Chapter One

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RESEARCH REPORT

OPEN SOURCE DATABASE
S







Assignment One


Research Report on Open Source Databases

















HIT
334

Database Systems




22 September 2006

ii



TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER ON
E

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1

Abstract

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1

CHAPTER TWO

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2

Introduction

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2

CHAPTER THREE
-

CONCLUSIONS

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8

REFERENCES

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10


















1



CHAPTER ONE

Abstract

This report defines open source

database management systems
. It further
discusses
the open source community initiative
1

and

the licensing
arrangement central to open source.
T
hree open source database products,
namely MySQL,

PostgreSQL and IBM Cloudscape will be
examined

and
compared
whe
re possible
for the purposes of this report.

Future directions are
discussed
utilising information sourced
from prediction

analysts

such as
Gartner and Forrester.









1

Open Source Initiative,
http://www.opensource.org/docs/definition_plain.php


2



CHAPTER TWO

Introduction


An o
pen Source Database
Management

system has been

defined by

Wikipedia
2

as follows;



Database engine or management software that has been released
under an open source license.”



Open source is a term used to describe software or products subject to
licensing agreements that are freely accessible for people to do
wnload, use
or modify.
The term o
pen Source is defined by Gartner as follows;


Describes software that comes with permission to use, copy and
distribute it, either as is or with modifications and that may be
offered either free or with a charge. The source

code must be
made available.”
3



O
pen source

is a community
initiative
4

and

defines 10 elements that must be
met for a product to
fall within

the

open source

criteria
.

Each element is
discussed in detail on the open source initiative web page.
The headi
ngs

are
as follows;

1. Free Redistribution

2. Source Code

3. Derived Works

4. Integrity of
the

Author's Source Code

5. No Discrimination
against

Persons or Groups

6. No Discrimination
against

Fields of Endeavour

7. Distribution of License

8. License Must N
ot Be Specific to a Product

9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software

10. License Must Be Technology
-
Neutral






2

Wikipedia,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Open_source_database_management_systems


3

Gartner,
http://www.
gartner.com/6_help/glossary/GlossaryO.jsp

4

Open Source Initiative,
http://www.opensource.org/docs/definition_plain.php


The full explanations of the 10 definitions may be found at the O
pen source initiative website.

3



Licensing

There are several types of licensing arrangements for open source
code and
databases. The most common is the General Public license

(GNU, GPL).

General Public license. The free software reference in the license refers to the
freedom to use it, change or modify the source code or to share it. It is not as
a reference to the cost. This arrangement also means that there is no
warranty on
the software.
5

The Free Software

Foundation
6

web site has links
to

listings of

GPL
compatible

and non compatible licenses.

PostgreSQL uses
the BSD
7

licensing
arrangement
. MySQL and IBM Cloudscape both use a dual
licensing system of Commercial licence for
commercial applications and
open source, GPL for MySQL and
Apache licensing arrangement

for IBM
Cloudscape
.


Cost of Open Source Databases

Open source Databases are free to download and use, subject to the
licensing agreement. The following example
is a he
lpful demonstration
of
ongoing costs
;

“Free kittens

Open source software is as free as a free kitten.

You see a kitten and a
sign next to it that says free. The kitten purrs. It plays with a ball of yarn. It
is cute and fuzzy. You take it home. You then b
uy cat food. You take it to
the veterinarian for shots. It claws your furniture. It then escapes into the
night and returns the next day. While you didn't pay money for the kitten
you did incur costs both financial as well as emotional. Open source
softwar
e works the same way. While you don't pay money for it up front
you do pay in terms of supporting hardware, emotional time and energy,
and personnel. This is true for commercial software too, but with
commercial software you have additional costs, the init
ial cost and the
ongoing costs of licensing.”
8


For the purposes of this report three open source database

management system

products have been examined and comparisons are made where possible.






