MODULE : 2

toughhawaiiNetworking and Communications

Oct 26, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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CMP
-
001

1

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3


Information

Technology

PRINCESS NOURA
BINT ABDUL RAHMAN
UNIVERSITY

PREPARATORY YEAR

SECOND

SEMESTER (201
2



201
3

/ 143
3



143
4
)



Computer skills (
CMP
-
001)

MODULE :
2










Prepared by:

Ms. Saleha Ziauddin

Ms. Lamis Hezbawi

Ms. Mazna Khan

Terminology translation by:

Ms. Abeer Helwa



Reviewed and Approved by:



Ms. Azra Jabeen

(Director of IT

Department)

CMP
-
001

2

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

VOCABULARY

................................
................................
................................
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..............................

4

BASIC CONCEPTS

................................
................................
................................
................................
........................

7

C
OMPUTER

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.......................

7

D
ATA

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.

7

I
NFORMATION

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.................

7

I
NFORMATION
T
ECHNOLOGY

................................
................................
................................
................................
........................

7

A
DVANTAGES OF
C
OMPUTERS

................................
................................
................................
................................
......................

7

COMPUTER GENERATIONS

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

8

F
IRST
G
ENERATION
C
OMPUTERS

................................
................................
................................
................................
.................

8

S
ECOND
G
ENERATION
C
OMPUTERS

................................
................................
................................
................................
.............

8

T
HIRD
G
ENERATION
C
OMPUTERS

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

9

F
OURTH
G
ENERATION
C
OMPUTERS

................................
................................
................................
................................
............

9

TYPES OF COMPUTERS

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

10

S
UPER
C
OMPUTER

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

10

M
AINFRAME
C
OMPUTER

................................
................................
................................
................................
............................

10

M
INI
C
OMPUTER

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

10

M
ICRO
C
OMPUTER

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
......

10

W
ORKSTATION
C
OMPUTER

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......................

10

C
ONTROL
C
OMPUTER
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
..

10

PARTS OF A PERSONAL
COMPUTER

................................
................................
................................
................

10

H
ARDWARE
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...................

11

Input Devices

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
........

11

Output Devices

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

11

Central Processing Unit

................................
................................
................................
................................
...................

12

Memory Unit

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

12

Storage Devices

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...

12

D
ISK
A
ND
M
EMORY
C
APACITY

................................
................................
................................
................................
..................

13

C
OMPUTER
P
ERFORMANCE

................................
................................
................................
................................
........................

13

S
OFTWARE

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
....................

14

Operating System

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............................

14

Functions of Operating System

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

15

Application Software

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................................
................................
................................
........................

15

NETWORKS

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............................

16

M
AIN
P
ARTS OF
N
ETWORK
................................
................................
................................
................................
........................

16

A
DVANTAGES OF
N
ETWORKS

................................
................................
................................
................................
....................

16

T
YPES OF
N
ETWORK

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...

16

LAN

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
..........................

17

WAN

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.........................

17

Internet, Intranet, Extranet
................................
................................
................................
................................
............

17

T
RANSFER
R
ATE

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

18

INTERNET

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
..

18

W
ORLD
W
IDE
W
EB

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
....

18

I
NTERNET
S
ERVICE
P
ROVIDER

................................
................................
................................
................................
..................

18

U
NIFORM
R
ESOURCE
L
OCATOR

................................
................................
................................
................................
.................

18

W
EB
B
ROWSER

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
............

18

W
EBSITE

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.......................

19

H
OMEPAGE

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...................

19

S
EARCH
E
NGINES

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

19

D
OWNLOADING

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
............

19

U
PLOADING

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...................

19

C
OOKIE

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................................
................................
................................
................................
..........................

19



CMP
-
001

3

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3

FIELDS OF USING IT I
N OUR DAILY LIFE

................................
................................
................................
.........

20

C
OMPUTERS
I
N
E
DUCATION

................................
................................
................................
................................
......................

20

C
OMPUTERS
I
N
M
ANAGEMENT

................................
................................
................................
................................
.................

20

C
OMPUTER
I
N
B
ANKS

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.

