Reading Research Quarterly, 43

topsalmonAI and Robotics

Feb 23, 2014 (7 years and 9 months ago)


Theories and Approaches to Literacy

Article Summaries

Click on the hyperlinks below to find the correct place in the document:


Third Space


Funds of Knowledge


Cultural Modeling


Critical Academic Literacies


Enhanced Anchored Instruction


amehameha Early Education Project (KEEP)


Inquiry and Project
Based Instruction

Third Space

Gutiérrez, Kris D. (2008). Developing a Sociocritical Literacy in the Third Space.

Research Qu
arterly, 43
(2), 148

This article argues for an expansion of what is considered ‘literacy’

should include the third
space. Our changing world require a more democratic view of literacy by including the third

“…traditional conceptions of acade
mic literacy and instruction for students from nondominant
communities are contested and replaced with forms of literacy that privilege and are contingent
upon students’ sociohistorical lives” (148).

Argues for a third space that ‘raises up’ those who are


Also argues that school literacies are ‘weak’ literacies and third space literacies result in “more
robust and historicizing literacies” (149)

more horizontal and vertical forms of learning.

Provides an understanding of “the cultural dim
ensions of learning and development that occur as
‘people, ideas, and practices of different communities meet, collide, and merge’ (Engestrom,
2005, p. 46)” (150).

Teachers should use the lives of students as pedagogical inspiration, instructional inspira

The Third Space is that which opposes and joins the binary, the dichotomoized.

Privilege discussion and thought toward contradictions

emphasizing the contradictions of a
third space.

Has a large emphasis on social dreaming to accomplish these g
oals: “(1) to facilitate
understanding of discussions, as well as the difficult texts participants read and write, (2) to
facilitate the reorganization of everyday concepts into scientific oncepts, and (3) to help students
redefine both the ‘world as it is

today’ and the ‘world as it could be’” (158).

Central outcome: “The push and pull involved in building a collective dream, of struggling for
intersubjectivity mediated by the appropriation of tools that extend students’ repertoires of
practice, helps to
account for students’ persistent engagement in educational activity during the
MSLI. The design of this particular social situation of development forces students to straing
against their own levels of competence and experience and helps to account, in par
t, for their
subsequent achievement in school and as community leaders and for their persistence in
dreaming socially in their own unique ways” (160).

Pahl, Kate, & Kelly, Sally. (2005). Family literacy as a third space between home and

school: some cas
e studies of practice.
Literacy, 39
(2), 91

Focuses on how ‘family literacy classrooms’ serve as a way to bridge between the spaces of
‘school’ and ‘home’ to create a third space. Stresses going beyond situated literacy practices

that literacy “can be
linked to a particular domain” (91).

Claim: “Drawing on third space theory for this article, I explore how family literacy classrooms
can offer the possibility for discourses from homes and school to surface within jointly created
texts” (92).


outcomes: “I argue that the family literacy classroom can be seen as offering a threshold
space where parents can enter the school on different terms and children can enter their parents’
domain within a school setting, and the two very different discours
es can mingle” (92).

States: “Many of the children’s skills, knowledge, understanding and confidence improved,
reflected in their time spent in class as well as through assessment tasks applied at the course
beginning and end. Adult self
esteem grew, conf
idence was gained in speaking in the group,
asking for information, sharing ideas and experiences, feeling able to approach the school.
Standards in reading, writing, spelling and use of grammar all improved” (94).

Does not state how they can argue that

these improvements happened. Does not state what kind
of assessments were performed. Doesn’t state more specific improvements

just states that
improvements were made

not even to what extent.

Insinuates that all female parents

reserved for nursery/pre
K s

Define the Third Space made by having multilingual identities and utilized ‘family’ language,
terms, and concepts. Through texts, artifacts, storytelling, home objects, and language, a bridge
was created between spaces.

How to affect other scho
ol practices? Connect with parents, use a ‘home’ discourse, let parents
feel comfortable at school and let students feel comfortable bringing ‘home’ into the classroom.

Future research

more “research into home literacy practices” (96).

Orellana, Mar
jorie Faulstich, & Gutiérrez, Kris D. (2006). At Last: The “Problem” of

English Learners: Constructiong Genres of Difference.
Research in the Teaching of
English, 40
(4), 502

With research that focuses on students who do not speak English at home, th
ere is a tendency to
conceptualize and report the research in such a way that “reinforce[s] deficit views of these
students and their communities” (502).

“…we call attention to the ways [descriptive statistics] can constitute deficit
ed, and uneven narratives about students for whom English is a second language”

Instead of presenting the fact that the immigrant population is increasing (a change in the
predominantly white community), there could be mention of facts like: “that
new immigrants are
the fastest
growing sector of first
time homeowners, or that identifies the many ways new
immigrants contribute to the area’s economy” (503).

Avoid practices like ‘selectivec exemplification’ that refers to “zooming in our analytical le
ns on
opics that sensationalize, exoticize, and romanticize, or conversely, zooming out to essentially
homogenize English Learners in ways that blind us or our readers to the fuller more complicated
realities of these students’ lives” (504).

“As we try to

build a corpus of studies with English Learners, there is a critical need for more
nuanced and complete analyses and depictions of students’ literacy practices observed across a
range of settings, tasks, and contexts over sustained periods of time” (505).

When the topic is on language research, do not focus on race
focus on language!

Seek hybridity, not duality.

Future research

think of ways to frame this research in ways that do not advocate the dominant
perspective/framework “in which differences
are inevitably interpreted as deficits”(506).

Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich, & Gutiérrez, Kris D. (2006). At Last: What’s the Problem?

Constructing Different Genres for the Study of English Learners.
Research in the
Teaching of English, 41
(1), 118

“And so, in this essay, we pose alternative ways of conceptualizing, examining, and reporting
our work with Englihs Learners and members of other non
dominant groups” (118).

Researchers should ask themselves before beginning research (while thinking abo
ut what to
research): “Whose problem is it? For whom is it a problem? What other problems might we
identify if we began from different vantage points?” (118)

“Reconsidering the questions that drive our research is essential if we are to resist the languag
ideologies that are at work in constructing English Learners as problems” (119).

“Rather than simply reversing the dominant script, we argue that we should decouple people
from the problems to which we orient” (119).

Avoid deficit framing.

The call

“…we call on researchers to address explicitly where the practices and issues we study
fit within a larger repertoire of practices, issues, and experiences of groups such as English
Learners” (120).

“As a challenge to dualistic frameworks in which differe
nces are inevitably interpreted as
deficits, we can sometimes deliberately seek to identify similarities between groups that are
normally set up for contrast, or between settings that have been presumed to be different, such as
home and school” (121).

e, E.B., Ciechanowski, K.M., Kramer, K., Ellis, L., Carrillo, R., & Collazo, T. (2004).

Working toward third space in content area literacy: An examination of everyday
funds of knowledge and Discourse.
Reading Research Quarterly, 39
(1), 38

There are
3 views of the Third Space:


“positions third space as a way to build bridges from knowledges and Discourses often
marginalized in school settings to the learning of conventional academic knowledges and
dscourse” (43).


“third space as a navigational space,
a way of crossing and succeeding in different
discourse communities” (44).


“competing knowledges and Discourses of different spaces are brought into
‘conversation’ to challenge and reshape both academic content literacy practices and the
knowledges and Dis
courses of youths’ everyday lives: (44).


“the need for strategic integration of the various knowledges, Discourses, and literacies that
youth bring to and experience in school” (41).

Discourses that sudents have access to can be used as resources


Teachers should get to know the funds of knowledge and Discourses that you have and use them
in their pedagogical practices (41)

Guiding Research Questions:


What are the different funds of knowledge and Discourses that may shape stude
reading, writing, and talking about texts in the classroom?


When and how, if at all, do students bring these knowledges and Discourses to bear
on school science learning?


To document the funds of knowledge of students

(see page 45)

Thirds sp
ace is a goal for all classrooms but especially for “enhancing the education of youth
whose experiences have not traditionally been valued in school” (48).


“Everyday funds often served as importance sources of knowledge for making sense of scho
texts” (50).

Invitation is necessary for the third space to continue

invitation to relate to personal

since students do not bring it to class readily

look on p. 64

Studetns create the third space in a private way and teachers ned to br
ing it into the classroom.

Professional development:

Be suspicious of binaires (p. 42 and 50)

Ways to bring third space into the classroom (at least for this specific latin@ community): ethnic
identity, community, parents’ work, work in home, travel, h
ealth, pop culture, informal peer

Shoot for active construction of the third space.

Make it an open space

make aware the discourses and knowledge that is acceptable. (65)

get to know the city

use the virtual world

use local texts

ing directions for research:

Must look at the funds of knowledge and Discourses that students have available outside of

Also look ap. 67 for many more.

