Computer Programming for Engineering

tongueborborygmusElectronics - Devices

Nov 7, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Computer Programming for Engineering
Chapter 1Introduction to Computer
The Amazing Computer
•List a few profession in which computers are routinely used
and the way computers have effected the work of people in
those professions.
•List the four parts of a computer system.
•Identify four kinds of computer hardware.
•List the two major categories of software and explain their
purposes.
•List the four common types of computers available today and
describe what kind of job each does best.
What will be known :-
Computers have become so fundamental to modern society
that without them, our economy would grind to a halt.
Presentation to customer by portable computer.
Using computer for
diagnosing and assisting
the surgery.
Computer are every where
•Create purchase orders •Set up employee files
•Track expenses and income
•Pay taxes
•When you go to bank
•Call information for a phone number
Computer are every where
Computers have become as essential
to learning process as books, paper
and pens. Computers have been using
to develop science projects, prepare
reports, and gather information from
sources around the world.
Computer are every where
Computer are every where
Computer are every where
Computer are every where
Computer are every where
Computer are every where
Computer are every where
“Believe me,” wrote Bill Gates “there is no artificial intellect at work inside
Deep Blue. It’s just a computer running clever software.
Despite the difference in size and use, all the computers
have four common parts.
Overview of Computer System
Hardware refers to any part of computer you can touch.
Hardware consists of interconnected electronic devices.
Software refers to sets of electronic instructions that tell
the hardware what to do. The sets of instructions are also
known as programs, and each one has a specific purpose.
Computer are every where
Data refers to the raw facts the computer can manipulate.
Data can consists of letters, numbers, sounds, or image.
Computer converts data into number, as form of digital.
Within the computer, data is organized into files.
The computer fileis simply a set of data or program
instructions that has been given a name. A file is also called
a document.
Programs are organized into files as well, but because
programs are not considered data, they are not document
files.
In discussions about computers, people are usually referred as users.
Computer are every where
The computer hardware has many parts, but each piece
falls into one of fourcategories:
1 Processor
2 Memory
3 Input and output devices
4 Storage devices
Looking inside the machine
The Processor

The procedure that transforms raw data into useful
information is called processing. To perform this
transformation, the computer uses two components:
the processorand memory.
•The
processor
is like the brain of computer; the part that
organizes and carries out instructions that come from the
user or the software.

The processor, in a personal computer, usually consists of one
or more microprocessors, which are the electronic devices.
The microprocessor is plugged into a circuit boardcontaining
the circuitry that connects the processor to other hardware.

The circuit board to which the microprocessor is connected is
called
motherboard
.
Processing devices
The term central processing unit (CPU)refers to a computer’s
processing hardware, whether it consists of a single chip or several
circuit boards.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Memory
•Memory is the computer’s electronic scratch pad. Program are loaded
into and run from memory. Data used by program is also loaded
into memory for fast access --but only temporarily.
•Most common type of memory is called random access memory (RAM).
The most common measurementunit for describing a computer’s memory is
the byte --to store a character --
Kilobyte (KB)~ 1000 bytes is 1024 bytes for exact
Megabyte (MB)~ 1000000 bytes is 1024 x 1024 bytes for exact
Gigabyte (GB)~ 1000,000,000 bytes is 1024 x 1024 x 1024 bytes for exact
Input and Output Devices
Input devicesaccept data and instructions from user
Output devicesreturn processed data back to the user
•The most common types of devices that can
perform both input and output, however; are
communication devices, which connect one
computer to another--a process known as
networking.
•Some types of hardware can act as both input
and output devices. Touch screen is an example.
-Modem
-Network interface cards (NICs)
Storage

Storageis a place to hold the data files and the
program files.
•The threedistinctions between storage and memory:
1More room in storage than in memory
2Contents are retained in storage when the computer is
turned off, whereas the contents in memory disappear.
3Storage is much cheaper than memory.
•The most common storage medium is the magnetic disk.
-floppy disk-hard disk
There are two read/
write heads on each
access arm
The read/write head
accessing disk
Software brings the machine to life
•When a computer is using a particular program, it is said to be
runningor executingthat program.
•Twomajor categories of software:
•System software i.e. operating system
•Application software
Software:Operating Systems

When a computer is turn on it goes through steps to prepare
itself for use:
1 Self-test. Identify the attached devices, the amount of memory available
and their functioning. This routine is initiated by a part ofsystem
software located in read-only memory(ROM).
2 Next, the computer runs the operating system program stored in
diskette or hard disk.
•The operating system tells the computer how to interact with
the user and how to use devices such as the disk drives, keyboard,
and monitor. The operating system is continue to run until the
computer is turn off.
3 After the computer finds and runs the operating system, the user
can issue commands to the computer.
Software:Application Software
•Thousands of application are available; however some
major categories that likely to be encounter are:

Word processing software

Spreadsheets

Database management software (DBMS)

Multimedia, graphic and presentations

Entertainment and education

Utilities

Communication
•Application software is a program that help people accomplish
specific tasks.
The shapes of computers today
Although the capabilities and type of computer have
changed quickly. There are the terms describing:
•Supercomputer
•Mainframe
•Minicomputer
•Microcomputer
All these type s of computers can be connected to form
networks of computers, but each individual computer,
whether it is on a network or not, falls into one of these
four categories.
Supercomputers
•Supercomputers are the most powerful computer made.
•They are used to process huge amounts of data, model
of complex processes and simulate the processes.

Nuclear fission

Air pollution

Weather forecast
Because computer technology changes so quickly, the advanced
capabilities of a supercomputer to day may become the standard
features of a PC a few years from now.
Cost upwards of $20 million.
Mainframe Computers
•Mainframe computer is the largest type computer in use.•Mainframe computers are used where many people in a large
organization need frequent access to the same information
which is organized into one or more huge databases.
A terminal
is a keyboard and screen wired to mainframe.
It does not have its own CPU or storage: it is just input/
output ( I/O ) device.
•Its used to be common for mainframe computers to occupy
entire rooms or even an entire floor of a high-rise building.
Today, a typical mainframe computer looks like an
unimposing file cabinet.
Can cost from $35000 to many million.
Minicomputer
•The capabilities of a minicomputerlies somewhere between
those of mainframe and those of personal computer.
•Minicomputer can handle much more input and output than
personal computers can.
•The major minicomputer manufacturers include DEC, Data
General, IBM and Hewlett-Packard.
Although some minis are designed for a single
user; many can handle dozens or even hundreds of
terminal.
Minicomputers cost anywhere from $18000 to $500000.
Microcomputer
•The term microcomputerand personal computerare interchangeable,
but PC--which stands for personal computer--sometimes has a more
specific meaning.
Microprocessors, memory chips, and storage devices keep
making gains in speed and capacity, while physical size
and price remain stable or in some cases are reduced.
•One result of increasing PC power is that the difference
between mainframes, minis, and microcomputers are not
as they once were.
•Desktop Models
•Notebooks
•Palmtops
InclassLab 1:First Project “Hello”