20

C
OMPUTERS
I
N
M
EDICAL
F
IELDS

................................
................................
................................
................................
.............

20

C
OMPUTER
I
N
P
HARMACY

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........................

20

C
OMPUTER
I
N
I
NDUSTRY
F
IELD

................................
................................
................................
................................
................

20

Artificial Intelligence

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................................
................................
................................
........................

20

CONCEPTS OF INFORMAT
ION

................................
................................
................................
............................

20

T
ELE
-
W
ORKING

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

20

Advantages

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

20

Disadvantages

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

20

E
-
D
OCUMENTS

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.............

21

Advantages

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

21

E
-
C
OMMERCE

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

21

Advantages

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

21

Disadvantages

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

21

SAFETY AND HEALTH

................................
................................
................................
................................
............

21

R
IGHTS
M
ETHODS
T
O
D
EAL
W
ITH
T
HE
C
OMPUTER

................................
................................
................................
............

21

H
EALTH
P
ROBLEMS
C
AUSED
B
Y
W
RONG
U
SE
O
F
C
OMPUTERS

................................
................................
..........................

22

INFORMATION TECHNOLO
GY PROTECTION

................................
................................
................................

22

I
NFORMATION
S
ECURITY

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................................
................................
................................
............................

22

E
NCRYPTION

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................................
................................
.................

22

VIRUS

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

22

V
IRUS
S
PREADING
W
AYS

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........................

22

V
IRUS
P
ROTECTION
W
AYS

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........................

22













CMP
-
001

4

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3





Vocabulary

Computer Generations

بساحلا لايجأ

Vacuum Tubes

ةغرفملا بيبانلأا

Integrated Circuits

ةلماكتملا رئاودلا

Silicon chips

نوكيلسلا قئاقر

Process

ةجلاعم

logical operations

ةيقطنملا تايلمعلا

Information

تامولعم

Data

تانايب

Speed
and accurate

ةقدلاو ةعرسلا

Hardware

ةيداملا تادحولا

Input devices

لاخدلاا ةزهجأ

Keyboard

حيتافملا ةحول

The Mouse

ةرأفلا

Scanner

يئوــضلا حساملا

Barcode Reader

ئراق
طيرش
تارفيشلا

Joystick

مكحتلا اصع

Output devices

جارخلاا ةزهجأ

Monitor (
Computer Screen
)

ةشاــشلا

Laser Printer

ةيرزيللا ةعباطلا

Ink
-
jet Printer

ةيربحلا ةعباطلا

Speaker/Head phones

تاعامسلا

Text

صن

pictures

روصلا

Voice

توصلا

Resolution

ةشاشلا ةقد

Touch Screen

سمللا ةحول

Central Processing Unit

ةجلاعملا ةدحو
ةيزكرملا

Memory unit

ةركاذلا ةدحو

Random Access Memory

يئاوشعلا لوصولا ةرــكاذ

Read Only Memory

طقف ةءارقلا ةرــكاذ

CMP
-
001

5

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3

Temporary

memory

ةتقؤملا ةركاذلا

Permanent

memory

ةمئادلا ةركاذلا

Volatile



non Volatile

ةرياطتم


ةرياطتم ريغ

Storage Device

ةزهجأ

نيزختلا

Internal Unit

ةيلخادلا نيزختلا تادحو

External Unit

ةيجراخلا نيزختلا تادحو

Hard Disk

بلصلا صرقلا

Floppy Disk

ةنرملا صارقلأا

CD

Compact Disk

طوغضملا صرقلا

Software

تايجمربلا

Operating System

ليغشتلا ماظن

Application

Software

تايجمربلا
ةيقيبطتلا

Graphical User Interface

ةيموسرلا مدختسملا ةهجاو

Command Line Interface

ةبوتكملا رماولأا ةهجاو

Verify

ققحتلا

charts

ةينايبلا موسرلا

Database

تانايبلا دعاوق

Design

ميمصت

animated pictures

ةكرحتملا روصلا

Network

تاكبشلا

share resources

رداصملا ةكراشم

Local Area Network

ةيلحملا تاكبشلا

Wide Area Network

ةعسوملا تاكبشلا

Client

ليمعلا

Server

مداـــخلا

Resources

رداصملا

Cables

كلاــسلأا

Network Cards

ةــكبشلا ترك

MIS (Management Information System)