Study information:

30 youth, 20F, 10M, ages 12
15. They live in different neighborhoods in a La
tin@ community.
More info on p. 47.

Specific goals: they wanted to connect everyday and school funds of knowledge and Discourse
(find ways to do so). They noted these 4 categories:

Family: work, travel, health

Community: ethnic identities, local events
and occurrences

Peers: formal and informal peer activites

Pop Culture: music, magazines, news media, TV, movies

Practices implements on pgs. 49/50.

“Many [teachers] made attempts to connect science concepts to students’ experiences, usually as
a way to

motivating students” (44).

Moje, E.B., Labbo, L.D., Baumann, J.F., & Gaskins, I.W. (2000). RRQ Snippet: What Will

Classrooms and Schools Look like in the New Millenium?
Reading Research
Quarterly, 35
(1), 128

Simply composed of a lot of hypothesi
zing about what schools and classrooms will be like in
future years. It provides a lot of claims and potential new research areas, but much of it is based
on guesses. Not a whole lot of research backing up their claims.

Gutiérrez, K.D., Baquedano
P., & Alvarez, H.H. (1999). Building a Culture of

Collaboration through Hybrid Language Practices.
Theory into Practice, 38
(2), 87

“In this article, we present a view of collaborative learning that is grounded in a sociocultural
view of learning a de
velopment” (87).

“Too often the distribution of roles and sub
tasks in more raditional forms of cooperative
learning become the focus and, thus, preclude the ongoing joint activity needed for the momnt
moment sharing of linguistic, sociocultural, and c
ognitive resources” (87).

shows an example of Martha communicating through e
mail with El Maga

anonymous figure and the two share bits of linguistic personality and eventually come to create a
hybrid space where Spanish and English words and cultural
elements mingle together. This is
done without an emphasis on roles and process.

“Accordingly, we argue that for collaboration to serve as a resource for learning in moment
moment interaction among students, it must be a central characteristic of the l
arger activity
system, i.e., the classroom or learning context” (87).

“…there is a relationship between what is learned and the social contexts of development” (87).

“The goal, then, is to create rich zones of development in which all participants learn
by jointly
participating in activities in which they share material, sociocultural, linguistic, and cognitive
resources” (88).

The example of Martha/El Maga serves as an example of using hybridity as a resource.

pages 88

“The hybrid text provide
s Martha an opportunity to utilize her larger linguistic and cultural
repertoire” (90).

Each worked to create the linguistic, sociocultural relationship. They created it together. “The
socialization here, though, is bidirectional” (91).

“Both of these la
st examples represent the kind of hybriditiy that serves to stimulate literacy
learning and development. These findings upport the empirical work of others, including Moll
and Diaz (1987), who documented the dramatic gains in the learning of bilingual stud
ents who
engaged in literacy practices that made use of their larger linguistic repertoires, including their
home language, in learning practices. In both cases, the object was learning: (92).

“By examining hybridity in practice, we have been able to see
hybridity as a resrource for
literacy learning where alternative, competing, and even shared discourses and positinoings or
roles mediate literacy for experts and novices. In this way, hybrid literacy activities become the
meditational contexts and tools n
ecessary for future social and cognitive development” (92).

Moje, Elizabeth B., & Handy, Dolores. (1995). Using Literacy to Modify Traditional

Assessments: Alternatives for Teaching and Assessing Content Understanding.
Journal of Reading, 38
(8), 612

Literacy can be used to allow for authentic and holistic assessment.

Literacy can reshape traditional assessments to be ‘more effective’.

Assessments should test both literacy AND content area material.

P. 613

use of portfolios, dynamic assessment,

and performance assessment.

Directions for future research

effectiveness of alternative assessment strategies (using literacy

explore how to combine literacy assessment with content area assessment (p. 613)

Focused on Dolores Handy’s 2

period chemistry class. White, middle class. 22 students (8F,

Class activities

read the textbook and use the SQ3R (Survey, Questions, Read, Recite, Review)
strategy as a notetaking strategy.

laboratory experience helped them process the text in

life situations

Semester exams

4 days of testing

2 days of traditional content area assessment.

1 day of lab practical

performance activity.

students “were asked to prepare in advance by reading prelab materials and
completing the usual
lab preparation exercises such as Vee diagrams” (618).

1 day of writing assessment

assess content knowledge and ability to express
knowledge in written form.

Students were asked to write an argument for their opinions on whether or not to
allow DDT.

They needed to use article evidence and material that they had from their notes.

“She assessed not only their understanding of an important issue in the field of chemistry, but
also their reading, writing, and thinking abilities” (618).

“Students were n
ot expected to memorize discrete facts to record on he examination. Instead,
they had the opportunity to read, learn new ideas from their reading, organize their ideas, consult
with Dolores, and revise their thinking and their information sources” (619).

“The writing component of the examination encompassed many principles of good assessment. It
represented an ongoing assessment over time, examined multiple dimensions of student ability,
encouraged teacher
student interaction and reflection, provided addit
ional learning opportunities
for students, and informed Dolores’s own instructional decisions” (619).

Used cooperative testing for finale examinations. Allowed for teacher informal assessment that
she wouldn’t otherwise have. Students can learn from one a
nother through assessment. It could
keep them from making simple mistakes.
It allowed them the ability to process how to interpret
test questions. Used oral presentations for the last day of assessment. It allowed them to use
material they used inside/outs
ide of class and personal experiences.

p. 624

Dolores’ ideas for extending assessment

not yet put in action.

Gutiérrez, K.D., Asato, J., Pacheco, M., Moll, L.C., & Olson, K. (2002). Conversations:

“Sounding American”: The Consequences of New Reform
s on English Language
Reading Research Quarterly, 37
(3), 328

This article focuses specifically on ELL students.

Future research should look at ELL students, ”to the heterogeneity among learners; to the social
organization of learning and i
nstruction; and to social class, poverty and schooling” (329).


Prop 227/203 and backlash reform is not good for students

especially ELL students.


“schools and teachers create effective learning communities in a high
stakes assessment
ext” (329).

Then begins an academic round table discussion amongst all ‘authors’ of the piece.

They want to examine the claim that, “primary
language instruction and academic excellence are
mutually exclusive” (331).

Negatives of prop 227 on p. 331

using on English
only contexts and including high
stakes assessment is creating classrooms
that are minimal
reductive learning environments

Some teachers follow an ‘archaeology of reform’ (333) where old policies (and often outdated
policies) are intermin
gling with new policies and reforms.

The Catch
22 “If the students do well, and if the teachers do their work as well as they can, then
the success will reinforce these oppressive measures. Yet the teachers won’t get any credit. If
they do poorly, then it
will get even more oppressive and then it will reinforce those who want to
privatize education” (334).

“Reading is more than discrete skills, and literacy is bigger than reading. The whole idea of
environmental print and meaning making, what Freire (1971)

called ‘reading the world’ is
something that people don’t want to hear about in these times” (335).

“Even the whole issue of critical literacy, that is being able even to understand what you have
read so that you can reflect on it, criticize it, think ab
out it and even beyond, is not thought of as
useful here” (335).


some “do not consider anything literacy if it is not in English” (335).

packaged lessons give administrators the ability to provide ‘teacher
proof learning’ and can
determine wh
ich teacher variables are failing.

Too often, short
term gains are all that is really coming from new reforms.

Too often, there is a “tendency to equate oral language proficiency with academic English
language proficiency” (336).

Primary languages are n
ot being viewed as resources, when doing so would be a tremendous
benefit to local communities and students.

Good teachers should ask themselves: “Did I do this right? How else can I organize this activity?
What new things can I include in here to engage
the students?” (339)

What teachers should know:

“knowledge of language, and not just language with a small
, but language development

children develop language, how they use the resources at their disposal to develop different
concepts and ideas” (3

Know language, student backgrounds and experiences, language development contexts, student
communities, resrouces in the communities, how the communities developed, understand and
read theories on reading, understand that reading isn’t just a technic
al skill but also includes
cultural, social, and semantic elements.

Moje, E.B., Young, J.P., Readence, J.E., & Moore, D.W. (2000). Commentary: Reinventing

Adolescent Literacy for New Times: Perennial and Millennial Issues.
Journal of
Adolescent & Adult
Literacy, 43
(5), 400

Article focuses on ‘adolescent literacy’ and how it should be used and defined.


“For the many youth who have mastered the basic

of reading and writing by
the time they have reached fourth grade, there is still

much to learn about the

associated with literacy, especially the ones unique to different disciplines, texts, and situations”


“Additionally, the demands of a changing world necessitate the teaching and learning of
specialized lit
eracy practices” (401)

Evidence for these claims

Luke and Elkins (1998)

p. 401

Focuses on Four questions:


What does
adolescent literacy

signal that
content reading and secondary reading

do not?


