Introductionx

tomatoedgeBiotechnology

Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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. Introduction


1.1 Preamble

Biomedical science is the application of biology
-
based science
s for

medical use.
Studies in
biomedical sciences will bring out the application of biological sciences such as physiology,
anatomy, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology , biochemistry and others to build up
knowledge, skills and competences to build on to diagnose, m
anage

and prevent diseases, .
Other aspects covered include application in health

monitoring, product development
,
biomedical research and innovation, medical education in the various health professional
training institutions and
regulation of medical

a
nd pharmaceutical

practice.


Medicine and healthcare have
over the past decade
bec
a
me increasingly sophisticated,
demanding cross cutting knowledge and skills for effective delivery. The demands of the health
s
ector have also expanded tremendously well b
eyond the traditional health professionals
like
the
doctors, nurses, and pharmacists

because of the ever increasing specialisation
.

These traditional
cadres because of the competing demands can no longer address all aspects of biomedical
research, and tr
aining To address this challenge,

the
School of Biomedical Sciences at the
college of health sciences proposes to start a three
-
year bachelor of biomedical sciences program.
The program is expected to produce knowledgeable and skilled bio
-
medical scienti
sts who will
take part in various aspects

of biomedical science, including health professional training and
medical education,

health care delivery and

biomedical basic science

research.

In addition, while
the training of Doctors and dental surgeons take
s 5 years , the first 3 years are spent mastering
the basic biomedical sciences, constituting the first block which are prerequisite ,after which
they continue to clinical medicine clerkships to qualify, This proposed program is an innovation,
such that

after the first 3 years these students can graduate with bachelor of biomedical sciences,
after which they can continue on the different tracks of post graduate education. That may
include enrolment on the various biomedical science masters programs, mast
ers in public
health,clinical epidymiology, management, and seeking employment as teachers or tutors in the
various health professional, training institutions, or working with research institutions, industries,
health sector, self employment, and in addit
ion, pursuing further training in medicine to become
doctors, nurses ,and dental surgeons.



1.2

Justification

Uganda is experiencing a very rapid population growth, which for a long time has not been
matched with sufficient health care delivery, up to

date the doctor patient ratio is above 1:12,000,
this indicator is even worse for other graduate health professionals such as nurses, dental surgeons
to mention a few, as such Uganda and the region has continued to experience a human resource
crisis in th
e health sector ..

The training of these health professionals requires well trained, adequate biomedical science
teachers who are very endangered since, its increasingly difficult to attract medical doctors to these
areas when there are more juicy options

in other medical disciplines, this has made all the basic
sciences graduate programmes very reddudant,attracting less than 3 students a year if lucky and yet
not the top grades,

Further more, the training of Doctors in Uganda, by private institutions is
almost impossible
because of what it costs to establish basic science laboratories and facilities for the training doctors
and other health professionals in the first 3 years , leave alone the scarcity of the basic science
teachers who are being shared am
ong the few medical schools that are coming up,


At the College of Health Sciences, we are blessed with these laboratory facilities,
experise,resources and Teachers , and can take advantage of this to train biomedical scientists, in the
core biomedical

sciences and after graduation, they can be admitted to start on
the clinical years
of medicine, and dentistry like is done in the western world,

even institutions with no basic
science facilities, but with only teaching hospitals, can now be able to
train doctors

picking
from this pool of graduates
.

And through this track, the country and the region can be able to train
enough doctors to match the population needs, and gradually improve the doctor patient ratio .


After graduating, Those who don’t a
spire for medicine, can take on the masters track in any of the
basic science option of their choice such as microbiology,, and by so doing all the basic science
masters programs can have pool to admit from, and these will boost the biomedical science
te
achers in the region, some of who will continue as researchers, teachers tutors and can join other
health disciplines like public health,epidymiology,bioinformatics research ethics and management
in biomedical industries. There is also an increase in nu
mber of health professional training
institutions, who could for the first time recruit these biomedical scientists.

The biomedical research sector has grown tremendous needing this cadre of expertise for
employment.



