What do you need?

toycutnshootNetworking and Communications

Oct 27, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)



do you need?

A common language or protocol (TCP/IP IPX/SPX, APPLE TALK) is a convention or standard that
controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between two computing

A common language or protocol (TCP/IP
IPX/SPX, APPLE TALK) is a convention or standard that
controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between two computing

Cabling BNC,Cat5,


Hardware NIC(Network Interface Card), router, switch, hub, modem wirel
ess access point.

Network Service (DNS, WINS, DHCP).

Network Hardware

Network Interface Card

A network card, network adapter, network interface card or NIC is a piece of computer hardware
designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network.

It has a MAC address. Every
network card has a unique 48
bit serial number called a MAC address, which is written to ROM
carried on the card. Every computer on a network must have a card with a unique MAC address.
The IEEE is responsible for assigning MAC

addresses to the vendors of network interface cards. No
two cards ever manufactured should share the same address.


An Ethernet hub or concentrator is a device for connecting multiple twisted pair or fibre optic
Ethernet devices together, making them
act as a single segment. It works at the physical layer of
the OSI model, repeating the signal received at one port out each of the other ports (but not the
original one). The device is thus a form of multiport repeater. Ethernet hubs are also responsible
forwarding a jam signal to all ports if it detects a collision. Hubs also often come with a BNC and/or
AUI connector to allow connection to legacy 10BASE2 or 10BASE5 network segments. The
availability of low
priced Ethernet switches has largely rendere
d hubs obsolete but they are still seen
in older installations and more specialist applications.


A network switch or switch for short is a networking device that performs transparent bridging
(connection of multiple network segments with forwardin
g based on MAC addresses) at full wire
speed in hardware. As a frame comes into a switch, the switch saves the originating MAC address
and the originating (hardware) port in the switch’s MAC address table. This table often uses content
addressable memory,
so it is sometimes called the “CAM table”. The switch then selectively
transmits the frame from specific ports based on the frame’s destination MAC address and previous
entries in the MAC address table. If the destination MAC address is unknown, for instan
ce, a
broadcast address or (for simpler switches) a multicast address, the switch simply transmits the
frame out of all of the connected interfaces except the incoming port. If the destination MAC
address is known, the frame is forwarded only to the corres
ponding port in the MAC address table.

Hubs VS Switches

A hub, or repeater, is a fairly unsophisticated broadcast device. Any packet entering any port is
broadcast out on every port and thus hubs do not manage any of the traffic that comes through
their po
rts. Since every packet is constantly being sent out through every port, this results in packet
collisions, which greatly impedes the smooth flow of traffic. A switch isolates ports, meaning that
every received packet is sent out only to the port on which
the target may be found (assuming the
proper port can be found; if it is not, then the switch will broadcast the packet to all ports except
the port the request originated from). Since the switch intelligently sends packets only where they
need to go the p
erformance of the network can be greatly increased.


A router is a computer networking device that forwards data packets across a network toward their
destinations, through a process known as routing. A router acts as a junction between two or more
networks to transfer data packets among them. A router is different from a switch. A switch
connects devices to form a Local area network (LAN).

One easy illustration for the different functions of routers and switches is to think of switches as
local stre
ets, and the router as the junctions with the street signs. Each house on the local street
has an address within a range on the street. In the same way, a switch connects various devices
each with their own IP address(es) on a LAN. Routers connect networks

together the way that on
ramps or major junctions connect streets to both main roads and motorways. The street signs at the
junctions the (routing table) show which way the packets need to flow.


Wireless Access Point (WAP) A wireless access point

(AP) connects a group of wireless stations to an
adjacent wired local area network (LAN). An access point is similar to an Ethernet hub, but instead
of relaying LAN data only to other LAN stations, an access point can relay wireless data to all other
atible wireless devices as well as to a single (usually) connected LAN device, in most cases an
Ethernet hub or switch, allowing wireless devices to communicate with any other device on the LAN.