What constitutes best practices in adolescent literac


How can we meet the needs of marginalized readers in new times?


Should critical literacy be part of our classroom?


middle school student as a phrase “carries with it some emotional baggage that limits how we
define and think of middle school students
” (401)/

Literacy should not be constrained to purely academic contexts.

Adolescents have multiple literacies and thus have a wide variety of texts that go along with
those literacies. A newer, updated literacy is needed…especially one without the connot
that come with secondary or content literacy. By using a new title, it allows for a different
perspective on literacy for those students in this age group

one that is hopefully less restrictive
and more unbounded.


Use ecological ways of thinking
(emphasize relationships)

Focus on how “reading and writing relate with the world” (403)


word and world

“One way to address best practices ecologically is to link specific promising practices with
generally accepted principles of teaching and
learning” (403).

“A second ecologically minded approach to best practices is to be critical consumers…Critical
consumers continually question claims, analyzing, comparing, and evaluating what is said”

“A critical stance toward adolescent literacy
recommendations is especially important because a
teaching practice that seems effective for all ages might not be so” (404).

More on 404.

bring student proficiencies into the classroom

focus on what they can do and use it. Offer
literacies that conn
ect to their lives and use that as scaffolding material to new literacies.

Think about incorporating interdisciplinary project
based pedagogies.

Useful for students who
struggle with traditional print texts to interpret it in a new way.

Draw from texts t
hat adolescents use and admire.


critical literacy is beneficial to adolescents. They can begin to understand how texts are
transforming their identities and how to question these texts. Leads to a “more fair and just
world” (408).

Gutiérrez, Kris. (2
000). Teaching and Learning in the 21

English Education,

(4), 290

Repetition (and essentially a summarization) of much of what was discussed in the
‘Conversations’ piece above.

Effects of
educational reform.

Focuses on “What to do wi
th culture and diversity?” (291)


“Our educational system is unprepared to deal with the increasingly diverse student
population in our schools” (291).

Teachers should not culture synonymous with race and ethnicity.

Teachers should get to know th
e community their school resides in. Use community and
linguistic tool kits as resources to draw upon

not to exclude from the classroom.

only forces many students to neglect ‘the tool of tools’ in their language.

Includes a list of some recomme
ndations to teachers at the end of the article for how to approach
culture in their classrooms.

Moje, E.B., Dillon, D.R., & O’Brien, D. (2000). Reexamining Roles of Learner, Text, and

Context in Secondary Literacy.
The Journal of Educational Research,
(3), 165

Calls for a redefining of ‘learner’, ‘text’, and ‘context’.

Different texts have different cognitive demands (across content areas).

Literacy involves more than just ‘textual’ and ‘cognitive’ demands
it includes social and
cultural dem

A call for a broadening of these definitions because they will need to respond the expanding
diversity of our nation and the literacy practices associated with this change.

Older definition: “texts as multiple and intertextual;

as having mo
re central roles in the
process of constructing reading; and

as critical to shaping meaning making” (165).

Research method

“We drew from a series of studies of secondary and adolescent learners’
literacies in school and out of school, and in a
variety of content areas” (165).


“learner as a person with multiple identities: an individual that is at one moment a daughter; in
another instant, a girlfriend; a disengaged learning in chemistry class; and a focused learner in
psychology class”

“One needs to understand that learners’ multiple identities and subjectivities are created in and
through both social and academic discourses” (166).



is any organized network of meaning and includes the system of cultural signs,
iptions, and grammars that shape both speech and writing” (167).

Notes that people can be read as texts.

Texts as “cultural tools for establishing belongingness, identity, personhood, and ways of
knowing” (167).


“a frame that encompasses an even
t and provides resources for its interpretation” (167).

Gutierrez argues for more than just a ‘first space’ context

include the ‘second’ (and ‘third’)


can be an event, a place, a social group, a realm of knowledge, or a moment in time.

And finally, contexts have dramtic implications for shaping and reflecting learners’ identities and
subject positions, as well as particular interpretations of texts” (167).

More research methods on bottom of 167, top of 168.

3 cases to reveal texts, le
arners, and contexts:

The Case of Khek:

12 years, girl, Laos, Salt Lake City, 2 bedroom apartment in ‘Little Saigon”. Focuses on family, ethnicity, and class as cont
exts in
which Khek read ‘The Cage’.

Includes a lot of extensive detail regarding the ma
ny texts and contexts these learners encounter.


“Initially, text, context, and learner cannot be considered independent of each other.
Furthermore, learners’ various subject positions and identities are constructed in relation to the
many contexts t
hey move through from day to day and moment to moment, and learners’
identities both shape and reflect the meanings they make from text, their interactions with text,
and the ways they are positions or position themselves” (176).


“Each of those
[text, learner, and context] is multidimensional and always changing,
especially in an age of alternative information and the ways in which it is generated” (176).

These claims are extrapolated in the conclusions but form the very center focus of the

Essentially, this entire article calls for a much broader and expansive definition of
these three terms.

Funds of Knowledge

Howard, Kathryn M, & Lipinoga, Sara. (2008). Review of Norma González, Luis C. Moll,

Cathy Amanti (eds.),
ds of Knowledge: Theorizing Practices in Households,
Communities and Classrooms
International Journal of Bilingual Education and
Bilingualism, 11
(5), 627

Book review. Useful if you have read the book. Also acts as a minor summary of
s works regarding funds of knowledge.

Funds of Knowledge: A Look at Luis Moll’s Research Into Hidden Family Resources

Essentially the same as the article below.

Funds of Knowledge

Janet Kier Lopez


“Teachers can use ‘funds of knowledge,’ the k
nowledge students gain from their family
and cultural backgrounds, to make their classrooms more inclusive” (1).

Reason for this claim is because the demographics of classrooms are rapidly changing.


“In order to provide the best possible educatio
n for all the students in a classroom
teaching practices must reflect an authentic sense of caring for a child in a way that recognizes
the importance of knowing about Latino students’ funds of knowledge” (1).

This claim requires support by the administra
tion, “through better teacher training and support”

Definition of FoK

‘to refer to the historically accumulated and culturally developed bodies of
knowledge and skills essential for household or individual functioning and well
being’ (1)

Funds of
knowledge should be viewed as resources. Resource vs. deficit view.

Encourages teachers to enter households

using ethnographic methods. Learn these methods.

Funds of knowledge can be used in the classroom. They should be utilized in the lessons.


of knowledge can help create lessons that, “serve as a unique learning experience” (4).

Is this useful? It is arguable. I would say so, but are the funds of knowledge necessary for a
unique learning experience. Needs better support for why the funds of
knowledge should be

Funds of Knowledge: Learning from Language Minority Households

Definitely worth reading the whole article.

Reason for research: “An underlying assumption of many educational institutions has been that
linguistically and cultura
lly diverse working
class students do not emerge from households rich
in social and intellectual resources. This inaccurate perception, that diverse minority students
have language disadvantages and deficiencies in school
sanctioned knowledge that they bri
from the home to the classroom, has too often led to lowered academic expectations for these
students” (1).

Instead of visiting homes as a way to address problems, these visits serve as ways to find the
existing knowledge that students have and that ca
n be utilized. They also serve as ways to build
relationships with parents.

Three main components of this study are: Community, After
school teacher labs, schools.

The community was studies in order to find out more about the “sociopolitical and economic

context” (1) of households.

Mostly conducted through interviews.

Important to know: “The teachers need to recognize that reflexively oriented work needs to begin
with ‘the understanding that systematic thinking about one’s own experiences is a valid sou
rce of
some knowledge and insight’” (2).

Four problems teachers encounter when trying to discover funds of knowledge


Not trusting own thoughts as legitimate research.


Feelings of discomfort in visiting homes.


They don’t act on this knowledge.


Takes a lot
of out
class time to accomplish.

Culture is not just “dances, food, folklore” (2).

Culture is “a dynamic process rather than a static end state” (2).

This experience denounces any thoughts that these students are without resources at home
ly, etc. They have many experiences that can transform classroom teaching.

By doing this, teachers “raised their expectations of their students’ abilities” (3).

Suggestions for teachers who want to conduct FoK research:

theoretical teacher preparation

viewing houses as resources

home visits as participant

be ethnographer in home

Teacher labs

community interaction and discovery

Voluntary teacher participation

must want to do this.

Cultural Ways of Learning: Individual Traits or
Repertoires of Practice

This article stresses over and over again the importance of refraining from classifying
commonalities across cultural backgrounds as traits…it should be more individualized and
should be grouped by contexts. The grouping is importa
nt to make general teaching methods, but
the grouping should be done appropriately.