تامولعملا ةرادإ مظن

CML
(Computer Managed Learning)

رتويبموكلا ةطساوب ميلعتلا ةاردا

CAL (Computer Aided Learning)

رتويبمكلا ةدعاسمب ملعتلا

Reducing

ليلقتلا

Financial transactions

ةيلاملا تلاــماعملا

Industry Field

يعانصلا لقحلا

Medical Fields

يبطلا لقحلا

Artificial
Intelligence

يعانطصلاا ءاــــــــكذلا

Packing

بيلعتلا

Welding and plumbing

ميحلتلاو ةكابسلا

CMP
-
001

6

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3





Fire fighting

قئارحلا ءافطا

Defusing bombs

لبانقلا ليتف عزن

E
-
Commerce

ةينورتكللاا ةراجتلا

Risk
s

رطاــخملا

Tele

working

دعب نــع لمعلا

Adjust

طبض

screen
lights brightness

ةشاشلا ةءاضا

radiation

تاعاعشا

Download

ليــمحت


ليزنت

Adopt

ذاختا
-

دامتعا

fingerprint

ديلا ةمصب

eye print

نيعلا ةمصب

voice print

توصلا ةمصب

Fraud

لايتحلاا

Individuals rights

دارفلأا قوقح

Privacy

ةيصوصخلا

civil cases

اياضقلا
ةيندملا

threaten

ددهت

Data Encryption

تانايبلا ريفشت

unreliable source

قوثوم ريغ ردصم

World Wide Web

ةيملاعلا ةيتبوكنعلا ةكبشلا

ISP (Internet Service Provider)

تنرتنلاا ةمدخ دوزم

Web Browser

تنرتنلاا ضرعتسم

Website

تنرتنا عقوم

Web Page

تنرتنا ةحفص

Home Page

ةيسيئرلا ةحفصلا

Search Engine

ثحب كرحم

Downloading

ليزنت

Uploading

عفر

CMP
-
001

7

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3

BASIC CONCEPTS

Computer:

A computer is an electronic
machine

that receives input, stores and automatically processes
data
, and provides output in a useful format
.

Data:

Data is raw & unorganized facts
and figures
that need to be
processed
.

Information:

When data is

processed and
organized so as to make it useful

and meaningful
,
i
t

is
called
Information.

Information Technology

A term that refers to both the hardware and software that is used to store, retrieve and
manipulate infor
mation.

Advantages of computers:

o

Speed and accuracy of calculations and processing.

o

Saves huge amounts of data.

o

Economic in cost and time.

o

Network communications.



CMP
-
001

8

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3

COMPUTER GENERATIONS

The present computer system that we see today has evolved through var
ious development
stages. These stages are illustrated below:

First generation computers (Vacuum tubes):










o

They relied on the machine language to perform operations.

o

They were
huge in size.

o

They had
very low processing speed.

o

They were very
expensive.

Second generation computers (Transistors):








o

The transistors replaced vacuum tubes.

o

They were smaller, faster, and cheaper than the first generation computers.


CMP
-
001

9

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3

Third Generation (Integrated Circuits):







o

The Integrated Circuits repla
ced the transistors in the third generation.

o

The Integrated circuits increased the speed and efficiency of the computer.


Fourth Generation computers (Present Microprocessor):


o

The present microprocessor chip is the most powerful till date.

o

These
computers can be linked together to form networks.

o

These computers are the fastest and the most efficient.






CMP
-
001

10

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3

TYPES OF COMPUTERS

Super computer
:


o

They are the biggest and the most powerful computers.

o

They are rare because of their cost and size.

o

Used by

companies like NASA.

Mainframe computers:

o

Great processing speed and data storage.

o

Often connected to many individual PCs with limited processing capabilities called
dumb terminals.

o

Used in Banks, Airlines etc.

Minicomputers:

o

These computers minimized in
size and power.

o

They are not used very commonly these days.