These trends demand the presences o
f biomedical scientists to provide the required human resource
that will accelerate the growth of these sectors. It should be noted that most of these sectors are
relying on the limited numbers Doctors for their functioning worsening the human resources c
risis
in the health sector.


This program will help to alleviate this problem by providing biomedical scientists who have
the desired expertise to fill the Human resource gaps that compete for medical doctors in
health care delivery.


This program also
offers an alternative track for students to obtain qualifications in various
areas of interest within biomedical and other health related sciences.

This is consistent with the
current government policy on the promotion of and increasing student intake in
science subjects at
all educational levels.




1.4 Program goal

To
build capacity for enhancement of excellence in health care delivery, biomedical research
,Biomedical training, and acceleration of the training of medical doctors and dentists, and
Improve
d medical education in all tertially health training institutions, both public and private in
Uganda and the region at large
.




1. 5 Specific program objectives


1
.
To produce biomedical scientists with sufficient competencies to

enrol on clinical medicine,
and other health professional programs, as a postgraduate program.


2.
To
train
biomedical science graduates with knowledge and skills to
support health care
delivery
in any community in Uganda

and the region
.


3.
To
equip
graduates with knowledge and skills for safe
and
scientific biomedical practices.


4.
To produce biomedical science graduates with sufficient
Knowledge
skills
,

and ethical
conduct

to work as part of a team in health care delivery
.



5.
To produce biomedical science graduates with the necessary entrepreneurial and managerial
skills to

sup
port biomedical industries in the country


6.
To produce biomedical scientists with sufficient competencies to conduct

biomedical

research



7.

To produce biomedical scientists with sufficient competencies to

undertake graduate training
in the same specia
lities to become teachers in biomedical sciences in the various tertiary
health professional training institutions in the region.



1.6 Curriculum Competencies

In order to achieve these objectives emphasis has been put not only on science subjects but

also
the behavioural sciences, management, and
communication, humanities and social sciences
applied to medicine.

It is expected that this will emphasise to the students that the university is a
place of learning rather than teaching. Integrated learnin
g will be done as much as possible to
emphasise the following areas in which the biomedical science graduate should be competent:



Modern biomedical techniques



Medical research and diagnostic procedures



Health p
romotion and prevention of disease



Scientific
r
esearch

methods



Management, administration and entrepreneurial skills



Teaching and learning



Community leadership



Biomedical ethics


2
.0 Curriculum characteristics

Th
is

program is made up of short courses that run for 2 to
5

weeks. The courses are sequenced
in such a way that one builds on the knowledge of the previous course.



2.1 Integration


The medical discipline is characterized by a high level of specialization with a number of well
developed specialties. Human funct
ion however works as an integral unit. This curriculum
integrates the learning experiences both horizontally and vertically. Horizontal integration breaks
down the boundaries between disciplines like: Anatomy, Physiology, and Biochemistry that
other wise w
ould be taught independently but concurrently to provide a package of learning
experiences of the Biomedical Sciences. This does away with the compartmentalization and
eliminates repetition of subject content. Vertical integration ensures that all levels
of the
learning spiral are integrated, thus students are exposed to Basic Sciences, Clinical experiences
and community health activities right from first year.


2.2 Problem based approach to learning


This curriculum provides a mix of tutorials, self direc
ted learning sessions, laboratory sessions,
seminars, clinical exposure, Clinical clerkship, over view lecturers, and community based
education activities. Small group tutorials guided by real life problems will be the predominant
mode of delivery. Stude
nts in groups of 5
-
7 under the guidance of a tutor will explore the
problem before them and determine their learning objectives. The learning objectives will then
be used as a guide in the self
-
directed learning sessions. Students will have a report back s
ession
during which a tutor will test the competences developed out of the problem. This approach to
learning is known to encourage active student learning, critical and analytical thinking, problem
solving and promotes life long learning skills. It howeve
r requires investment into learning
facilities namely; library, computer laboratory and skills training laboratory which shall be put in
place by the launch of the program and will be progressively developed.