Moll, L.C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of Knowledge for Teaching:

Using a Qualitative Approach to Connect Homes and Classrooms.
Theory into
tice, 31
(2), 132

Done in a working
class, Mexican community, Tuscon, AZ


“The primary purpose fo this work is to develop innovations in teaching that draw upon
the knowledge and skills found in local households” (132).


“Our claim is t
hat by capitalizing on household and other community reources, we can
organize classroom instruction that far exceeds in quality the rote
like instruction these children
commonly encounter in schools” (132).

Research method

“We utilize a combination of
ethnographic observations, open
interviewing strategies, life histories, and case studies” (132).

What needs to be studied

“history of the border region between Mexico and the United States…sociopolitical and
economic context of the households…so
cial history of the hosueholds…labor history of the
familes” (133).

Household arrangments contrast with school arrangements. Household arrangments are “flexible,
adaptive, and active, and may involve multiple persons from outside the homes” (133)

“the ‘
teacher’ in these home based contexts of learning will know the child as a ‘whole’
person” (133).

Teachers typically only know “the students only from their performance within rather limited
classroom contexts” (134).

“How can teachers make use of these
funds of knowledge in their teaching?” (134)

Study/research methods (on p. 135)

10 teachers with anthropologists

took training workshops on qualitative methods of study

ethnographic observations


writing field notes

data manageme
nt and analysis

each teacher visited 3 households (25 total)

approximately 100 observations during one semester of study

The teacher serves as a natural bridge between home and schools and “The teacher held a special
status with the family that could
help establish the trust necessary for the exchange of
information” (136).

Shows how these observations led to development of candy
based lessons

Outcome “We have learned that it is feasible and useful to have teachers visit households for
research purpo
ses” (139).

Outcome “This relationship can become the basis for the exchange of knowledge about family or
school matters, reducing the insularity of classrooms, and contributing to the academic content
and lessons” (139).

Cultural Modeling

Lee, Carol D. (1995). A Culturally Based Cognitive Apprenticeship: Teaching African

American High School Students Skills in Literary Interpretation.
Reading Research
Quarterly, 30
(4), 608

Lee, Carol D. (2001). Is October Brown Ch
inese? A Cultural Modeling Activity System for

Underachieving Students.
American Educational Research Journal, 38
(1), 97

Focuses on high school students in the bottom quartile in standardized reading tests. “The
analysis deconstructs the historical
dimensions of the cultural practices these students learned to
acquire. Using a framework of cultural
historical activity theory, the article examines the
knowledge based of the teacher…to coach and scaffold a radically different intellectual culture

students who were underachieving” (97).

Utilized the cultural funds of knowledge of African American students.

aligned them with the
‘cultural practices of the subject matter’ (97).

Study sample is an all African American freshman high school class.


She documents the history of what has happened in the classroom in order to develop the
intellectual community that is present in one day of teaching that is focused on throughout the
whole article. Focuses on how the funds of knowledge of
students were incorporated into

Uses ‘habitus’

“A system of dispositions with historical dimensions through which novices
acquire competence by entering activities through which they develop a series of expectations
about the world a
nd about ways of being in it” (99).

Is this just a way to view all students as achievers? Are we all inherently learners, dependent
upon learning context?

Uses signification as on example of a typical AA fund of knowledge.

One question I have

Are fun
ds of knowledge valued in and of themselves or are they only
viewed as bridges to more commonplace knowledge (the standards)?

“African American English Vernacular offers a fertile bridge for scaffolding literary
response, rather than a deficit to be ove
rcome” (101)

Prior knowledge is essential in negotiating with rich texts.

Tremendous use of scaffolding

ex: sequencing of texts, beginning with ones that use AA social
codes and transition to codes the students have limited knowledge in.

She breaks do
wn every process of thought that is necessary to complete certain actions

example is on p. 104 of breaking down what a student must understand in order to answer a
specific question.

Counterscripts should not be neglected in class

counterscripts a
re comments that do not come
from the teacher and do not pertain to the “immediate goals of the teacher” (106).

Insinuates that the response of students is a signification of the personal value the content has to

to some extent.

Error can reveal dee
p, complex thought. The teacher needs to assess error and discover why the
error occurred in order to continue thought along the right path.

She provides specific reading strategies that are necessary for reading on page 109.

Students are accomplishing
“intellectual argument over warrants in pursuit of literary inquiry”,
when researchers contend that” appeals to warrants represent the most sophisticated forms of
argumentative reasoning” (110). Students are achieving high intellectual goals with these tex

“The questions posed by the teacher model for the students how to reason” (111).

She uses the day she does because it happens in AAVE, and it utilizes the three things that are
often subjugated in classrooms: “Students, language use, and texts” (114)

2 important things

the students brought cultural capital from their own homes

this learning environment was built/scaffolded over time.

“classroom cluture is constituted through talk, activities, and artifacts” (115) over time. Talk,

and artifacts are what make up a classroom.

These 6 things shaped the classroom:


creating community


She “established a set of expectations for participation in this class” (16). They
knew they were expected to at least look like they were participating
. All
students, including disruptive, LD, and the most disengaged.


2 routines build this community:


“linking the texts to students’ prior experience” (116)


“providing routines that made students take responsibility for their own
reading” (116).


She uses th
eir funds of knowledge as a source of engagement



“the most intense and interactional discussions occurred when
students had opportunities to link their home and community
experiences in meaningful ways to extend the thinking about a


building new norms for reading


“The routine activities and artifacts used from the very beginning of the school
year encouraged students to complete multiple readings of the same text or
passage, consider multiple points of view, provide textual ev
idence to support
claims, attend to unusual details in the text, and link the text to life experiences”


“two fundamental stances are require for participation…especially for novice
readers: close reading of the text, attributing generalizations beyo
nd the text to
what the tradition signifies as salient details, and a willingness to critique the text”


valuing complex problems


Underachievers need to connect to personal experience.


The biggest problem is disengagement.


modeling strategies for s
olving complex literary problems


Major goal

“helping students learn how to construct horizons of
possibilities while they were reading” (122).


“the three most important aspects of this program were modeling the
strategies, helping the students take respo
nsibility for their own close reading
and thinking, and engaging the students in close reading of the texts” (122).


building intertextual links


using routine artifacts to support critical thinking (115)


Artifacts are physical and ideational


She specifies

with the use of reflective journals as a routine artifact.


used to make sure students actually “engaged in the activity” (124).

Reading strategies must be made explicit and “minority and underachieving students need to be
taught explicitly the rules and

language of power” (119).

She uses activity theory to “consider the goals of the activity, the goals of the actors, the artifacts
accessible, and the context of the practice” (119).

Cultural modeling can be used in non
English classrooms

p. 123

Map o
f “Activity Through Which Classroom Culture is Constituted” (127).

She relates the “pedagogical funds of knowledge” (128) that teachers need to know!!!!


Knowing when and how to uptake student ideas


“deconstruct the students’ thinking at a deeper, more st
ructural level” (129).


“The teachers’ response involved much more than affirming a correct or
anticipated response to a performed question” (129).


Knowing how to respond to what might be termed student errors.


“knowledge of the relevance of ‘errors’ to st
udents’ evolving conceptual models”


“explanations of errors provide an entry into student thinking” (129).


knowledge of how to respond to students’ counterscripts.


“pay attention to the ways that students move away from the preplanned script of

teacher” (132).


“I would argue that teachers’ responses to coutnerscriptes are informed by a
knowledge base” (132).


Look for underlying thoughts and ideas. Bring their ideas into classroom ideas to
develop hybridity

third space.


teacher’s knowledge of

when to enter multiparty overlapping talk.


Often, for African American students, “multiparty, overlapping, loud talk is a
routine indice of engagement” (130).


She relates the process of AAVE classroom talk on p. 131.


Be sure not to misread how students
use language.


knowledge of the human dimensions of valuing the students and her knowledge of how
that valuing relates to the intellectual goals of the instruction. (128).


View and appreciate students as humans

as you would your own children.

“The foun
dations of cultural modeling assume that the culture that students bring from
their home and community lives, their assumptions about schooling from prior educational
experiences, and specific practices and activity within classrooms over time interact in
complex ways to create a hybrid culture within the classroom. This hybrid culture is not
static and cannot be copied from one classroom to another. It demands teachers who
understand the complexity of teaching, who respect the students they teach, and who
believe in the endless possibility of transformation for high academic achievement for all
students” (135).