Wireless Routers A wireless router integrates a wireless acce
ss point with an Ethernet switch and an
Ethernet router. The integrated switch connects the integrated access point and the integrated
Ethernet router internally, and allows for external wired Ethernet LAN devices to be connected as
well as a (usually) sin
gle WAN device such as a cable modem or DSL modem. A wireless router
advantageously allows all three devices (mainly the access point and router) to be configured
through one central configuration utility, usually through an integrated web server. However
disadvantage is that one may not decouple the access point so that it may be used elsewhere.


Cable Terminology

10BASE2 (also known as
cheaper net

thin net
) is a variant of Ethernet that uses thin coaxial
cable. The 10 comes from the maximum transmission speed of 10 Mbit/s (millions of bits per
second). The BASE stands for baseband signaling, and the 2 represents a rounded up shorthand for
the maximum segmen
t length of 185

(607 feet).

10BASE5 (also known as
thick net
) is the original “full spec” variant of Ethernet cable. The 10 refers
to its transmission speed of 10 Mbit/s. The BASE is short for baseband signalling as opposed to
broadband, and the 5 s
tands for the maximum segment length of 500 metres.

T is an implementation of Ethernet which allows stations to be attached via twisted pair
cable. The name 10BASE
T is derived from several aspects of the physical medium. The 10 refers to
the transmission speed of 10 Mbit/s. The BASE is short for bas
eband.The T comes from twisted pair,
which is the type of cable that is used

T is any of several Fast Ethernet 100 Mbit/s CSMA/CD standards for twisted pair cables,
including: 100BASE
TX (100 Mbit/s over two
pair Cat5 or better cable). The segment
length for a
T cable is limited to 100 metres


Coaxial cable is an electrical cable consisting of a round conducting wire, surrounded by an
insulating spacer, surrounded by a cylindrical conducting sheath, usually surrounded by a final
ating layer. It is used as a high
frequency transmission line to carry a high
frequency or
broadband signal.

BNC connectors were commonly used on 10base2 thin Ethernet networks, both on cable
interconnections and network cards, though these have largely be
en replaced by newer Ethernet
devices whose wiring does not use coaxial cable.


Category 5 cable, commonly known as Cat 5, is an unshielded twisted pair cable type designed for
high signal integrity. Category 5 has been superseded by the Category 5e s
pecification. This type of
cable is often used in structured cabling for computer networks such as Gigabit Ethernet, although
they are also used to carry many other signals such as basic voice services, token ring.

Category 5 cable included four twisted pa
irs in a single cable jacket. It was most commonly used for
100 Mbit/s networks, such as 100BASE
TX Ethernet

Cat5 cable uses an RJ
45 (Registered Jack
45) connector at each end of the cable with a fixed
wiring scheme. The ends are then crimped on to the ca

Wiring Scheme

Patch or straight through cables have Wiring scheme 1 at both ends of the cable and are used to
connect computers to network wall sockets or hubs.

Crossover cables have Wiring scheme 1 at one end of the cable and Wiring scheme 2 at the o
These cables are used to connect network hardware together e.g. PC to PC, hub to hub.


A protocol (TCP/IP IPX/SPX, APPLE TALK) is a convention or standard that controls or enables the
connection, communication, and data transfer between two
computing endpoints. Sending and
receiving systems need to use the same protocol unless a gateway service sits between networks
and translates from one to the other.

Most protocols specify one or more of the following properties:

Detection of the underlyin
g physical connection (wired or wireless), or the existence of the other
endpoint or node


Negotiation of various connection characteristics

How to start and end a message

How to format a message

What to do with corrupted or improperly formatted

messages (error correction)

How to detect unexpected loss of the connection, and what to do next

Termination of the session or connectio


NetBIOS is an acronym for Network Basic Input/Output

System. The NetBIOS API allows
applications on separate computers to communicate over a local area network. NetBIOS must be
enabled for Windows File and Print Sharing to work.

