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topsalmonAI and Robotics

Feb 23, 2014 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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NOTE: ASSIGNMENT WILL BE RETURNED WITH A SCORE OF ZERO IF THE
STUDENT DOES NOT GRADE THE WORK
--
DR. BOGAN

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Chapter 10

1.

Describe the nature of concepts and the role of prototypes in concept formation.

Cognitive psychologists

study cognition, which is the mental activity associated with processing,
understanding, and communic
ating knowledge. To think about the countless events, objects,
and people in our world, we organize them into mental groupings called concepts. To simplify
things further, we organize concepts into hierarchies. Although we form some concepts by
definition,

more often we form them by developing prototypes

a best example of a particular
category. The more closely objects match our prototype of a concept, the more readily we
recognize them as examples of a concept.

2.

Discuss how we use trial and error, algori
thms, heuristics, and insight
to solve problems.









Points ____







3.

Describe how the confirmation bias and fixation can interfere with
effective problem

solving.


Points ____







4.

Explain how the representativeness and availability heuristics influence
our judgments.



Points ____








5.
Describe the effects that overconfidence and framing can have on
our judgments
and decisions.


Points ____








6.

Discuss how our beliefs distort logical reasoning, and describe the
belief perseveranc
e phenomenon.






Points ____








7.

Describe artificial intelligence, and contrast the human mind and the computer as information
processors.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the science of designing computer systems to perform operations
that mim
ic human thinking and do "intelligent things." The most notable AI successes focus
computer capacities for memory and precise logic on specific tasks, such as playing chess and
diagnosing illnesses. In those areas where humans seem to have most difficulty

manipulating
huge amounts of numerical data, retrieving detailed information from memory, making
decisions using specified rules

the computer shines. But even the most sophisticated
computers are dwarfed by the most ordinary of human mental abilities

recog
nizing a face,
distinguishing a cat from a dog, exercising common sense. For now, the brain’s capacity for
processing unrelated information simultaneously and the wide range of its abilities outstrip
those of the computer. But hopes grow that a new generat
ion of computer neural networks

computer systems designed to mimic the brain’s interconnected neural networks

will produce
more humanlike capabilities. The most exciting feature of artificial neural networks is their
capacity to learn from experience as so
me interconnections strengthen and others weaken.

8.

Describe the structure of language in terms of sounds, meanings,
and grammar.



Points ____








9.

Trace the course of language acquisition from the babbling stage through
the two
-
word stage.



Points ____








10.

Explain how the nature
-
nurture debate is illustrated in the various theories of language
development.

The debate between the behaviorist view of the malleable organism and the view that each
organism comes biologi
cally prepared to learn certain associations surfaces again in theories
of language development.

Behaviorist B. F. Skinner argued that we learn language by the familiar principles of
association, imitation, and reinforcement. Challenging this claim, Noam C
homsky notes that
children are biologically prepared to learn words and use grammar. Cognitive neuroscientists
suggest that the learning that occurs during life’s first few years is critical for the mastery of
grammar. Nonetheless, Chomsky’s view that our
brain constrains how we learn language and
that it may come prewired to look for grammatical rules seems to survive recent challenges.

11.

Discuss Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis and the relationship
between

thought and language.


Points ____









12.

Describe the research on animal intelligence and communication and discuss the
controversy over whether animals have language.

Animal
s obviously communicate. Bees communicate the location of food through an
intricate dance. Evidence accumulates that primates at some level count, display
insight, create tools, and transmit cultural innovations. And several teams of
psychologists have tau
ght various species of apes, including a number of
chimpanzees, to communicate with humans by signing or by pushing buttons wired
to a computer. Apes have developed considerable vocabularies. They string words
together to express meaning and to make and fo
llow requests. Skeptics point out
important differences between apes’ and humans’ facilities with language, especially
in their respective abilities to order words using proper syntax. Nevertheless, studies
reveal that apes have considerable cognitive abil
ity.