“This classroom became a hybrid site in which collective ethnic culture, the culture of a
discipline…and a system of classroom practices intersect”


Lee, Carol D. (1991). Big Picture Talkers/Word Walking Without Masters: The

Implications of Ethnic Voices for an Expanded Literacy.
The Journal
of Negro Education, 60
(3), 291


the title says ‘Instructional Implications’

this article focuses on instruction


“I offer herein that the union of novice readers and ethnic literature provides a great deal
more than ethnic pride. Rather it can support a pedagogical scaffolding between reader and
literary text capable of

building the skills of literary analysis that most youth in American
schools simply miss” (291).

Students struggle with deeper reading of texts (below the surface), and can’t support what they
infer with evidence.

She builds her argument off of two assu

literacy is contextual

students need prior knowledge to learn new things.


“The bare bones of my argument is that there are routine practices within the cultural
life of communities that schools can draw upon to assist students in con
structing concepts in a
given domain the schools seek to teach” (292).

p. 293

focuses on the use of speakerly text as a bridge to more difficult texts.

this is for AA
community. Links between “ordinary talk and literature” (293). “the rhetoric of the
text…engaged these readers and which they have used as points of analysis to construct and
critique the significant themes and symbols within the works” (293).

(294) “Reading literature requires at least two categories of knowledge:

1. The first is soci
al knowledge regarding human relationships…one cannot adequately
read the literature of a people without knowing something of the culture and historical
circumstances of that people.

2. The second category is knowledge of the literary conventions operati
ng in the text”

“The technical aspects of interpreting literature fall into three broad categories: (1) basic reading
comprehension, (2) interpretation, and (3) criticism” (294).

Lots of detail on how signifying is a particular things to use in or
der to lead to greater reading
skills over time.

pages 295

Uses evidence of gains from pre to post test to note that signifying helped students learn.

2 claims:

“literature instruction should teach students the technology of literary interpretati
on and
criticism; and (2) the potentially privileged relationship between novice African American
readers and speakerly texts of African American fiction shows great promise for teaching this
technology” (299).

Lee, Carol D. (1998). Culturally Responsive

Pedagogy and Performance
Based Assessment.

The Journal of Negro Education, 67
(3), 268

This article is about ASSESSMENT and not INSTRUCTION.

She does explore the relationship between pedagogy and assessment.


Argues for Performance Based As
sessments instead of traditional standardized testing
in order to enhance the education of students of color (not Asian cultures).

One question is that there isn’t a whole lot of research that proves that authentic instruction is
useful for students of co

Presents cognitive and cultural arguments for culturally responsive PBAs.


using examples from the civil war often place it as both romantic and horrendous

but this typically is when only seen through white eyes.

Some of the difficulty o
f this is that teachers aren’t given the ‘prior educational training and
workplace conditions’ necessary to develop them. (269).

Often assessment is blocking students of color from going further.

Does success in performance based assessments relate to s
uccess in standardized tests?

There are justifications for using ‘culturally diverse’ (often African American) canonical texts:

1. Rich texts ‘develop a generation of avid readers’ (271).

2. ‘rich literature offers profound insights into the human exp
erience’ (271).

3. ‘the quality of analysis we attempt to apprentice students into constructing in response
to these texts cannot be captures or assessed through a multiple
choice, timed
achievement tests’ (272).

Argues that the Iowa ‘state’s wr
iting performance test almost begs for a low
level perfunctory
performance’ (272).

Assessment often ‘has little to do with either the lived experiences of these students or with the
culturally relevant texts they study through the Cultural Modeling Projec
t’ (272).

Evidence for this statement: “culturally responsive PBAs will be useful and empowering for
underachieving minority students under certain conditions of pedagogy” (273).

“the quality and complexity of knowledge demonstration is directly tied to

the task and
circumstances of performance” (273).

“there exist multiple contexts and tasks through which complex thinking may be
demonstrated” (273).

For more detailed descriptions of this evidence, read p. 273.

Culturally based PBAs need these thing

“linked and integrated directly with curriculum and instruction’ (273)

“must involve tasks that draw on culturally based funds of knowledge” (273).

“demand that students draw on knowledge sources from several disciplines” (273).

“must involve st
udents in working together as well as working with others from outside
their schools” (273).

Takes on the viewpoint that “cognitive competencies are situated rather than absolute” (274).

“A student may be expert at reading certain kinds of texts and quit
e a novice at reading other
kinds of texts” (274).

Future Research

“It is my hope that well
defined and systematically designed experiments or
action research involving the development, implementation, and evaluation of culturally
responsive PBAs will c
ontribute literal ‘dashes of color’ to the literature on everyday, situated
cognition” (275).

And, “As yet, no evidence supports the claim that African American, Native American,
and Latino students, on the whole, perform any better on complex PBAs…than
they do on
standardized measures” (275).

African American students are ‘field
dependent’ (unlike European American students)…this
means they need problems ‘placed in context’ (275).

Boykin argues for an Afro
cultural ethos and says these 9 things help Af
rican American students
learn better:






expressive individualism



social time perspective

For more information on what these mean, go to pages 275

What Boykin argues for ess
entially means that “PBAs should include demonstrations of vervistic
performance, should be socially situated, and should provide opportunities for multiple
modalities” (276).


“Culturally responsive assessment and pedagogy must speak to the p
dimension of education for disenfranchised, marginalized communities” (277).

Use community responsibility as a second motivator for students to participate in school

just that they will get a job.

Future research

“PBAs…must meet the same s
tringent standards for internal and external
validity and reliability that other assessment measures must meet. This will require a major
dedication of resources and the collaboration of multidisciplinary research team to develop, test,
norm, and implement
” (277).

Lee, Carol D. (1992). Profile of an Independent Black Institution: African

Education at Work.
The Journal of Negro Education, 61
(2), 160

Focuses on the development of the New Concept Development Center (NCDC).


l remedies for poorly performing students are not complete

done in isolation.
More needs to be done.

She is reflective on the person of an African American student

p. 161.

African American students must explicitly be taught the “rules of power” (161) o
f language.

Includes lots of historical information on the NCDC starting on p. 162.

The NDCD is not for white students. It is based off of an African centered pedagogy. An African
centered pedagogy should “fulfill the following aims:


Legitimize African s
tores of knowledge


Positively exploit and scaffold productive community and cultural practices


Extend and build upon the indigenous language


Reinforce community ties and idealize [the concept of] service to on’es family,
community, nation, race and world


romote positive social relationships


Impart a world view that idealizes a positive, self
sufficient future for one’s
people without denying the self
worth and right to self
determination of others.


Support cultural continuity while promoting critical consc


Promote the vision of individuals and communities as producers rather than as
simply consumers” (166).

Built off of two beliefs:

“each child is capable of learning complex bodies of knowledge and problem
strategies, and that each child
has the moral responsibility to use that knowledge for the good of
his or her family and community” (166).

On p. 168, it includes a list of ten principles that teachers should be well grounded in if they are
to use an African centered pedagogy.

She relat
es some of the things that are negatively affecting the NCDC on p. 174.

Outcomes of the NCDC:

students “are decidedly not among the gang members, dope dealers, and high school
dropouts that plague our communities” (174).

enter and graduate from presti
gious public schools in Chicago.

“enjoy reading, patiently engage in mathematical and scientific problem solving, think
critically about social issues, be well
rounded in their creative interests and talents, and behave
well” (174).

Puts why NCDC surviv
es on p. 174.

Lee, Carol D., Spencer, Margaret Beale, & Harpalani, Vinay. “Every Shut Eye Ain’t

leep”: Studying How People Live Culturally.
Educational Researcher, 32
(5), 6

This articles serves as a good summary of Cultural Modeling (among other th
ings) and its
usefulness in the classroom.


“We call for the integration of cultural socialization and identity processes in learning as
a goal of educational research. Our aim is to improve educational outcomes for racial and ethnic
minority youth
and for youth facing persistent intergenerational poverty” (6).

Schools have many “long
held misconceptions” (6):

learning is based on the way white/European students learn

“life course challenges of ethnic and racial minority youth are fundamentally
pathological, rather than normative”

deficit view of home life and out
school life

“to attend to race and ethnicity explicitly in cultural socialization as preparation for
learning is simply polemic and is not relevant to majority children”

are homogenous

“fundamentally different from the minority”

“Cultural Modeling addresses a cultural orientation to subject
matter learning” (7).


“promote adaptive coping and to facilitate resilient outcomes for youth” (7).

“If we want to better
understand race, ethnicity, and culture…we must separate the
phenomenological or every experience of race from the
more generic experiences of cultural
” (7).

Definition of CM

“a framework for designing instruction that makes explicit conne
between students’ everyday knowledge and the demands of subject
matter learning” (7).

P. 8 is a summary of Cultural Modeling

Goes over PVEST which, instead of focusing on culture through subject
matter, it focuses on the
processes of coping and re
silience in order to make explicit cultural norms and patterns.

p. 10 goes over the Algebra Project

“It’s goals include a deep understanding of algebra, but
equally important is to develop young people who understand their relationships with and
ibilities to their communities and the role that understanding and using mathematics can
play in such work” (10).