NetBIOS provides three distinct services:

Name service for name registration an
d resolution

Session service for connection
oriented communication

Datagram distribution service for connectionless communication.

Name service In order to start Sessions or distribute Datagrams, an application must register its
NetBIOS name using the Name

service. NetBIOS names are 16 bytes in length

Session service Session mode lets two computers establish a connection for a “conversation,” allows
larger messages to be handled, and provides error detection and recovery. In NBT, the session
service runs on

TCP port 139.

Datagram distribution service Datagram mode is “connectionless”. Since each message is sent
independently, they must be smaller; the application becomes responsible for error detection and
recovery. In NBT, the datagram service runs on UDP p
ort 138.


Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is the OSI
model Network layer protocol in the IPX/SPX
protocol stack. The IPX/SPX protocol stack is supported by Novell’s NetWare network operating
system. Because of Netware’s popularity throug
h the late 1980s into the mid 1990s, IPX became a
popular internetworking protocol. Novell derived IPX from Xerox Network Services’ IDP protocol. IPX
usage is in general decline as the boom of the Internet has made TCP/IP nearly universal.
Computers and ne
tworks can run multiple network protocols, so almost all IPX sites will be running
TCP/IP as well to allow for Internet connectivity. It is also now possible to run Novell products
without IPX, as they have supported both IPX and TCP/IP since NetWare reach
ed version 5.

Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) is a transport layer protocol (layer 4 of the OSI Model) used in
Novell Netware networks. The SPX layer sits on top of the IPX layer (layer 3

the network layer)
and provides connection
oriented services betwe
en two nodes on the network. SPX is used primarily
by client/server applications.

NWLink is a IPX/SPX
compatible protocol developed by Microsoft and used in its Windows NT
product line.NWLink is Microsoft’s version of Novell’s IPX/SPX Protocol. The Microso
ft version of
NWLink includes the same level of functionality as the Novell Protocol. NWLink includes a tool for
resolving NetBIOS names.NWLink packages data to be compatible with client/server services on
NetWare Networks. However, NWLink does not provide

access to NetWare File and Print Services.
To access the File and Print Services the Client Service for NetWare needs to be installed.


AppleTalk is a suite of protocols developed by Apple Computer for computer networking. It was
included in the
original Macintosh (1984) and is now used less by Apple in favour of TCP/IP

AppleTalk contains two protocols aimed at making the system completely self
configuring. The
AppleTalk address resolution protocol (AARP) allowed AppleTalk hosts to aut
omatically generate
their own network addresses, and the Name Binding Protocol (NBP) was essentially a dynamic DNS
system which mapped network addresses to user
readable names.

For interoperability Microsoft maintains the file services for Macintosh and th
e print services for


The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack
on which the Internet and most commercial networks run. It is sometimes called the TCP/IP
protocol suite, after the t
wo most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were also the first two defined.The Internet protocol suite like
many protocol suites can be viewed as a set of layers, each layer solves a set

of problems involving
the transmission of data, and provides a well
defined service to the upper layer protocols based on
using services from some lower layers. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with
more abstract data, relying on low
er layer protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually
be physically transmitted.The OSI model describes a fixed, seven layer stack for networking
protocols. Comparisons between the OSI model and TCP/IP can give further insight into the
icance of the components of the IP suite, but can also cause confusion, as TCP/IP consists of
only 4 layers.

The four layers in the DoD model, from bottom to top, are:

The Network Access Layer is responsible for delivering data over the particular hardware

in use. Different protocols are selected from this layer, depending on the type of physical

The Internet Layer is responsible for delivering data across a series of different physical
networks that interconnect a source and destination mach
ine. Routing protocols are most closely
associated with this layer, as is the IP Protocol, the Internet’s fundamental protocol.

The Host
Host Layer handles connection rendezvous, flow control, retransmission of lost data,
and other generic data flow
management. The mutually exclusive TCP and UDP protocols are
this layer’s most important members.