Microcomputer:

o

It is called the personal computer (PC) which is popular everywhere.

o

It is small enough to fit on top of a desk, which can be used by one user at a time.

o

Used in homes, schools
etc.

Workstation Computer :

o

A

workstation

is a high
-
end

microcomputer

used in engineering applications
.

o

Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to
a

local area network
.

o

The term

workstation

has also been used to refer to a

PC connected to a

network
.

Control C
omputer:

These computers are used for controlling operations in industrial, medical devices and travel
media like planes and cars
,

to alert in any dangerous case.

PARTS OF A PERSONAL COMPUTER

A Personal Computer is broadly categorized into two parts


Har
dware
and

Software
. These
will be illustrated in detail as follows
:



CMP
-
001

11

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3

HARDWARE

The physical parts of a

computer which
yo
u can see and touch

are called Hardware.
Hardware
is classified further into the following:

1.

Input devices

Devices used to translate data

into a form that the computer can process

are called Input
devices. Some examples of input devices are as follows:

Keyboard
:
It is a board containing the keys of letters, numbers and some functions which
allows you to type information into the computer
.

M
ouse
:
A small hand
-
held device used to point, select, click on items and to drag and drop
items from one place to another
.

Scanner
:

It allows you to scan pictures, text and images and save it to your computer in a
digital form
.

Bar Code Reader:

It is a pho
toelectric scanner that translates the bar code symbols into digital
form.

Joystick:

Small hand
lever that can be moved in any directions to control movement on the
screen. It can be used for playing games
.


2.

Output devices:


Devices used to translate the
processed information into a form that humans can understand.

Some examples of
output

devices are as follows:

Monitor (Computer Screen):

Monitor

displays the output in terms of text, information or
pictures.

They come in different sizes and resolution.


Printer:

A printer produces a hard copy of the ma
terial you are working on. For example,
Laser Printer and Ink
-
jet Printer.

Plotters:

They are similar to

printer
s
but allow you to print larger images.

Speaker/Headphones:

They

are used to output voice from
a computer
.


Touch Screen:

It can be used as both Input and output device at the same time
.

It receives
input from the touch of a finger. For example
-

smart phones, ATM machines etc.




CMP
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001

12

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201
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201
3

3.

Central Processing Unit (CPU):


It is the

most important part of a computer system. It is usually referred to as the brain of a
computer. It determines the speed of your computer, which is measured in GHz (Giga
Hertz).


The two main components of CPU are:


a)

CU
-
Control Unit:

It tells the compute
r system how to carry out program instructions
from the memory. It controls and coordinates all activities of the computer.


b)

ALU
-
Arithmetic and Logic Unit
: It performs mathematical and logical operations.


4.

Memory Unit:


Memory Types

RAM

(Random Access
Memory)

ROM

(Read Only Memory)



RAM
is

volatile

memory

(the
information is lost when you switch
off the computer).



This chip is w
here the operating
system is loaded to when you switch
on your computer.



Used to store applications that you
are currently
working with
.



It is a temporary memory



ROM
is

non
-
volatile

(the
information is not lost when you
switch off the computer).



This chip has special programs
which are built
-
in when you buy
the computer.



Used to store control programs.




It is a permanent memor
y.


Storage Devices
:
Hardware devices which are used to record and store data are called storage
devices.

They are of two types:

1.

Internal storage
.

2.

External storage
.

Some examples of storage devices are as follows:

Internal storage
:



Hard Disk:

It is the

most important storage media located inside

the computer
, which
stores operating system and programs.

CMP
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001

13

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201
2
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3

External storage:



Flash Memory (USB):

A compact and easy
-
to
-
use device for transferring data between
computers.



CD (Compact Disk):
An optical disk which

uses laser technology to read information.
It can store
data up to 750 MB.



DVD (Digital Versatile Disk):

A high
-
density video disc that stores large amounts of
data, especially high
-
resolution audio
-
visual material like movies,
encyclopedia

etc.
In
DVD, t
he capacity is
up to

17 GB.


Disk and memory capacity:

The smallest unit of storage is called
bit.