P. 11 includes recommendations for focusing “on learning and development through the lens of
culture” (11).

Critical Academic Liter

Boyd, F.B., Ariail, M., Williams, R., Jocson, K., Tinker, G. (2006). Real Teaching for Real

Diversity: Preparing English Language Arts Teachers for 21
Century Classrooms.
English Education, 38
(4), 329


“Create literacy classrooms that

meet the needs of linguistically and culturally diverse
learners” (329).

Pedagogy is not changing with the students!

Teachers are always teaching things implicitly that they may not realize

like institutional
ideologies that do not align with cultural

norms of many students.


“There is an urgent need to create humane classrooms where students and teachers learn
to use language and literacy in critical and empowering ways” (331)

Goal for preservice and active teachers

“learn to resist a hidden

curriculum that promotes
economic, social, and political oppression” (331).

Central question

“How might literacy educators learn to recognize, promote, and capitalize
upon the rich cultural resources of students in diverse classrooms in the United Stat
es?” (331)

Has his groups 7 central beliefs on p. 332. Goes into detail on what they mean throughout the
rest of the article.


what about non
diverse learners (linguistically and culturally)?

Does this apply to

In regards to comment
on p. 332.

Don’t let the status quo deny those who don’t fit the norms/ideologies of the status quo.


“using literature that reflects the ethnic, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds of students
from diverse backgrounds encourages them to read” (3


“Effective literacy teachers of diverse students envision classrooms as sites of struggle
and transformative action in the service of critical academic literacy development and social
change” (333).

Teachers must question the ‘status quo’ of

their own lives.

Have students question their lives/school


Teachers must acknowledge their limits

but they must also cross boundaries to see the ‘other’

Preservice teachers also need to engage in introspection and have this continue into their

teaching careers.



“need for critical, cultural and linguistic exploration, particularly self
exploration leading
to a more sophisticated understanding of the role of culture and native language in self
formation for both teachers an
d students alike” (337)

the difficulty is that one’s identity
becomes destabilized as new options for self
identity become apparent/available.

Don’t suppress the cultural capital these students already possess



“When teachers successfull
y incorporate texts and pedagogical strategies that are
culturally and linguistically responsive, they have been able to increase student efficacy,
motivation, and academic achievement” (337).

Be sure to ask difficult questions about our practice.

Asks w
hether or not standardization hinders socially responsible teaching.


goes into
some detail.

states that critical learning results in personal growth

but doesn’t specify if there is
growth in a standardized realm.

He calls for a reimagination o
f the classroom and what is should accomplish

should align more
with critical pedagogies.

Teachers should constantly assess their teaching and planning through multiple lenses.


“The range and variety of these literacy practices
will create
opportunities for high student engagement and capitalize on their multiple learning styles and
diverse identities and personalities” (340).

Notes some out
school contexts on p. 341.

Teachers should model culturally responsive processes and

also model “implicit literacy skills
and strategies” (343).

Teachers should show students how to use language successfully.



English language arts teachers have a further, absolute responsibility to help students
master the aforementioned ma
instream power codes in order to become truly critical users (and
creators) of language, not passive consumers of others’ language” (344)

and to critically
examine them!

Don’t transform linguistic opportunities into ‘worksheet’ format

provide useful p
ractice in the

Collatos, A., Morrell, E., Nuno, A., Lara, R. (2004). Critical Sociology in K
16 Early

Intervention: Remaking Latino Pathways to Higher Education.
Journal of Hispanic
Higher Education, 3
(2), 164

Morrell, Ernest. (2005).
Critical English Education.
English Education
(4), 312


“There is no higher social calling, no work more honorable than teaching critical
approaches to the consumption and production of language” (312).


“What we need, for the profe
ssion, for preservice teacher education, and for the students
in secondary classrooms is an increased emphasis on a
Critical English Education
” (313).

more on what that entails follows at top of 313.

States that schools continue social inequality


Language is political and tied to power. Language also allows for social change.


“to engage marginalized populations so that they can empower themselves through their
decoding of old and producing of new texts” (314)

MOTIVATION! A goal of engag
ing the


“to challenge existing norms and disrupt existing power relations” (314).

Make students analyze what they confront on a daily basis


New Literacy Studies are trying to change what is typically conceived o
f as literacy.

Hope for English educators

“I advocate that English educators borrow from NLS to engage in
ethnographies of literacy” (315).

also see students funds of knowledge!

Make what students do be important to the school and community.

“A key
component of critical pedagogy is the raising of consciousness” (317)

any proof that
critical pedagogy is good for ‘raising consciousness’ as well as academic skills?

Advocates for bringing “media
based youth popular culture into the traditional seconda
English curriculum” (317).

Example: combine pop culture texts with canonical texts.

Page 318 presents ways that students can learn from using critical academic literacies.

Future hope

“English teachers and English educators are positioned as activ
ists and
intellectuals” (319).


“English educators will need to become more explicitly political agents” (319).

Morrell, Ernest. (2009). Critical Research and the Future of Literacy Education.
Journal of

Adolescent & Adult Literacy

(2), 96

Overall, this is an article that argues for the necessity of ‘critical research’.

Standardized tests tell us next to nothing about the real school world of students.

The National Research Council (2005) called “for more scientific research in litera
cy education”


“In essence, research in K
12 literacy education needs to elucidate life in classrooms for
the poor and for members of historically marginalized groups, and it needs to shed light on what
is happening in powerful learning spaces

for students

when literacy instruction is both identity
affirming and academically enriching” (97).


“I argue for a specific conception of research, what I and others call
critical research

(97). He says this needs to happen in order to provide

information to those who are going to
teach, teacher educators, researchers, those who make policy, in order to change practice and
diminish the “education opportunity gap” (97).


“Critical research, I argue, can help us to identify quality teachi
ng in literacy classrooms
even as it helps us to refine (or even redefine) our notions of curricula, pedagogy, literacy, and
achievement” (97).

Critical theory says all knowledge is biased

especially knowledge that is passed down through
powerful institut

schools/media. Some say that people are being deceived to oppress the
masses in favor of the few.

He says that many people can see good in critical theory and critical pedagogy, but “identifying
those successful, engaging practices in K
12 literacy
education requires an approach to research
that is theoretically consistent” (98).

Critical research is necessary because “mainstream research methodologies limit our approaches
to understanding the possible connections between critical pedagogy and liter
acy achievement by
limiting the types of questions we ask, the participants in the research process, the conception of
powerful literacy, and the desired outcomes of literacy” (98).


“I claim that we need to have teachers and students centrally inv
olved in data collection
and analysis if we are truly to document and understand effective literacy praxis” (98) because
they get everyday insight into what happens in the classroom and are less distant from this realm
than university researchers who are “
removed from the life of the classrooms they study” (98).

“Critical research holds the potential to provide the missing link in the theory
research chain” (99).

The positives of critical research span across three domains:

“First, we can co
llect data that tell us something about identity development…to
understand how literacy education can help students see themselves as intellectuals; as
readers, writers, and speakers” (99).

“also able to do far more with the analysis of students’ cultural

and textual production”

“Researchers can amass a variety of quantitative data sources that codify student
learning and academic achievement from a critical perspective” (100)

Critical research can complement the information provided by standardize
d tests.

He wants to see the teacher reconceive of himself as a researcher. Everywhere!

The Council of Youth Research is an out
school program that benefits from not having the
restraints posed by traditional schooling.

“First of all, we want to cre
ate a learning space, separate from the demands and constraints of
schools, that allwos us to understand the possible translations of critical theories of teaching and
learning into practice…Over the past decade, we have been able to develop models of inst
that would not have been possible inside of traditional classrooms, but we have also been able to
inform classroom practice through what we have learned and demonstrated in the seminar space”


“we need much more thorough training in

critical research at the preservice teacher
education through doctoral levels in schools of education” (103).

“A second recommendation concerns developing mechanisms for distribution and enhancement
of critical research in literacy education” (103).

rrell, Ernest. (2002). Toward a Critical Pedagogy of Popular Culture: Literacy

Development among Urban Youth.
Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy
(1), 72

This article is meant to give an understanding of pop culture and to express its validity
in the
classroom. Many people like this idea, but without explicit articulation, it can be difficult to
justify its use in the classroom.


“finding effective ways to teach today’s student population” (72).


“critical teaching of popular cult
ure, can help students acquire and develop the literacies
needed to navigate ‘new
century’ schools” (72).


“Popular culture can help students deconstruct dominant narratives and contend with
oppressive practices in hopes of achieving a more egalita
rian and inclusive society” (72).