The Process Layer contains protocols that implement user
level functions, such as mail delivery,
file transfer and remote login.

Network Services

DNS (Domain
Naming System)

The Domain Name System (DNS) stores and associates many types of information with domain
names, but most importantly, it translates domain names (computer hostnames) to IP addresses. It
also lists mail exchange servers accepting e
mail for e
ach domain. In providing a worldwide
based redirection service, DNS is an essential component of contemporary Internet use.

The DNS pre
eminently makes it possible to attach easy
remember domain names (such as “es
net.co.uk”) to hard

IP addresses (such as People take advantage of
this when they recite URLs and e
mail addresses.

WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service)

Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is Microsoft’s implementation of NetBIOS Name Server
(NBNS) on
Windows, a name server and service for NetBIOS computer names. Effectively, it is to
NetBIOS names what DNS is to domain names

a central mapping of host names to network
addresses. However, the mappings have always been dynamically updated (e.g. at works
boot) so that when a client needs to contact another computer on the network it can get its up
date DHCP allocated address. Networks normally have more than one WINS server and each WINS
server should be in push pull replication; the favoured rep
lication model is the hub and spoke, thus
the WINS design is not central but distributed. Each WINS server holds a full copy of every other
related WINS system’s records. There is no hierarchy in WINS (unlike DNS), but like DNS its
database can be queried
for the address to contact rather than broadcasting a request for which
address to contact. The system therefore reduces broadcast traffic on the network, however
replication traffic can add to WAN / LAN traffic.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) automates the assignment of IP addresses, subnet
masks, default routers, and other IP parameters. The assignment usually occurs when the DHCP
configured machine boots up or regains connectivity to the network.

The DHCP client sends out a
query requesting a response from a DHCP server on the locally attached network. The DHCP server
then replies to the client with its assigned IP address, subnet mask, DNS server and default gateway
information.The assignment of
the IP address usually expires after a predetermined period of time,
at which point the DHCP client and server renegotiate a new IP address from the server’s predefined
pool of addresses. Configuring firewall rules to accommodate access from machines who r
their IP addresses via DHCP is therefore more difficult because the remote IP address will vary from
time to time. Administrators must usually allow access to the entire remote DHCP subnet for a
particular TCP/UDP port. Most home routers and firewal
ls are configured in the factory to be DHCP
servers for a home network. ISPs (Internet Service Providers) generally use DHCP to assign clients
individual IP addresses.DHCP is a broadcast
based protocol. As with other types of broadcast traffic,
it does not

cross a router.

APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing)

If computers are unable to pick an address up from a DHCP server they use Automatic Private IP
Addressing (APIPA). This means the computer will assign itself a random address between

16, allowing it to communicate with other clients who are also using

Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA), this allows unknowledgeable users to connect computers,
networked printers, and other items together and expect them to work.

Without Zeroconf or
something similar, a knowledgeable user must either set up special servers, like DHCP and DNS, or
set up each computer by hand.


A Local Area Network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small local area, like a home, office,

or small group of buildings such as a home, office, or college. Current LANs are most likely to be
based on switched Ethernet or Wi
Fi technology running at 10, 100 or 1,000 Mbit/s.The defining
characteristics of LANs in contrast to WANs (wide area networ
ks) are: their much higher data rates;
smaller geographic range; and that they do not require leased telecommunication lines.

A Personal Area Network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer
devices (including telephones and person
al digital assistants) close to one person. The reach of a
PAN is typically a few metres and may use Bluetooth, wireless or USB for connection.

A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network covering a wide geographical area, involving a
vast array of com
puters. This is different from personal area networks (PANs), metropolitan area
networks (MANs) or local area networks (LANs) that are usually limited to a room, building or
campus. The most well
known example of a WAN is the Internet. WANs are used to con
nect local
area networks (LANs) together, so that users and computers in one location can communicate with
users and computers in other locations.

