Moore’s law will finally collapse: when you finally hit transistors the
size of individual
atoms. Around
2020 or soon afterward, Moore’s law will
gradually cease to hold true and Silicon Valley may slowly turn into a rust belt
unless a replacement technology is found. Transistors will be so small that
quantum theory or atomic physics takes over and electrons leak out of the wires.
For example, the thinnest layer inside your computer will be about five atoms
across. At that point, according to the laws of physics, the quantum theory takes
over. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that you cannot know both the
position and velocity of any particle. This may sound counterintuitive, but at the
atomic level you simply cannot know where the electron is, so it can never be
confined precisely in an ultrathin wire or layer and it necessarily leaks out, causing
the circuit to short
-
circuit. According to the laws of physics, eventually the Age of
Silicon will come to a close, as we enter the Post
-
Silicon Era


Michio

Kaku


Article here
http://www.salon.com/2011/03/19/moores_law_ends_excerpt/

The law of mass digital storage



The amount of data being stored each year
doubles


Magnetic
disk

real
storage density

doubles
approximately every 18 months, which was
referred to as
Kryder's

Law


The cost
of storing a kilobyte of data has fallen
exponentially, doubling the amount of digital
storage for each dollar expended every 15
month

Cost of storing data

Metcalfe’s Law and network economics



Metcalfe's law

states that the value of
a

telecommunications network

is

proportional
to the square

of the number of connected
users of the system



As network members increase, more people
want to use it (demand for network access
increases)


Declining communications costs and
the Internet



An estimated 1.5 billion people worldwide
have Internet access


As communication costs fall toward a very
small number and approach 0,
utilisation
of
communication and computing facilities
explode

Decline in Internet communication
costs

Technology Standards




Specifications
that establish the compatibility
of products and the ability to communicate in
a network


Unleash powerful economies of scale and
result in price declines as manufacturers focus
on the products built to a single standard


Some example of computing standards


ASCII


UNIX


TCP/IP


IBM/Microsoft/Intel Personal Computer


World wide web

IT Infrastructure has 7 main
components


1.
Computer hardware platforms

2.
Operating system platforms

3.
Enterprise software applications

4.
Data management and storage

5.
Networking/telecommunications platforms

6.
Internet platforms

7.
Consulting system integration services


IT infrastructure ecosystem

Computer hardware platforms


Client machines


Servers


Mainframes

Client Machines


Desktop PCs, mobile devices


PDAs,
laptops


Primarily using Intel or AMD processors


409 million PCs sold in 2011


Smartphone sales will surpass worldwide PC
sales by the end of
2011


http://www.pcworld.com/article/171380/mor
e_smartphones_than_desktop_pcs_by_2011.
html


Preliminary Worldwide PC Vendor
Unit Shipment Estimates for 2Q11
(Units)


Company

2Q11
Shipments

2Q11 Market
Share (%)

2Q10
Shipments

2Q10 Market
Share (%)

2Q10
-
2Q11
Growth (%)

HP

14,888,086

17.5

14,454,971

17.4

3.0

Dell

10,621,436

12.5

10,283,074

12.3

3.3

Lenovo

10,225,358

12.0

8,349,272

10.0

22.5

Acer

9,298,989

10.9

11,689,255

14.0

-
20.4

Asus

4,467,611

5.2

4,306,241

5.2

3.7

Toshiba

4,411,400

5.2

4,497,576

5.4

-
1.9

Others

31,306,987

36.7

29,732,493

35.7

5.3

Total

85,219,865

100.0

83,312,882

100.0

2.3

Servers


Blade servers
replacing
box
servers


Blade
servers: ultrathin computers stored in
racks


As well as Intel and AMD also Sun and IBM
processors on UNIX and Linux machines


UNIX variants have > 60% market share


Blade server


Mainframes


Market still growing


There are estimates that 80% of the world's data are
processed by mainframes


IBM dominant.
A
round
90% of mainframe applications
use native IBM mainframe operating systems and run
on IBM hardware
.


T
otal
amount of mainframe code still in use amounts to
an

estimated 200
-
300 billion lines of source code

.


Single IBM mainframe can run many thousand instance
of Linux or Widows server
software share


Operating system platforms


Client side dominated by MS windows Linux
and Mac slowly increasing market share


XP still leading version of windows


Microsoft also leader on server side


Linux
is the fastest growing in the Server
segment, with Red Hat dominating the Linux
market.



