Shortliffe Chapter 5 Outline

toughhawaiiNetworking and Communications

Oct 26, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Sean Fisk

2011
-
10
-
03

CIS661 Introduction to Medical and Bioinformatics

Dr. Guenter Tusch

Shortliffe Chapter 5 Outline

Questions




How are medical data stored and manipulated in a computer?



Why does a computer system have both memory and storage?



How can
data be entered into a computer system accurately and efficiently?



How can information be displayed clearly?



What are the functions of a computer's operating system?



What advantages does using a database management system provide over storing and
manipulat
ing your own data directly?



How do local area networks facilitate data sharing and communication within health care
institutions?



How can the confidentiality of data stored in distributed computer system be protected?



How is the Internet used for medical a
pplications?


Outline


1.

computer architectures

1.

computers are ubiquitous

1.

everyone from the programmer to accountant to musician

2.

similarities outweigh the differences

1.

most computers use very similar principles

3.

hardware

1.

forms

1.

not well
-
defined

2.

servers

1.

many
users

2.

mainframes

3.

example: machine hosting GVSU's website

3.

personal computers (Pcs)

1.

inexpensive

2.

single
-
user (private)

3.

documents

4.

email

5.

Facebook

6.

forms

1.

desktop

2.

laptop

3.

tablets

4.

handheld

5.

smart phone

7.

example: your laptop

4.

workstations

1.

usually more processing power t
han PCs

2.

small number of users

3.

example: lab computer

5.

terminal

1.

only used for accessing server

2.

von Neuman architecture

1.

a computer can exist with simply a CPU and memory

2.

central processing unit

1.

performs computation

2.

parallel processing


multiple CPUs

3.

hierarchical organization


basic units to larger units

4.

registers


very short
-
term storage for CPU

1.

example: adding two numbers

1.

add R3, R1, R2

5.

binary digit (bit)


zero or one

6.

electronic switch


stores a bit

7.

base 2


binary, representation of everything o
n common computer

1.

matters for things like multiplication by 2

2.

represent decimal, floating point (fractions), characters (letters), CPU
instructions, pictures, medical records

3.

American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)

4.

Unicode

5.

fetch and exec
ute cycle

1.

control transfer


branch

3.

short
-
term memory

1.

store active programs and data

2.

read
-
only memory (ROM)

1.

fixed memory

2.

programs needing fast access

3.

bootstrap sequence

1.

explain origin

3.

random
-
access memory (RAM)

1.

read and write

2.

stores programs, control
values, data in use

3.

larger than ROM

4.

kilo
-

(2^10), mega
-

(2^20), giga
-

(2^30) bytes

5.

word

1.

common size of many things in a computer

1.

32
-
bit, 64
-
bit

6.

volatile contents


often changed, contents cannot be maintained without
power

4.

long
-
term storage

1.

temporal storag
e

1.

active storage

1.

long
-
term validity

2.

retrieved quickly

3.

example: record of patient being treated

2.

archival storage

1.

documentary purposes

2.

example: record of discharged patient

2.

storage formats

1.

file system

1.

files, what you are used to

2.

usually provided by operating

system

2.

database

1.

special “table
-
like” format

2.

program running for quick access

3.

technology

1.

magnetic disk

1.

platters

2.

read
-
write head

3.

quite slow

4.

types

1.

hard disk

2.

floppy disk

2.

flash memory

1.

memory sticks, flash drives, jump drive

2.

usb

3.

just a bunch of transistors

3.

magnetic tape

1.

least expensive

2.

slow

3.

most reliable, many companies use tape backups

4.

optical

1.

variants

1.

compact disc (cd)

2.

digital video/versatile disk (dvd)

2.

high density

3.

rom/rw

4.

mainly used for archiving

5.

network storage

5.

input and output (I/O)

1.

input

1.

data entry

2.

methods

1.

keyboard

2.

pointing (mouse)

3.

touch screen

4.

light pen, track ball, joystick

5.