The bit is a binary numbering system which consists
of


0 or 1.




8 bits = 1 Byte



1024 bytes = 1 Kilo Byte (KB)



1024 KB = 1 Mega Byte (MB)



1024 MB = 1 Giga
Byte (GB)



1024
G
B = 1
Ter
a
Byte (
T
B)

Computer Performance:

The computer performance depends on the following:

-

The speed of the proce
ssor, which is
measured in
G
iga

Hertz.

-

The capacity of RAM, which is
measured in
Giga Bytes.

-

The spee
d and capacity of the H
ard Disk.












CMP
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001

14

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201
2
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201
3

SOFTWARE

Software
, or programs,

are instructions that tell the computer what to do and how to
perform
.

It
is divided into two types



Operating system

and
Application Software
.

Operating System


An interface between hardware and user, which is responsible for the management of activities
and the sharing of the resources of a computer
.

I
t is

th
e main software in any computer. Some examples are:

-

DOS (Disk Operating

system)

-

Windows (98


Me


2000



XP


Vista


7)

-

MAC OS

-

UNIX

Two main

types of Operating Systems:

a.

CLI (Command Line Interface):

A

user interface in which you type commands instead of
choosing them from a menu or selecting an icon.










b.

GUI (Graphical User Interface):

A visual way of interacting with a computer using items
such as windows, icons, and menus.
It is user
-
friendly
.







CMP
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201
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3


Functions of Operating System:

-

Interface:
It provides an interface between the user and the machine.

-

Resource
management
:

The

resource management function of an OS allocates
computer resources such as CPU time, main memory, secondary storage, and input and
output devices for use.

-

Input/Output management:

This

checks

the input and output of the data
,

their location,
storage, and
retrieval.


-

File management
:

Setting up directories to organize your files
according to their type
and

d
isplaying a list of files stored on

a particular disk.


Application Software:

They are programs used to perform some specific tasks.

Some examples are a
s follows:

1.

Word Processor
:

It is used to write and format texts, insert tables and pictures.


Eg: Microsoft Word


2.

Spreadsheet
:

It is used for automatic calculations and creating charts.

Eg: Microsoft Excel


3.

Database
:

A structured

set of data held in a computer.

Eg: Microsoft Access


4.

Presentation
:

It is used to design slides for business and education.

Eg: Microsoft PowerPoint


5.

Web Browser
:

It is

defined as a

program

designed to enable users to access, retrieve and
view documents and other resources on the

Internet
.

Eg: Internet explorer






CMP
-
001

16

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3

NETWORKS








Network
:

It is a set of two or more computers connected
to
share
information and
resources.

Main Parts of Network architecture:

-

Client:

It is a computer connected to the network and doesn’t have any control or privilege.

-

Server:

It

is a computer that is responsible for controlling network resources.

-

Resources
: All files, printers and other hardware or software that the network users can
share.


Advantages of using networks:

-

Information sharing.

-

Resources sharing (printers).

-

Softwar
e sharing


-

Information protection (user names and passwords)

-

Emails


Types of Networks
:

There are mainly two types of networks


LAN and WAN.






CMP
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001

17

2
nd


Semester
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201
2
-
201
3

LAN
:

It means Local Area Network; they are group of computers connected together in the
same region or a
limited area.











WAN
:

It

means Wide Area Network; which is a network that connects computers over wide
geographical area or may be other countries using telephone lines or satellite.










INTERNET, INTRANET AND EXTRANET:

Internet
(Interconnected Network):

It is a global network of inter
-
connected networks.

Intranet

(Internal Network):

An Intranet is a network of computers within a private company
.


It is a close
version of the Internet but

can

only

be accessed by authorized members

in the same
organization.

Extranet

(External Network):

It is similar to an
I
ntranet
but it

can be accessed by outsiders
who have the permission to access the company

s

network.

Note:

All of the above networks need a modem to work.

CMP
-
001

18

2
nd


Semester
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201
2
-
201
3

Transfer Rate:

The speed of modem is called Transfer rate, and is measured in bps (bits per
second). New modem speed is measured in Mbps or Gbps.