The mobile operating system market lead by
apple

Desktop operating systems market
share


Windows 92%


Mac 7%


Linux 1%


Sun 0%

Operating systems versions market
share

Total Market Share



Windows XP

47.19%


Windows 7

36.40%


Windows Vista

8.22%


Mac OS X 10.6

2.95%


Mac OS X 10.7

2.18%


Linux

1.56%


Mac OS X 10.5

0.97%


Mac OS X 10.4

0.24%


Windows 2000

0.13%


Windows NT

0.06%


Mac OS X (no version reported)

0.03%


Windows 8

0.02%


Windows 98

0.02%


Mac OS X Mach
-
O

0.01%


Windows ME

0.01

Worldwide OS revenue and market
share

Vendor

2010 Revenue

2010 Market
Share (%)

2009 Revenue

2009 Market
Share (%)

2009
-
2010

Growth (%)

Microsoft

23,848

78.6

21,926

77.9

8.8

IBM

2,284

7.5

2,163

7.7

5.6

HP

1,125

3.7

1,109

3.9

1.4

Oracle

780

2.6

10

0.0

7,682.8

Red Hat

610

2.0

517

1.8

18.0

Apple

520

1.7

449

1.6

15.8

Others

1,183

3.9

1,968

7.0

-
39.9

Total

30,350

100.0

28,142

100.0

7.8

Mobile OS market share


iOS

53.65%


Java ME

19.19%


Android

18.12%


Symbian

5.20%


BlackBerry

2.59%


Kindle

0.34%


Windows Phone

0.29%


Samsung

0.20%


Bada

0.15%


Windows Mobile

0.12

Enterprise software applications


Enterprise application software is

application
software

that performs business functions
such as order processing, procurement,
production scheduling, customer information
management, and accounting.




It is typically hosted on servers and provides
simultaneous services to a large number of
users, typically over a computer network
.


SAP and Oracle are the largest providers

Services provided by enterprise
application software


Payment processing


Automated billing systems


Content management


Customer relationship management


Resource planning


Business Intelligence


HR management

Data management and storage


Enterprise database management software is
responsible for organising and managing an
organisation’s software


Leading providers include IBM,
S
ybase, Microsoft,
and Oracle


Physical data storage market dominated by EMC
for large scale systems and
Seagate
, Maxtor,
Western
Digital (PC hard disc manufacturers


The amount of digital data is doubling every three
years as result the market for digital data storage
devices is rapidly expanding


Networking/telecommunications platforms



Includes networking hardware, networking
services and networking operating systems


Telecommunication services


Telecommunications, cable, telephone company
charges for voice lines and Internet access


AT&T, Verizon


Network operating systems:


Windows Server, Novell, Linux, Unix


Network hardware providers:


Cisco, Alcatel
-
Lucent, Nortel, Juniper Networks



Internet platforms


Hardware, software, management services to
support company Web sites, (including Web
hosting services) intranets, extranets


Internet hardware server market: Dell,
HP/Compaq, IBM


Web development tools/suites: Microsoft
(FrontPage, .NET) IBM (
WebSphere
) Sun (Java),
independent software developers: Adobe,
RealMedia


Consulting and Integration


Even large firms do not have resources for a full
range of support for new, complex infrastructure


Software integration: ensuring new infrastructure
works with legacy systems


Legacy systems: older TPS created for mainframes
that would be too costly to replace or redesign


Accenture, IBM Global Services, EDS, Infosys,
Wipro


Management Challenges



Dealing
with
scalability

and technology
change


Management and governance


Making wise infrastructure investments


Dealing with
scalability

and
technology change



As firms shrink or grow, IT needs to be flexible and scalable


Scalability:


Ability to expand to serve larger numbers of users


For mobile computing and cloud computing


New policies and procedures for managing these new
platforms


Contractual agreements with firms running clouds and
distributing software required


Management and
goverance


Who controls IT infrastructure?


How should IT department be organized?


Centralized


Central IT department makes decisions


Decentralized


Business unit IT departments make own decisions


How are costs allocated between divisions,
departments?


Making wise infrastructure
investments


IT infrastructure is a major investment for
many firms


Too much spend
-

under used infrastructure
and wasted money


Too little may compromise the delivery of
business services and risk being outperformed
by competitors


Important secondary decision purchase or hire
infrastructure


Competitive forces model for IT
infrastructure investment


1.
Market demand for firm’s services

2.
Firm’s business strategy

3.
Firm’s IT strategy, infrastructure, and cost

4.
Information technology assessment

5.
Competitor firm services

6.
Competitor firm IT infrastructure investments

COMPETITIVE FORCES MODEL FOR IT
INFRASTRUCTURE


Total cost of ownership (TCO) model



Analyzes direct and indirect costs


Hardware, software account for only about 20% of TCO


Other costs: Installation, training, support,
maintenance, infrastructure, downtime, space and
energy


TCO can be reduced through use of cloud services,
greater centralization and standardization of hardware
and software resources