2.3 Community based education activities

Stud
ents will randomly distributed to rural health facilities where they will be involved in the
community health program of the facility. In the guidance of a site tutor students will support
health delivery at the facility and all activities their activities

will be recorded and presented for
progressive assessment. This will help the students acquaint themselves with the settings in
which they will be practicing after qualification.


3.0
Regulations

The program shall be governed by the general regulations
of the university
and the

regulations
of the
College of health Sciences.


3.1 Admission Requirements


3.1.1 Direct Entry Scheme

For admission to the Bachelor of
B
iomedical
S
ciences (BBS)
D
egree programme under the
Direct Entry Scheme, a candidate must
have:




Uganda Certificate of Education Examinations (or its equivalent)



Uganda Advanced Certificate of Education (or equivalent)

with
two advanced level
principal passes in

any two
of

the following subjects:
Biology, Chemistry
, Food and
Nutrition and Phys
ics
taken at the same sitting.



Other relevant subjects are

A
griculture;
Mathematics.



All candidates for this program should obtain
minimum
-
weighed points as shall be
determined by the Admissions Board


3.1.2 Mature Age Entry Scheme

F
or admissions to the BBS. Degree programme under the Mature Age Entry Scheme, a candidate
must sit and pass the Mature Age Entrance Examinations set and marked by Makerere

University
. He/she must satisfy all other university requirements for the admission

to the
university
as laid down
under the Mature Age Entry Scheme

guidelines
.



3.1.3 Diploma Holders Entry Scheme

For admissions into the BBSc. Programme under the Diploma Holders Entry Scheme a candidate
must have the following:
-




A good second class dip
loma or certificate in health disciplines



A’Level certificate in related subjects


Such diplomas may include
;

Medical Laboratory Technologists

Radiographers

Anaesthetic Assistants/Officers

Clinical Officers

Clinical Ophthalmic officers

Physiotherapists

Env
ironmental Health Officers

Public Health Officers

Public Health Dental Assistants

Public Health Assistants

Dispensers

Psychiatric Clinical Officers

Holders of a diploma in health education

And

Uganda Registered Nurses

(with A
-
level certificate)

Uganda
Registered Midwives

(with A
-
level certificate)


3.2 Assessment and Examinations

At the end of each semester, students will require to sit and pass examinations in those courses
that have been offered. During the semester the student will do progressive
tests

which will
account for
3
0% of the final exam mark.


The courses will be assessed in two parts:



Progressive a
ssessment

contributes

not more than
40%

of the total marks.



End of semester examinations will consist of a written and oral examination
s

con
tributing not more than
60%

of the total marks.

Each course shall be graded out of a maximum of one hundred (100) marks and assigned
appropriate letter grades and grade points as follows.


Marks % Point

Letter Grade

Grade Point

80


100

A

5

㜵T
-

T9.9



㐮4

㜰T
-

T4.9

B

4

㘵6
-

69.9

B
-

㌮3

㘰6
-

64.9



3

Marks % Point

Letter Grade

Grade Point

55
-

59.9

C

2.5

50
-

54.9

C
-

2

45
-

49.9

D+

1.5

40
-

44.9

D

1

35
-

39.0

D
-

0.5

Below 35

E

0


A student who fails a course should be put on probationary progress. A student is regarded to
progress

normally if the progressive assessment and end of semester examination results adds up
to CGPA of 2.0


3.3 Student Progress

Progression of a student shall be classified as Normal, Probationary or Discontinuation


3.3.1.
Normal Progress

Normal progress
occurs when a student has passed each of the specified courses with a minimum
grade point of 2 and has a CGPA of 2 or above.


3.3.2
Probationary Progress

A student shall be on probation:



when she/he fails a compulsory course or



if his/her GPA or CGPA is
less than two (2.0)
.


When the grade Point Average of a student goes up to 2.0 or above and the

student has passed all the compulsory courses in the following semester, then the
probation is removed. The probationary status serves as a warning to s
tudents that their
performance is below the level required



3.3.3.
Discontinuation

That a student is discontinued when she/he has received three consecutive probations based on
CGPA of the same core courses.