5

http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html

and Open Source Initiative,
http://www.opensource.org/licenses/gp
l
-
license.php


6

Free Software Foundation,
http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/


7

Open Source Initiative,
http://www.opensource
.org/licenses/bsd
-
license.php


8

http://infomotions.com/musings/oss
-
in
-
thirty
-
minutes/index.shtml

4



My
SQL

On initial browsing of the MySQL AB website, the pro
duct
claims to be

the “world’s
most popular open source database”.
9


According to
Wikipedia
10

the latest version of MySQL contains the following
features;



The latest production version

As of September 2006, MySQL offers production version 5.0.24a. It incl
udes the
following features:



A broad subset of ANSI SQL 99, as well as extensions



Cross
-
platform support



Stored procedures



Triggers



Cursors



updatable Views



True VARCHAR support



INFORMATION_SCHEMA



Strict mode



X/Open XA distributed transaction proce
ssing (DTP) support; two phase
commit as part of this, using Oracle's InnoDB engine



Independent storage engines (MyISAM for read speed, InnoDB for
transactions and referential integrity, Archive for storing historical data
in little space)



Transactions w
ith the InnoDB, BDB and Cluster storage engines;
savepoints with InnoDB



SSL support



Query caching



Sub
-
SELECTs (i.e. nested SELECTs)



Replication with one master per slave, many slaves per master, no
automatic support for multiple masters per slave.



Ful
l
-
text indexing and searching using MyISAM engine



Embedded database library



Full Unicode support



ACID compliance using the InnoDB, BDB and Cluster engines



Shared
-
nothing clustering through MySQL Cluster















9

MySQL AB,
http://mysql.com/wh
y
-
mysql/


10
Wikipedia,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MySQL


5



MySQL is part of what is know as the L
AMP software stack. The following definition
for LAMP comes from Wikipedia
11

online dictionary;



The acronym
LAMP

(or
L.A.M.P.
) refers to a set of free software programs
commonly used together to run dynamic Web sites or servers:



L
inux, the operating syste
m;



A
pache, the Web server;



M
ySQL, the database management system (or database server);



P
erl,
P
HP,
P
ython, and/or (rarely)
P
rimate, scripting/programming
languages.

The acronym has three major uses:

1.

Define a web server infrastructure

2.

Define a programmin
g paradigm of developing software

3.

Define a software distribution package

To be precise, it is an open source Web platform.


12


































11
Wikipedia,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LAMP_%28software_bundle%29


12

Wikipedia,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LAMP_%28software_bundle%29

, the LAMP definition further states that , “Though the
originators of these open source programs did not design th
em all to work specifically with each other, the combination has become popular
because of its low acquisition cost and because of the ubiquity of its components (which come bundled with most current Linux

distributions
particularly as deployed by ISPs). W
hen used in combination they represent a solution stack of technologies that support application
servers.” Wikipedia boasts itself as utilising the LAMP software stack

6



PostgreSQL


PostgreSQL has
been in operation for the last 15

years.
On exploration of
PostgreSQL
13

web page it boasts itself to be “the World’s most advanced open
source database”.


The technical features as defined on the web site
14

are as follows;



Technical Features



Fully ACID compliant.



ANSI SQL compliant.



Referential Integrity.



Replication (non
-
commercial and commercial solutions) allowing the
duplication of the master database to multiple slave machines.



Native interfaces for ODBC, JDBC, .Net, C, C++, PHP, Perl, TCL, ECPG,
Python, and Ruby.



Rules.



Views.



Triggers.



Unicode.



Sequences.



Inhe
ritance.



Outer Joins.



Sub
-
selects.



An open API.



Stored Procedures.



Native SSL support.



Procedural languages.



Hot stand
-
by (commercial solutions).



Better than row
-
level locking.



Functional and Partial indexes.



Native Kerberos authentication.



Supp
ort for UNION, UNION ALL and EXCEPT queries.



Loadable extensions offering SHA1, MD5, XML, and other functionality.



Tools for generating portable SQL to share with other SQL
-
compliant
systems.



Extensible data type system providing for custom, user
-
define
d
data
types

and rapid development of new
data types
.



Cross
-
database compatibility functions for easing the transition from
other, less SQL
-
compliant RDBMS.”