INTERNET

A system of connected computers that allows your computer to exchange data, messages and
files with any of the
millions of other connected computers
.

World Wide Web (WWW)


A collection of web pages and related resources which are link
ed together
across the internet is called World Wide Web (WWW).

Internet

Service Provider

(
ISP
)
:

I
t i
s a company that provides ind
ividuals and other companies access to the Internet
,

and other
related services such as Web site building and
virtual hosting

.

For eg:

STC, Mobily and Zain.




Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

Every page has its own unique address known as URL
. The different parts of an URL are
illustrated below:


http://www.
pnu.edu.sa




Web Browsers

A web browser is a software application used for retrieving and presenting an URL on the
World Wide Web. Examples are:





Internet
Explorer

Netscape Navigator

Mozilla Firefox

Google Chrome

Protocol

Domain
Name

Top Level

Domain

Doma
Domain

Country Domain

CMP
-
001

19

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3

Web Site

A computer storage area that contains one or more web pages

Home Page

The first web page you see when you launch internet explorer

Search Engines

Search engines are

designed to search for information on the
World Wide Web
.

The search results are generally presented in a list of results
.






Downloading

The process of transferring a file from a network computer to your local
computer

is called
downloading
.


Uploading

The process of transferring a file from your local

computer to a network computer

is called
uploading.




Cookie

A file created by an internet site to store information

on your computer
.





CMP
-
001

20

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3

FIELDS OF US
ING
COMPUTERS IN OUR DAILY LIFE

-

Computers in Education
:

School
s have

computer

l
abs

that gives students access to
different program.



-

Computers in Managemen
t
:

Computer
s

increase company's performance in helping
with collecting data and producing reports.


-

Computers in Banks
:

ease the access for bank account through ATM.

-

Computers in Medical Fields
:

Computers help in organizing hospital files, also help in
diagnosing

diseases.



-

Computers in Pharmacy
:

Computers help in
t
r
ack
ing

pharmacy's
storage system and

financial transactions.

-

Computers in Industry Field
:

Artificial Intelligence (AI)
:

It is a part of Computer Science which aims to
design intelligent computer systems to

help in solving problems. O
ne of
these systems is
Robot
.


Robot
:

It is a machine created to simulate the human
being activities in a fast and organized manner. Works
that
can be performed by the Robot

are
:

-

Welding and plumbing

-

Handling dangerous materials


-

Defusing bombs

CONCEPTS OF INFORMATION

Tele
-
working:

Working f
rom home and communicating with the office by phone, fax and
computer is called Tele
-
working.

Advantages
:


1.

Reduced or zero commuting time

2.

Greater ability to focus on one task

3.

Flexible schedules

4.

Reduced office space requirements


Disadvantages
:

1.

Lack of
human contact and competition

2.

Negative impact on teamwork

3.

No Self
-
discipline


CMP
-
001

21

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3

E
-
Documents:

Documents

or files which are created by the computer applications, e.g. text
documents, are referred to as e
-
documents.

Advantages:

1.

Reduces

the need for printed material
(books) which reduce the cost

of printing.

2.

Easy to share

these
files

online
.

3.

Easy to browse
or search for a file on the computer. Y
ou can

also

use the search facility.

E
-
Commerce:

Buying or selling via the internet usually

using a credit card is called

E
-
commerce.
Payment method of E
-
commerce involves the use of
Visa Card or Master Card.

The Advantages of the E
-
Commerce:

1.

Global Market: you can buy from any country.

2.

Open
24 hours a day.

3.

Saves the client
's

time.

The
Disadvantages of E
-
Commerce:

1.

Risk in payment due to
disclosure of credit card number or bank account.

2.

The risk of information leakage during transport
,

to a hacker who might change the
name of the buyer.


SAFETY AND HEALTH

Right methods to deal with the

computer:

1.

The screen
:
Adjust the screen's brightness settings
and position so that it is comfortable for your eyes.

2.

The keyboard
:

It should be in front of you, and
under your hand. It should not be in the same level
or above your hand.

3.

You should put

the

mouse

over a mouse pad to
save it from dust.

4.

The chair

and

the table

should be adjustable and in
good height.