3.3.4.
Withdraw from a Program Course

A registe
red student may choose to withdraw from a program/course(s) for various reasons.


3.3.5
Retaking of a course

A failed course will be taken when it is next offered.



3.4 Certificate of
d
ue
p
erformance

A student shall be responsible for keeping a record of her/his practical experience in a log record
book, which should be duly signed by the student, practical supervisor and course lecturer; for
presentation to the Head of Department, before a certificate

of due performance can be issued.
Attendance of classroom, clinical and fieldwork shall constitute
1
0% of the Progressive mark
.

A
candidate will be denied a Certificate of Due Performance in any course, if attendance and
performance in class, clinical a
nd practical are deemed unsatisfactory.


3.5 Degree Awards

The A
ward
shall be called Bachelor of Biomedical Sciences.
The degree shall be awarded with
classification
according to the University guidelines. P
erformance in individual courses shall be
grade
d

a
ccording to the approved semester system grading.
The D
egree will show the students

specialisation in any one of the following subjects: physiology, anatomy, microbiology,
pathology,
haematology, molecular science, clinical chemistry a
nd pharmacology.


4.0
Programme Structure


4.1 Duration

This is a three
-
year academic programme. Every academic year shall have two 17
-
week
semesters and one 10
-
week recess term except in the third year, which will have no recess
semester.

The program has compulsory core courses in the first and second years with a choice
of elective courses in the
second semester of the
third
year.


4.2 Curriculum implementation structure

This depicts allocation of time to various curricula activities. Th
e activities and their symbols are
shown below:



Clinical Sessions are shown as Cl.H (Clinical hours)



Laboratory sessions are shown as Lb.H (laboratory hours)



Overview lectures and seminars are shown as LH (lecture hours)



Skills laboratory activities,
P
racticals and
C
linical
E
xposure are shown as PH (practical
hours)



Tutorials sessions are shown as TH (tutorial hours)



Self directed learning is shown as SH (self
-
study hours)


1

Clinical
/Laboratory hour

= 1 contact hour

1

Lecture hour

= 1 contact hour

2

Tutorial hours

= 1 contact hour

2

Practical hours

= 1 contact hour

2

Self study hours

= 1 contact hour

1

Credit Unit

= 15 contact hours


5.0
Curriculum Map

Year 1

Block 1

Semester I

LH

Cl.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS

1111
:

Introduction to
Biomedical Sciences, health professional
education and Biomedical Ethics


3

5

18

12

44

45

3

FOM

1112
:
Cells and Tissues

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

FOM

1113
:
Blood & Body Fluids

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

BBS1
11
2: Introduction to Bioinformatics

2

6

12

8

24

30

2

Total







15


Block 2

Semester II

LH

Cl.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

FOM 1211
:
Cardiovascular & Respiratory
System

5

10

30

2

70

75

5

FOM

1212
:
Digestion, Nutrition &
Metabolism

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

FOM

1213
:
Foundations of Behavioural
Sciences

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

Total







15


Block 3

Recess Term

LH

Cl.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

FOM 1311
:
Introduction to Community Health I

2

12

24

32

36

60

4

FOM

1312
:
Introduction to Community Health II

2

12

24

32

36

60

4

Total







8


Year 2

Block 1

Semester I

LH

Cl.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS
2111
:
Endocrine
, reproductive and
Urinary system

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

BBS

2112
:
Head
,

Neck

and the
Nuerolocomotor system

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

B BS
2113
: Introduction Health policy and
legislation

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

BBS 2114: Principles Health Economics

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

Totals







20


Block 2

Semester II

LH

Cl.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

FOM

2211
:
Principles of Microbiology

& Pathology

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

BBS

2
2
1
2:General
Pharmacology

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

BBS
2213: Infectious Diseases


5

10

30

20

70

7
5

5

Total







15


Block 3

Recess Term

LH

L
.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 2301: Laboratory management and
safety and Material
Science