“Often, the failure of urban students to develop ‘academic’ literacy skills stems not from
a lack of intelligence but from the inaccessibility of the school curriculum to students who are
not in the ‘dominant’ or
‘mainstream’ culture” (72), and “
such students are literate but…their
literacies have little connection with the dominant literacies promoted in public schools” (72).

Academic literacy

literacy in ‘useful’ texts in the eyes of academia.

Definition of c
ritical literacy

“the ability not only to read and write, but also to assess texts in
order to understand the relationships between power and domination that underlie and inform
those texts” (73).

Includes the 3 components of culture (ideal/documentary/
social) in some detail on p. 73

Pop culture is a third space

a “compromise equilibrium” (73)

“a site of struggle between the
subordinate and the dominant groups in society” (73).

NCTE and IRA validate popular film and TV as worthy of study. The statem
ent is on p. 75

Uses film as a side
side comparison with canonical texts which made students “able to hone
their critical and analytical skills and use them in interpretations” (75) and more.


“I believe that critical
literacy educators should
envision teaching popular culture as
compatible with the current educational climate and, at the same time, as culturally and socially
relevant” (76).

Future research

“Educators need to conduct classroom
based research on innovative practices
and partic
ipate in policy debates at every level of schooling. They also need to participate in
conversations about alternative forms of assessment that are more compatible with recent
developments in literacy studies and inclusive of students’ non
school literacy p
ractices” (76).

Morrell, Ernest, & Duncan
Andrade, Jeffrey M.R. (2002). Promoting Academic Literacy

with Urban Youth through Engaging Hip
Hop Culture.
The English Journal

The problem

“The number of ethnic minority teachers will shrink

to 5 percent, while the
enrollment of ethnic minority children in American’s schools will grow to 41 percent” (88).

The goal

“How to connect in significant ways across multiple lines of difference” (88).

This method, using hip hop, is for ALL students

it transcends race. Hip hop is listened to by all
races, generally.

He utilizes the positive academic skills that are inherent in hip hop listening and culture.

Goals and outcomes

“We ultimately decided that we could utilize Hip
hop music and culture

forge a common and critical discourse that was centered upon the lives of the students, yet
transcended the racial divide and allowed us to tap into students’ lives in ways that promoted
academic literacy and critical consciousness” (88).

hop musi
c uses the voice of the students.

Ultimate goal

“ultimately, liberation from oppressive ideologies” (89).

hop has been deemed by many as a worthy topic of study.

hop music as a serious site for social knowledge to be discussed, interrogated,
critiqued” (89)

according to Carol Lee, these are the basic steps necessary in reading literature.

Stresses the legitimacy of using hip hop in the classroom for its educative aspects.

It also serves as a bridge between the ‘street’ and ‘academic’ r

3 Objectives:


To utilize our students’ involvement with Hip
hop culture to scaffold the critical and
analytical skills that they already possess.


To provide students with the awareness and confidence they need to transfer these
skills into/onto th
e literary texts from the canon.


To enable students to critique the messages sent to them through the popular cultural
media that permeate their everyday lives.

Another goal

“increase motivation and participation in discussions and assignments” (90).


To critique the merits of their culture.

He includes more basic objectives on p. 90.


“The unit was consistent with the basic tenets of critical pedagogy in that it was
situated in the experiences of the students (as opposed to tho
se of the teacher), called for critical
dialogue and a critical engagement of the text, and related the texts to larger social and political
issues” (91).

Enhanced Anchored Instruction

The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1990). Anc
hored Instruction and Its

Relationship to Situated Cognition.
Educational Researcher, 19
(6), 2


“We argue that situated cognition provides a broad, useful framework that emphasizes
the importance of focusing on everyday cognition, authentic t
asks, and the value of in
apprenticeship training. Anchored instruction provides a way to recreate some of the advantages
of apprenticeship training in formal education settings involving groups of students. In addition,
some of the principles of a
nchored instruction may make it possible to create learning
experiences that are more effective than many that occur in traditional apprenticeship training”

Ultimate goal

“Our ultimate goal is to help students develop the confidence, skills, and
owledge necessary to solve problems and become independent thinkers and learners” (2).

2 more goals

“to discuss some of our research on the effects of situation instruction in
based problem
solving environments” (2)

“to relate our ideas on a
nchored instruction to the concept of situated cognition” (2).

Schools often present information in ways that create inert knowledge.


Provide a context for all learning.


“When people learn new information in the context of mean
ingful activites…they are
more likely to perceive the new information as a tool rather than as an arbitrary set of procedures
or facts” (3).

Major goal

“The major goal of anchored instruction is to overcome the inert knowledge
problem” (3).


grade f
or Sherlock project


Research methods

(p. 4)


“Ethnographic analysis of the experimental classes


Experimental measures contrasting pretest and posttest findings for experimental
groups that receive the Young Sherlock anchor and comparison groups that do


“Overall, the video helps provide motivation and well
defined goals for reading in
order to learn” (5).


“students in the anchored group spontaneously use new, targeted vocabulary when it
becomes relevant” (5).

“The embedded d
ata design allows teachers to help students try to generate what they need to
know, attempt to retrieve this information from memory, and then scan back on the disc to see if
they were accurate” (5

Major question

“Are these anything other than arbit
rary, school
like tasks” (7).

so many tasks
are made arbitrary.

“A focus on everyday cognition and authentic tasks also reminds us that novices who enter into a
particular apprenticeship have a reasonable chance to develop expertise” (7).

Think about “
for whom are these tasks authentic?” (7)

Go into their thought processes during design.


“It has the potential to create learning experiences that are more effective than many that
occur in traditional apprenticeship training” (8).


“We b
elieve that the idea of revisiting scenes has implications for transfer. A problem
with many situations in which knowledge has been acquired in real
world contexts is that this
knowledge tends not to transfer to other settings” (8).


“A major goal o
f our current research on anchored instruction is to discover ways to help
students develop knowledge that is usable in a variety of contexts” (8).

Future research

“Studies...on ways to make traditional apprenticeships more efficient

important to pu
rsue” (8).


Brown et al. 1989

“provided a useful framework for deriving principles of
anchored instruction” (8).


“We also used anchors that were video based rather than text based because the
former format provides more potential
for noticing and permits multiple coding in memory.
Nevertheless, we noted that anchors could be verbally based rather than video based” (9).


“Over time, we want students to experience what it is like to grow from novices who
have only rudimentary
knowledge after a single viewing to relatively sophisticated experts who
have explore an environment from multiple points of view” (9).

Future research potentials in the last paragraph of the article.

Solving Word Problems with Enhanced Anchored Instru
ction in Grades 5

Anchored instruction provides a purpose for learning

students don’t understand the need for
doing school work.


Knowledge/Learning Goals

“The studies focus on unique and engaging ways to help
students tackle word problem
s by contextualizing them” (1)

“problems that are not as explicitly stated or well
formulated as traditional word problems, and
that require them to identify a structure for a problem, collect relevant information, formulate
and test a hypothesis, and for
m generalizations based on their exploration of the problem” (1).

Uses ‘real’ problem solving!

“Students are given small bits of relevant information, but it is not presented in an explicit or
overly structured manner” (1).


“to identify and recor
d the information they need to solve the problem, formulate a
hypothesis, and present a solution to the problem” (1).

A must

“it was vital that students have a formalized structure for solving problems” (1).


“students with learning disabilit
ies in the contextualized group made larger gains on
tests concerning contextualized problems and transfer measures, while their performance on
computation and word problems showed no statistically significant differences” (2).

Brian Bottge/The Gale Group

Anchored Instruction in Mathematics, Enhanced
Anchored Instruction, Research Findings of AI and EAI.

Read this article

it provides a great summary of all things Anchored Instruction.

How it differs from traditional problems

“all the information fo
r solving anchored problems is
available whereas it may not be in actual problem solving situations” (1).

AI in Mathematics section is incredibly specific and not very useful.


There is a difference between Anchored Instruction and Enhanced Anchore

“EAI extends AI by affording students additional opportunities to practice their skills as they
solve new but analogous problems in applied, motivating, and challenging hands
on contexts”

the addition of a hands
on component.


“Findings suggested students in the anchored instruction groups developed more
sophisticated math skills and positive attitudes compared to students in comparison groups” (3).

Outcome and Motivation

“Results showed that the anchored instruction ma
terials had positive
effects on math achievement and motivation of students in both high
SES and low
SES schools”

He includes students with learning disabilities.


“Teachers need substantial amounts of training to teach EAI effectively” (4).

4 issues


(on p. 4)

teachers need training

explicit instruction necessary for low
achieving students

some schools don’t have the technology necessary for EAI

might not fit into typical curriculum structure.