Introduction to Microsoft Windows

The oldest of all Microsoft’s operating systems is MS
DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System). MS
DOS is a text
based operating system. Users have to type commands rather than use the more
friendly graphical user interfaces (GUI’s) available today. Despite i
ts very basic appearance, MS
is a very powerful operating system. There are many advanced applications and games available for
DOS. A version of MS
DOS underpins Windows. Many advanced administration tasks in Windows
can only be performed using MS

The history of Microsoft Windows dates back to
1985, when Microsoft released Microsoft Windows Version 1.01. Microsoft’s aim was to provide a
friendly user
interface known as a GUI (graphical user interface) which allowed for easier navigation
of the
system features. Windows 1.01 never really caught on.

(The amazing thing about Windows
1.01 is that it fitted on a single floppy disk!). In 1987 Microsoft revamped the operating system and
released Windows 2.03.

The GUI was very slightly improved but st
ill looked too similar to Windows
1.01. The operating system again failed to capture a wide audience.

Microsoft made an enormous impression with Windows 3.0 and 3.1. Graphics and functionality were
drastically improved. The Windows 3.x family provided mult
imedia capabilities as well as vastly
improved graphics and application support.

Building on the success of Windows 3.x, Microsoft released Microsoft Windows For Workgroups 3.11.
This gave Windows the ability to function on a network. It is not uncommon to

find companies still
using Windows 3.11.

In 1993 Microsoft divided the operating system into two categories; Business and home user.
Windows NT (New Technology) was a lot more reliable than Windows 3.x. Windows NT provided
advanced network features. On th
e business front, Windows NT continued to develop with the
release of version 3.51. Different versions were provided which offered different functionality. Server
provided the higher network functions and Workstation was mainly for the client machines.

1995 Windows went through a major revamp and Microsoft Windows 95 was released. This
provided greatly improved multimedia and a much more polished user interface. The now familiar
desktop and Start Menu appeared. Internet and networking support was built i
n Although Windows
95 was a home user operating system, it proved to be very popular in schools and businesses.

After the success of Windows 95, Microsoft improved the GUI interface of Windows NT and released
Windows NT 4.0. NT4 could be tailored to the si
ze of the business, NT4 Server for small to medium
sized businesses and Enterprise Server for larger networks. Microsoft continued to improve the
Windows format. Although Microsoft Windows 98 was very similar to Windows 95, it offered a much
tidier display

and enhanced multimedia support.

Breaking with its own

naming conventions,
Microsoft released Windows 2000 (initially called NT 5.0) for the business market. It appeared in 4
models: Professional

which replaced Workstation, Server, Advanced Server and

Datacenter Server
catered for differing business requirements.

Although Windows 2000 had a greatly improved user interface, the best of the enhancements
appeared on the server side. Active Directory was introduced which allowed much greater control of
urity and organisation. Improvements to the overall operating system allowed for easier
configuration and installation.

One big advantage of Windows 2000 was that operating system settings could be modified easily
without the need to restart the machine. W
indows 2000 proved to be a very stable operating system
that offered enhanced security and ease of administration.

The last incarnation of the Windows 9x family was Windows Millennium Edition (ME). There were
many different versions of Windows floating aro
und at this stage that Microsoft decided the next
release of Windows would consolidate both the business and home versions. Although Windows ME
was visually similar to Windows 2000. Windows ME was based on the Windows 9x line. Windows
9x/ME systems are not

as secure and stable as Windows NT and 2000 systems.

Because of the stability of Windows NT/2000, Microsoft decided to end the development of the
Windows 9x line, and merge both the consumer and business products. Microsoft Windows XP
comes as the Home Ed
ition and Professional, each is based on Windows 2000. Windows 2000
Server has been upgraded to Windows 2003. This appears in four variants: Web Server, Standard
Server, Enterprise Server and Datacenter Server, each fulfilling a different business role. Wi
XP has a very polished look, but the overall functionality is very similar to Windows 2000.