3d pointing

1.

tactile feedback


resistance sensitive

1.

example: electronic keyboard with and without weighted keys

3.

cursor

4.

menus

1.

standardized vocabulary

2.

hierarchical

5.

graphical data
entry

1.

icons to specify commands

2.

text
-
scanning device

1.

mom: IT at metro
-
health

2.

optical character recognition

3.

review is necessary

2.

output

1.

video (monitor)

1.

technology

1.

cathode
-
ray tube (CRT)

1.

big, bulky looking monitors

2.

liquid crystal display (LCD)

1.

flat screen
monitors

2.

picture element (pixel)

1.

unit of graphic display

3.

color resolution

1.

amount of colors able to be displayed

4.

spatial resolution

1.

quality of image display (pixels per length)

2.

sound

3.

print

1.

laser printer

2.

ink
-
jet printer

6.

communication

1.

connect computers

2.

techno
logy

1.

telephone

2.

dedicated or shared wires

3.

fiber
-
optic cable

4.

infrared

5.

radio

3.

modulator
-
demodulator (modem)

1.

digital to analog conversion (DTA)

2.

convert computer signal to those in the vocal range

3.

rates

1.

bit rate

2.

baud


signals per second

4.

assymetric transfer

1.

more

down (receive) than up (send)

5.

services

1.

provided by an internet service provider (ISP)

2.

telephone network

1.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

2.

Digital Line Subscriber (DSL)

6.

protocols

1.

packet switching vs. circuit switching

1.

small pieces of information v
ersus a stream

7.

media

1.

speed measurement

1.

bandwith

1.

amount of data that can be pushed through the wires

2.

latency

1.

response time

2.

technology

1.

twisted
-
pair wire

1.

coaxial cable

2.

fiber
-
optic cable

3.

wireless

1.

radio

2.

microwave

3.

infrared

4.

satellite

3.

bands

1.

baseband

1.

one signal

2.

example: Ethernet

2.

broadband

1.

multiple signals transmitted simultaneously

2.

computer data, voice, and images

3.

example: coax cable

8.

distance networks

1.

wide area network (WAN)

1.

example: Internet

2.

example: private network, such as military

3.

Internet

1.

regional network

2.

ex
ample: midwest US

3.

backbone links


high
-
speed, long
-
distance links

4.

standards

5.

transmission control protocol / internet protocol suite (TCP/IP)

6.

IP addresses (v4, v6)

7.

domain name system (DNS)


names to addresses


example:
seanfisk.com
-
> 68.62.4.92

8.

name ser
vers

9.

computer.institiution.class


example: mybb.gvsu.edu

2.

local area network (LAN)

1.

high
-
speed communication between computers within a vicinity

2.

file servers


store user files

3.

bridges


connect networks

1.

example: fiber
-
optic line between GVSU Allendale and
Pew
campus

4.

routers / switches / gateways

1.

direct packets to different destinations

7.

data buses

1.

electrical pathways, transfer information between aforementioned systems

2.

software

1.

programming languages

1.

machine code

1.

binary instructions

2.

assembly language

1.

text tra
nslated directly to machine code by the assembler

2.

macros


reusable asm code

3.

symbolic programming languages

1.

text to machine code through a compiler or interpreter

2.

motivation


productivity, easier to write

3.

compiler


translation beforehand / interpreter


translation at runtime

4.

syntax


grammatical structure

5.

semantics


what each command means

6.

common languages

1.

Fortran

2.

Lisp

3.

C
-

all major operating systems

4.

C++
-

most application software

5.

Java
-

platform
-
independent application software

6.

C#
-

rising language
for Windows

7.

procedures

1.

sequences of statements

2.

reuse

8.

arguments

1.

variables passed to procedures

9.

Structured Query Language (SQL)

1.

used for extracting information from databases

10.

scripts

1.

short, “replayable” programs

2.

operating systems

1.

“a program that supervises a
nd controls the execution of all other programs and that
directs the operation of the hardware”

2.

resources management

3.

examples

1.

Microsoft Windows

2.

Mac OS X

3.

Debian GNU/Linux

4.

iOS

5.

Android

4.

kernel

1.

core of the OS

2.

examples

1.

Windows NT (Windows)

2.

Darwin (Mac OS X)

3.

GNU/Linux (Debian)

3.

number of users

1.

PC


typically single
-
user

2.

server


multi
-
user

1.

user jobs

4.

multiprogramming

1.

enable use of multiple devices

1.

example: downloading a file

2.

multiprocessing


utilizing multiple CPU

5.

memory

1.

pages


sections of memory

1.

virtual memor
y


memory stored on the hard disk and loaded dynamically

6.

application programs

1.

example: Mozilla Firefox web browser

7.

system programs

1.

example: Windows Explorer (aka “My Computer”), Task Manager

3.

data management

1.

persistence


use of external storage

2.

views of d
ata

1.

stream

1.

files

2.

instrument data

3.

network connections

4.

tapes

2.

records

1.

rows of a table

3.

hierarchy

1.

medical record

4.

database management systems (DBMS)

1.