Kamehameha Early Education Project (KEEP)

Au, Kathryn H. (1997). Literacy for All Students: Ten Steps toward Making a Difference.

The Reading Teacher, 51
(3), 186

Ten things to enact to improve literacy instruction:


Reflect upon your own
philosophy of literacy, instruction, and learning.


“You may find it helpful to being by organizing your thoughts about
philosophy in three areas: literacy, instruction, and learning” (187).


“show students how literacy can be powerful in their own lives. Wh
students sense the power of literacy in their lives, they have ownership of
literacy” (187)


“instruction should begin with interest, with activities that students can find
personally meaningful” (187).


income communities tend to emphasize skills ov
er authentic instruction.


Choose a focus for change.


Make a commitment to full implementation of your chosen focus.


“work with a checklist” (188).


“The checklist can help you set goals for your own professional development”


Shoot to accomplish 90% o
f your full checklist. This is the tipping point for
when benefits outweigh any negatives.


“To reach the tipping point, teachers had to have faith that they were on the
right track and be patient and thorough in their work” (189).


Establish clear goals for

students’ learning.


“They showed students examples…of the kind of work that would be
expected of them. They kept the benchmarks posted and frequently referred to
them. Students knew the goals for literacy learning at their grade level;
expectations were c
lear” (189).


Share your own literacy with students.


Make school literacy learning a meaningful, rewarding experience for students.


“students of diverse backgrounds may not see the point of going to school.
They may not have the understanding that doing wel
l in school can improve
their life opportunities, leading to college and a good job, because these
connections have not been illustrated in their own families” (190).


Involves students in portfolio assessment.


Keep parents involved in students’ literacy le


Network with other teachers.


Allow time for change to take place.

Hershfeldt, P.A., Sechrest, R., Pell, K.L., Rosenberg, M.S., Bradshaw, C.P., & Leaf, P.J.

(2009). Double
Check: A Framework of Cultural Responsiveness Applied to
Classroom Behavio
TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 6
(2), 2

This article focuses on ‘Double
Check’ a system used to keep cultural differences from being
interpreted as negative behaviors. It makes the teacher assess how he/she interprets the behavior
of the studen
t and makes them consciously assess how much these behaviors are culturally

This is done because there is still a disproportionate amount of students who are culturally or
linguistically diverse in special educational programs or are discipline

Principals and teachers must enact change.

“Until teachers recognize and assess how their own culture affects behavior in today’s society,
they are unlikely to employ effective behavior management strategies in their classrooms” (4).

“it is imperativ
e that they view their own culture and how it affects their perceptions and
decisions about behaviors” (4).

Five components of ‘Double Check’: (5


Reflective thinking about Children and ‘Group Membership’


Teachers should engage in self


6 ind
icators of this kind of thinking are found on page 5 at the top left.



let students leave textbooks at home because their groups don’t
accept them carrying a book home.


An Authentic Relationship


“A genuine interest in not just the academic needs
of their students, but also in
their social and emotional well
being” (6).



“students take pride in their work and have a vision about their
future” (6).


Effective Communication


Connection to Curriculum



“Teachers and students are partners i
n learning, and mastery of the
curriculum content is their shared goal” (7).


KEEP is a great example of this connection to curriculum and the positive
impact it has.


Sensitivity to Student’s Cultural and Situational Messages

Pages 8 and 9 have the Double C
heck checklist.

Limitations of Double Check

the current study has a “lack of empirical data documenting its
impact on disproportionality” (13).

Valencia, S.W., Au, K.H., Scheu, J.A., & Kawakami, A.J. (1
990). Assessment: Assessment

Students’ Ownersh
ip of Literacy.
The Reading Teacher, 44
(2), 154


“ownership of literacy [should] be the overarching goal in a whole literacy curriculum”


“in many cases…students can read and write but do not choose to do so on their own”

Things that reflect ownership

the ownership of reading checklist:

enjoys reading

confidence and pride

share books with others

recommend books

developing preferences

read for their own purposes

reads outside of school

obtain books from
nonclassroom sources

learn from reading


“Students’ involvement with literacy needs to extend beyond the limits of the school
day” (155).

If observation does not provide answers as to whether or not students are meeting goals in the
reading owne
rship checklist, probing questions might be necessary.

Vogt, Lynn Allington, & Au, Kathryn H.P. (1995). The Role of Teachers’ Guided

Reflection in Effecting Positive Program Change.
The Bilingual Research Journal,
(1), 101

Kamehameha Early Edu
cation Program (KEEP), Honolulu, Hawaii


“help these children improve their reading skills” (1)

“it emphasized anthropological knowledge and the importance of cultural compatability in
educating students” (1).

“The children’s native culture was us
ed as a basis for instructional practices” (1).

Discovered that “children typically turn for assistance to their peers and older siblings rather than
to adults” (1).

Utilized peer centers in the classroom so the responsibility for learning is in their ha
nds and
learning is less teacher
centric, which aligns with their home norms.

Also utilized joint talking in ‘talk stories’.

Outcomes “cultural congruence was established successfully in the classroom contexts through
KEEP, and literacy learning flourish
ed” (1).

Inquiry and Project
Based Instruction

Krajcik, J.S., Blumenfeld, P.C., Marx, R.W., & Soloway, E. (1994). A Collaborative Model

for Helping Middle Grade Science Teachers Learn Project
Based Instruction.
Elementary School Journal, 94
(5), 483

First of 4 articles

the 4

is ‘Lessons L:earned’, present in these summaries.

This article lays the groundwork for project
based instruction and the constructivist theories
behind it. It then talks about how teachers benefit from collaboration wit
h other teachers and
researchers in order to more fully understand the theoretical nature of project
based instruction
over time.


“Grounded in constructivist theory, project
based instruction affords many possibilities
for transforming classrooms
into active learning environments” (483).


“apply concepts and principles in their investigations, they pormulate plans, track
progress, evaluate solutions, and produce artifacts related to the problem.

The top right portion of p. 484 relates
things that need to be to enact project
based instruction.


(p. 484)


“use projects to promote active learning ins science classrooms”


“work with teachers to examine problems they face in enacting practices that are
congruent with the premises of p
based instruction”


“identify forms of collaboration that help teachers resolve these difficulties”


“disseminate these efforts via an interactive hypermedia system that can assist
teachers in adopting and modifying project
based instruction through s
earching and
using various materials including case reports, video clips of other teachers enacting
based instruction, commentary, and background information”


“collaboration and enactment helped promote teachers’ reflection and learning”


The problem

“students have not mastered basic concepts and principles, cannot apply what
they learn to everyday life, and frequently see schools as irrelevant” (485).


“In our work in science classrooms, we attempted to create a learning
environment that is
consistent with constructivist ideas about teaching and learning” (485).


“Projects attempt to build bridges between scientific concepts and principles and real
experiences” (486).

This is applicable to ALL SUBJECTS!!!

5 E
ssenial Features of Project
Based Instruction (486):


“engage students in investigating an authentic question or problem that drives
activities and organizes concepts and principles”


“Result in students developing a series of artifacts, or products, that ad
dress the


“allow students to engage in investigations”


“involve students, teachers, and members of society in a community of inquiry as
they collaborate about the problem”


“promote students using cognitive tools”

“the need for students to

learn by addressing authentic problems” (486).

Teachers learn most effectively in this process through:



with peers and researchers

“Collaboration primarily involves
teachers and university personnel working together to inform, share, cr
itique, and
support each other” (490).


Classroom Enactment

Ideas must be put into action. They must be well thought out,
but they can still be risky

especially given the collaborative environment that will
allow for difficult situations to be discussed a
nd ‘fixed’ with peers.



Reflection is vital! “Experience educates via reflection” (492).

Goal of the University of Michigan Collaborative Project

“to document the course of teacher
development as the teachers in our project orchestrated and r
eflected on their attempts to learn
this constructivist approach to teaching” (492).

10 middle school, 1 elementary teacher (grades 6
8), science teachers, southeastern Michigan.

Blumenfeld, P.C., Krajcik, J.S., Marx, R.W., & Soloway, E. (1994). Lessons

Learned: how

Collaboration Helped Middle Grade Science Teachers Learn Project
The Elementary School Journal, 94
(5), 539

Summarizes the first article throughout the first half of this article (seems a bit unnecessary).


“provide information about content, activities, and features of project
instruction; (b) share ideas, experiences and strategies for enacting projects in classrooms; (c)
critique plans and enactments with respect to congruence with project
based ins
truction; and (d)
provide support by encouraging risk taking and persistence in the face of difficulties” (542).

The whole rest of the article portrays how these teachers very slowly grew in understanding and
use of constructivist theory and practice thro
ugh project
based instruction.

It took them a long time and they often fell back on old strategies until they leraned more fully
how to enact PBI more accurately.