13

PostgreSQL,
http://www.postgresql.org
/about/


14

PostgreSQL,
http://www.postgresql.org/about/advantages


7



IBM Cloudscape


IBM released cloudscape as
an open

source database
.
The following
descr
iption is found in the IBM publication “Getting Started with
Cloudscape”
15
;


IBM Cloudscape is a relational database management system that is
based on Java and SQL. Cloudscape is an implementation of a
relational database product released by the Apache Sof
tware
Foundation (ASF). The Apache release is called
Derby
. Cloudscape and
Derby are the same product internally; their source code is the same.
Cloudscape includes the same core Derby engine but provides a few
features you won’t find in the Derby software

such as installers (with a
JRE) and translated manuals and error messages. In addition, technical
support is available for purchase for the Cloudscape product through
IBM.












15

IBM Cloudscape,
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/c1892461.pdf


8




CHAPTER THREE

-

CONCLUSIONS

Comparisons

Forrester
16

compared the strengths

and weaknesses of six open source
database products. The results looked at current offerings in the forms of
‘transaction processing, data warehousing, embedded database,
programmability, data types and interfaces, database availability, security,
tools,
platforms, and administration.’ The analysis also looked at the strategy
and market presence of the products.
In that report,
MySQL was stronger in
support for embedded applications and PostgreSQL scored high on data
types, programmability and support on m
ost platforms.
Derby (Cloudscape)
scored highly for security.
All of the products under review
failed to offer

comprehensive support for data warehousing and only provided basic data
warehousing features.


Future Directions for Open Source Database Managem
ent Systems

In the a
rticle “Preparing for an Open
-
source Software DBMS world”
,
Gartner
17

predicts that by 2007 Open source Database system usage will increase and
be utilised by business for
non
-
critical applications because proprietary DBMS
engines curren
tly deliver better, support, scalability and a greater variety of
management and development tools.

The article further analyses and
discusses an acceptance is Open Source software and DBMS and discusses
the risk to business is dependant of the strength of

the organisations expertise
and willingness to take a chance on open source.

Gartner further predicts
that by 2009 that Open Source Database management systems will be
considered one of the top five choices for new application development as
the Open sour
ce society is working on addressing perceived deficiencies in
the tools, support and scalability of the applications.





16

Noel Yuhanna,
TECH CHOICES
, “The Forrester Wave™:
Open Source Databases, Q2 2006”

17

Gartner, Donald Feinberg, May 3006, “Preparing for an Open
-
Source Software DBMS World”

9



This view is supported also by Forrester who perceive some Open Source
Database management systems as very real contenders in the future
IT
trends.
18








18

Noel Yu
hanna,
TECH CHOICE
S
, “The Forrester Wave™: Open Source Databases, Q2 2006”

10



REFERENCES


PostgreSQL

http://www.postgresql.org/about/



MySQL AB

http://mysql.com/why
-
mysql/



I
BM Cloudscape,
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/c1892461.pdf


Open Source Initiative,
http://www.opensource.org/docs/definition_plain.php



Allen,
The Era

of Open Source: Migrate your Data from MS SQL to MySQL

<
http://www.databasejournal.com/features/mysql/print.php/3405841
>


Ian
Gilfillan,

Open Source Databases: A brief look
at the Berkeley DB, Derby, Firebird,
Ingre
s, MySQL and PostgreSQL DBMS'

<
http://www.databasejournal.com/sqletc/article.php/3486596

>


Robin ‘Roblimo’

Miller, Are you ready for ope
n source infrastructure?

<
http://software.newsforge.com/software/04/05/18/151220.shtml

>



Eric Lease Morgan, Open source software for libraries in 30 minutes

<
http://infomotions.com/musings/oss
-
in
-
thirty
-
minutes/index.shtml

>




Colleen Graham “No Clear Winner in Overall RDBMS Market Share Race”

(Gartner)


Donald Feinberg “Oracle Deal Unlikely t
o Quickly Impact Open
-
Source Market”
(Gartner)


Ted Friedman, Donald Feinberg, Mark A. Beyer “Predicts 2006: Navigating the Data
Management Market and Usage Trends” (Gartner)


Donald Feinberg “Preparing for an Open
-
Source Software DBMS World” (Gartner)



N
oel Yuhanna, TECH CHOICES, “The Forrester Wave™: Open Source Databases, Q2
2006