# COGNITION: THOUGHT

AI and Robotics

Feb 23, 2014 (6 years and 8 months ago)

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COGNITION: THOUGHT

Concept Formation

Concepts
:

Concept Formation
:

Classification
:

“fuzzy concepts”

Concept Formation and Stereotyping

Our natural tendency to form concepts and categorize leads to stereotyping

Only solution is to educate

Problem So
lving

Problem solving

Confronting and resolving situations that require insight or determination of some
unknown elements

How do we solve new Problems?

Learning Theory

Gestalt Theory

Information
-
Processing Theory

Approaches to Problem Solving

Algori
thm

Strategy involving applying a set of rules until the problem is solved.

Guarantees a correct solution.

Impractical due to lack of rules in most situations and time demands.

Heuristic

Strategy that involves the use of flexible guidelines (rules of

thumb)

Does not guarantee a correct solution

Efficient

Barriers to Problem Solving

Functional Fixedness

Mental Set

Creative Problem Solving

Creativity
:

generating ideas that are original, novel, and appropriate.

Original responses
:

Novel respo
nses

Appropriate responses

Ways of Thinking

Convergent Thinking

Example:

Divergent thinking

Example:

Reasoning & Decision Making

REASONING

Reasoning

=

purposeful process

Allows us to:

-

Formal vs. informal

REASONING

Formal

Informal

LOGIC

Logic
:

Tools

Deductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning

DECISION MAKING

Decision making
:

Trivial or complex

Uncertainty: Estimating Probabilities

Decisions can be based on
:

(a) formal logic

(b) hypothesis, testing

(c) an educated guess

Educated

Guess
:

Educated Guess

Problems with Estimating Probabilities

Because of their mood or lack of attention, people may act irrationally, ignore key

Barriers to Good Decision Making

Gambler’s Fallacy:

The belief that an e
vent is more likely to occur if it has not recently occurred

Belief in small numbers

Decision based on a small number of observations

Availability heuristic

Judging the probability of an event based on how easy it is to think of examples of it

Ove
rconfidence

Being so committed to one’s own ideas that one is often more confident than correct

Confirmation bias

People cling to beliefs despite contradictory evidence

Fallacy of Composition:

Belief that what is true of the parts is also true of
the whole

ARTIFICIAL

INTELLIGENCE

Artificial Intelligence
-

definition

Artificial intelligence

a field that draws on concepts from both cognitive
psychology and computer science to develop artificial systems that display some
aspects of human
-
like int
elligence

Limitations of AI

Well
-
defined and ill
-
defined problems

Lack of common sense

Lack of creativity

Neural Networks

Various bits of information are stored in different parts of the brain

A
convergence zone

Neural Networks:

Hierarchical Netw
ork Model

Assumes a hierarchy in which a particular word is stored under the higher order
category that subsumes it, which in turn is stored under a yet higher category

EXAMPLE:

Neural Networks:

Parallel distributed processing

parallel distributed proc
essing

(PDP)

PDP involves many operations taking place at the same time in various parts of the
brain