“integrated set of programs that helps users to store and manipulate data easily and
efficiently”

2.

schema


metadata

3.

front
-
ends

1.

pre
-
configured query browsers

4.

reports

1.

most useful for periodic statistics

5.

views

1.

different ways to look at the same data

5.

network communication

1.

sharing data

2.

levels

1.

application


HTTP, FTP, SMTP

2.

transport


TCP and UDP

3.

network

4.

data link an
d physical


Ethernet and wireless

3.

topology for flexible transport

4.

Internet protocols


standards to which Internet
-
enabled applications must adhere

5.

common Internet services

1.

hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)

1.

world wide web (WWW)

2.

web browser

3.

uniform
resource locator (URL)


typo in the book (universal resource locator)

1.

tells program exact way to access a resource

4.

hypertext markup language (HTML)


how a web page should look

5.

hyper



linked pages

6.

encryption


secure sockets layer (SSL), transport layer
security (TLS), HTTPS

7.

Java applets

8.

extensible markup language (XML)

1.

editorial


XML is lame

2.

electronic mail (email)

1.

send and receive mail, like the postal service

2.

protocol


simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP)

3.

one of the first protocols

4.

mailing list / lis
t server

1.

send to a group of people

5.

spamming

3.

telnet

1.

remotely control another machine

2.

more common form


secure shell (ssh) on Linux/Mac

3.

fantastic system administration tool

3.

data acquisition and signal processing

1.

analog signal = continuous variation

2.

digital
signal = discrete values

3.

analog to digital conversion

1.

digital signal processing (DSP) chips

1.

responsible for the conversion, often placed near the source

2.

sampling and rounding

3.

precision

4.

sampling rate


how often measurements are taken

1.

sample twice as freque
ntly as the highest frequency component (Nyquist
frequency)

5.

noise

1.

part of the data that is not due to the phenomenon being measured

2.

reduction

1.

shielding, isolation, and grounding

2.

frequency modulation (FM)

3.

filtering algorithms


such as Fourier analysis

4.

one
application


speech recognition

4.

data and system security

1.

concepts

1.

privacy


desire to control disclosure of information

2.

confidentiality


ability to control disclosure

3.

security


protection of privacy

2.

five key functions of a health care information system

1.

availability


accurate and updated information can be accessed

2.

accountability


users are responsible for access

3.

perimeter


physical and logical control of boundaries

4.

role
-
limited access


only allow access to information necessary for a person’s job

5.

co
mprehensibility and control


owners, administrators, and patients have appropriate
control

3.

backups

4.

malware

1.

viruses and worms

1.

spread

2.

collect and misuse data, either stored (files, db) or real
-
time (keylogging)

3.

escape detection

5.

accountability

1.

authentication



user is who they say they are

2.

authorization


user has permission

6.

firewall

1.

limit external access

2.

virtual private network


access internal resources from an external source

1.

secure connection over an insecure network

2.

usually through the Internet

7.

cryptography

1.

secret
-
key cryptography

(symmetric key encryption)

1.

shared secret known beforehand

2.

public
-
key cryptography

(asymmetric key encryption)

1.

public key

2.

private key

3.

escrow

1.

trusted party holds keys

4.

those more interested in cryptography can see
my paper and presentation on wireless
encryption schemes


Questions, answered




how are medical data stored and manipulated in a computer?

o

through databases and the operating system’s
file system



why does a computer system have both memory and storage?

o

short
-
term and persistent storage



how can data be entered into a computer system accurately and efficiently?

o

by leveraging keyboard, mouse, touch, and menus



h
ow can information be displa
yed clearly?

o

high resolution, organized views



what are the functions of a computer's operating system?

o

manage hardware resources, provide commonly needed tasks



what advantages does using a database management system provide over storing and
manipulating
your own data directly?

o

stored in a structured way, easily integrated into backup schemes, industry
-
standard



how do local area networks facilitate data sharing and communication within health care
institutions?

o

high
-
speed transfer, firewall security



how ca
n the confidentiality of data stored in distributed computer system be protected?

o

firewalls, proper authentication techniques, limit unnecessary access



how is the Internet used for medical applications?

o

long
-
distance data transfer, browsing of medical reco
rds