5.

Use cleaning tools to clean up the computer.

6.

Use original ink and good paper for printing.



CMP
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001

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2
nd


Semester
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201
2
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201
3

Health Problems which are caused by the wrong
use of computers:

1.

W
rong distance from the comp
uter screen
can result in
vision problems and eye
inflammation.

2.

Incorrect posture in front of the computer can cause n
e
ck pain, back pain a
nd leg pain.

3.

Inappropriate height of the table and chair can lead to
back problems.


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROTECTION:

Information Security:

It is a science which focuses on how to provide protection to the
information and to
avoid misuse of data
.

How to provide protection for Information System
:

-

Put password to log in for

information.

-

Ensure

that the source

of e
-
mail
attachments is genuine
.

-

Adopt fingerprint
,

eye print or voice print

systems in your Information system
.

-

Create a
backup
copy of your work outside the system.

-

Use of encryption techniques.

-

Don’t leave your
computer open when not in use.

-

Don’t leave your devices with any person.


Encryption
: It is the altering of data so that it is not usable to prevent it from unauthorized
user
s.

VIRUS

It is a software program

which
is

written with the intention of causing damage in a computer
system.

Virus spreading ways:

-

Computer networks
.


-

Copying and distribution of illegal software through the internet.

Virus p
rotection ways:

-

Don’t use fl
a
s
h or CDs

from unreliable sources.

-

Use only registered software.

-

Never open e
-
mail attachments from unreliable source.

-

Install an anti
-
virus program and

always

keep it up
-
to
-
date.



CMP
-
001

23

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3

Assignment
-
2

(IT)

(Due
D
ate :
(
13
/
2
/201
3
)


Name : ___________________________



Group :
___________
__________


Fill in the blanks:


Operating System


Speaker

ROM



Home

page


First

RAM


Data


Resources

1.

An __________________ is responsible for the management of activities and the resources
of the computer.

2.

_____________________is the memory which does not lose the information stored when
the power is switch off.

3.

All files, printers and other hardware or software that the network users can share, are called
_________________.

4.

The first web page you see when
you launch internet explorer is called
___________________.

5.

______________________is
used to output voice from a computer
.


Write True or False
(T / F)


1.

The second generation computers used silicon chips
.





(

)

2.

ROM is the brain of the computer.










(

)

3.

Bad posture in front of the computer can cause neck pain, back pain

and leg pain.











(

)

4.

World Wide Web is a file created by an internet site to store information

on your computer.










(

)

5.

Transfer Rate is the meas
urement unit for the

CPU
.





(

)




20

CMP
-
001

24

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3

Multiple Choice Questions


1.

_____________________ is the science which focuses on how to provide protection to
your information.

a)

Biology

b)

Chemistry

c)

Information Security

d)

Operating System


2.

Microprocessor was used in
Computers of
:

a)

First Generation

b)

Second Generation

c)

Third Generation

d)

Fourth Generation


3.

Storage Devices are of two types and they

are:


a)

Input and Output

b)

On and off

c)

Internal and External

d)

Red and Green


4.

ISP

are

compan
ies

that provides:

a)

Electricity

b)

Internet

c)

Water

d)

Food


5.

To transfer a file from a network computer to local computer used

a)

Downloading Process

b)

Uploading Process

c)

Transaction Process

d)

Copying Process



CMP
-
001

25

2
nd


Semester
-

201
2
-
201
3


6.

Internet Explorer, Google Chrome are examples of:

a)

Website
s

b)

Web Browser
s

c)

Home page

d)

ISP


7.

The speed of the processor
is
measured in:

a)

Mega Byte

b)

Giga Hertz

c)

Bytes

d)

Bits per second


8.

Which of the following is a global network of inter
-
connected networks?

a)

Intranet

b)

Extranet

c)

L
AN

d)

Internet


9.

What kind of Computer Memory is non
-

volatile or Permanent?

a)

Monitor

b)

ROM

c)

Hard Disk

d)

RAM


10.

What is a Cookie?

a)

Internet Information File

b)

Hackers File

c)

Virus File

d)

None of the above