Other Operating Systems

The Windows family is the most widely used Operating System. There are other operating systems
in the computing world, and some are a
lot older than Microsoft Windows. Luckily most operating
systems can interoperate with each other. Many of today’s larger networks contain a variety of
operating systems.


A big advantage of UNIX is that it can be run on nearly every computer hardware
platform including
Apple Macintosh machines. The UNIX operating system is one of the oldest and most powerful
operating systems. It was developed by Bell Laboratories. There are many variants of UNIX

Novell NetWare

Novell NetWare is an advanced
network operating system. It has an advanced directory service
structure similar to Microsoft’s Active Directory. Fortunately both directory services are interoperable
as both directories use the x500 directory service standard.


Two of the mo
st popular variations of UNIX come in the form of Linux and FreeBSD. A big
advantage of both Linux and FreeBSD is that they are both open
source, that is, any user can
contribute to the development of the OS. Versions of both operating systems are complete
ly free.

Linux and FreeBSD can easily take the role of a server or client machine. However, they are
considered to be more difficult to master as both utilize the command line rather than a user friendly
GUI. There are several different distributions of Li
nux, but for each the underlying operating system
remains the same.

Apple Macintosh machines offer high performance sound and graphics editing and are therefore
extremely popular in the design industry. Apple have developed their own operating system, the
newest version of which is the Mac OS X, which is based on UNIX.

Mac OS X is a very user friendly operating system and is increasingly popular for home PCs.

File Server

A File Server stores files and folders that are used by other machines on the network.

It can hold
applications, text documents, or a user’s My Documents Folder.

For security, many shared folders
are housed on file servers. A distributed file system is housed on more than one file server for the
sake of fault
tolerance and ease of access.

A Windows XP Professional machine may act as a limited File Server.

A Windows Server 2003 Computer can also act as a file server for different operating systems, e.g.
Apple Macintosh.

These are some typical file icons. They help the user to identify the fi
le type. There are innumerable
file types, some of the common ones are represented here:



a bitmap image



a Word document



a sound file



animated slides



plain text



a spreadsheet



a database file


A shortcut (note

the arrow)



an application (a program)

Windows allows you to view information about files in different ways. the icon view

the default
used by Windows XP.

To change the icon view, click on View on the menu bar. Select the required view from the av

By default if a file type is a

known one, such as a Microsoft Word Document, Windows won’t display
its file extension. To view all file extensions click on Tools on the menu bar.

Various options can be configured. e.g. Display compressed fil
es and folders with alternate colours.
To display all file extensions, untick the Hide file extensions for known file types box.

File extensions are best left alone. Opening a file with the wrong application can sometimes damage
the file. However you may a
t some stage need to change a file’s extension.


Each of these is a folder. They may contain files or other folders (called subfolders) or both. There
may be many “nestings” of folders within folders.

Files and folders are located on the computer
by using a file path. The “James” folder is located
inside a folder called “Home”, which is located inside a folder called “es
net”, which is located on the
“C:” drive. The file path will be “C:

Moving and Copying

To move a file or fold
er, either right click on its icon OR left click on the Edit

option on the toolbar.
Choose cut to move or copy to copy!

At this point the item has been placed onto a clipboard

an area of memory accessible from nearly
any application in Windows. Right cl
ick (or open Edit in the toolbar) in an open destination folder
and choose “Paste” (or use drag and drop) .


an attempt is made to move an item between volumes, it is effectively copied, and the
original remains.

Creating Files and Folders

This is mer
cifully easy. Simply right
click on some empty space in any suitable folder or the desktop
and choose to create a new object from the choices offered.

Be careful not to alter the file extension, as this can render the file unreadable. File extensions are
sually hidden for this reason.

Print Server

A Print Server is a computer that has a printer attached to it and shares the printer for use on the

A Windows XP Professional Machine can be a reasonably capable Print Server.

Application Server

des being a Domain Controller, Windows Server 2003 can also be a host to many different
services e.g. as a Database Server and a Terminal Server.

Some Common Microsoft Servers:

Microsoft Exchange allows you to setup an e
mail server and also allows you set
up a messaging and
collaboration system for your company’s network.

Microsoft SQL Server enables you to setup up powerful database servers for your company’s

Microsoft ISA Server allows you to setup an Internet Gateway/Proxy Server for your compan

These applications require Windows Server 2003. Their integration with Active Directory allows for
tighter security and easier administration.

A Database Server holds a database! This is not just a list of information. It is structured, and
namic. It needs to be managed, updated, extended and secure, while at the same time being
accessible to users.

A dedicated server is required for this.

Remote Administration enables an administrator to manage a server from almost any workstation on
network using Terminal Services. Terminal Services lets workstations use powerful applications
housed at the server as if they were installed at that workstation.

Web Servers

A Web Server hosts and manages websites for the Internet or an intranet. Because
of the need to
manage heavy and burst
mode traffic while maintaining security, a dedicated server is

Windows 2003 can function as a web server using the Internet Information Services (IIS) service

Windows XP Professional ships with a limited
version of IIS which allows a workstation to host a
single website.

Clicking on START is a recommended way to access frequently used applications:

Clicking on START reveals the Run option which provides a quick way of launching



first few characters of a pathname have been typed and the auto
complete feature uses this to
make suggestions based upon recent usage. Clicking on one of these completes the entry. This can
be useful to avoid mistyping.

The Start Menu can also be easily
configured by simply right
clicking on it and selecting Properties.

Icon sizes can be changed as well as the number of program shortcuts displayed. Select Advanced
to view a few in depth options.

Various items can be enabled and disabled by choosing the op
tions shown, e.g. The Control Panel
can be disabled from the Start Menu.

To change the Start Menu to the style used in Windows 2000 select Classic Start Menu.

Clicking on Start reveals the older style Start Menu used in pre
Windows XP computers.

This is th
e Desktop. It is a folder just like any other and it can be manipulated to contain whatever
the administrator requires for each user.

The My Documents Folder is the default destination for a user’s work. It can be placed, separately
from the desktop, on
any server in the network.

In this guise it can still appear to the user as what is known as a local resource!
























for exam

In which version of Windows did the start menu first appear?

Windows 95

Points: 10

Microsoft SQL Server extends Microsoft Windows Server 2003 by?

adding database functionality to the operating system

Points: 10

Microsoft Windows XP Professional w
as built upon and similar to which of the following operating

Windows 2000 Professional

Points: 10

Microsoft ISA Server extends Microsoft Windows Server 2003 by?

adding internet
connection/proxy server services.

Points: 10

File Extension allows
Windows to?

recognise which application can read the file.

Points: 10

Microsoft Exchange extends Microsoft Windows Server 2003 by?

providing e
mail services for clients.

Points: 10

Which of the following statements describes the roles of an operating syste
m? (Choose all that apply)

An Operating System provides the underlying framework upon which other applications can run

Points: 5

Which of the following statements describes the roles of an operating system? (Choose all that apply)

An Operating System provi
des all of the low
level functions that allow software to interact with hardware.

Points: 5

Which of the following statements are true concerning the Windows Desktop? (Choose all that apply)

The Windows Desktop is similar to any other folder on the compute

Points: 5

Which of the following statements are true concerning the Windows Desktop? (Choose all that apply)

The Windows Desktop provides a convenient location for storing commonly accessed files, folders and
application shortcuts.

Points: 5

On your Win
dows XP Professional computer you have two separate drives: Drive C: and Drive D:. What
will be the result of dragging a folder from your C: drive to the D: drive?

The folder will be copied from Drive C: to Drive D:

Points: 10

The run option from the Start

Menu is used to?

Run a command.