5

10

20

20

20

45

3

FOM 2312
: Community Diagnosis and
Communication

-

6
0

-

-

30

45

3

Totals







8


Year 3

Block 1

Semester I

LH

Lb
.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3
1
0
1

Research Proposal writing

and Data management


2

-

30

10

1
6

30

2

BBS 3102: Non

c潭ou湩捡扬攠摩獥ase猠

5











5

BBS″㄰㌺⁒e灲潤pc瑩癥⁨ a汴栠h湤n
C桩h搠獵牶楶dl

5











5

Select any
2

courses

including medicine
and gender








BBS 3103:

Medical anthropology


2

12

24

32

36

60

4

BBS 3104:

Medical geography




2

12

24

32

36

60

4

BBS 3105:

History of medicine


2

12

24

32

36

60

4

BBS 3106:

Medicine and gender


2

12

24

32

36

60

4

Totals







21


Option I: Pharmacology

Semester II

LH

Lb
.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3201: Chemotherapeutic agents and
antimicrobial resistance

8

30

24

30

30

60

4

BBS 3202: Drug development, registration,
marketing and regulatory issues

10

30

30

30

40

75

5


BBS 3203: Toxicology, drug Abuse and
drug safety issues

3

15

20

15

30

45

3

BBS 3204: Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

4
5

3

Total







15









Option II : Microbiology

Semester II

LH

Lb
.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3205: Applied bacteriology and
parasitology

10

30

30

30

40

75

5

BBS 3206: Applied Mycology and
Virology

6

20

18

20

20

45

3

BBS 3207. Routine diagnostic
Techniques

8

30

24

30

30

60

4

BBS 3204 Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

4
5

3

Total







15


Option III: Anatomy

Semester II

LH

L
.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3208 Embryology, Human
development and Comparative anatomy

8

30

24

30

30

60

4

BBS 3209 Microscopic anatomy and
histological
techniques

10

30

30

30

40

75

5


BBS 3210 Tissue preservation and
embalming

3

15

20

15

30

45

3

BBS 3204 Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

4
5

3

Total







15


Option IV: Heamatology


Semester II

LH

L
.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3211: Blood and Heamopoetic
tissue disorders

8

30

24

30

30

60

4

BBS 3212: Diagnostic approaches in
haematology

10

30

30

30

40

75

5

BBS 3213: Transfusion and stem cell
transplantation

3

15

20

15

30

45

3

BBS 3204 Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

4
5

3

Total







15





Option VII: Histopathology

Semester II

LH

L
.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3214. Laboratory techniques in
histopathology

8

30

24

30

30

60

4

BBS

3
2
1
6

Autopsy and Mortuary
Techniques

3

15

20

15

30

45

3

BBS

321
5

Special Ancillary
Diagnostic

techniques in pathology

10

30

30

30

40

75

5

BBS 3204 Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

4
5

3

Total







15








Option V: Molecular Biology


Semester II

LH

L
.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS

321
7

Advanced concepts of
cell biology and principles of
microscopic
analysis

4

15

30

20

60

75

5

BBS

3
2
1
8

Principles of molecular
biology

5

15

30

20

60

75

5

BBS

321
9

Advanced molecular
biology and biotechnology

2

6

12

8

24

30

2

BBS 3204 Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

4
5

3

Total







15


Option VI: Physiology

Semester II

LH

L
.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS

32
20

Application of
Radioimmunoassay and Imaging
techniques

4

15

30

20

60

75

5

BBS

3
221

Physiological Assessment
of brain and Nueronal functions.

5

15

30

20

60

75

5

BBS

32
22: Physiological assessment of
body
systems

2

6

12

8

24

30

2

BBS 3204 Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

4
5

3

Total







15



Option
IIX
: Clinical Chemistry


Semester II

LH

L
.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3223. Clinical chemistry
Equipments and Instrumentation

8

30

24

30

30

60

4

BBS

3
224

Clinical Biochemistry
and disease processes

3

15

20

15

30

45

3

BBS

32
25

Principles and
applications of laboratory techniques

10

30

30

30

40

75

5

BBS 3204 Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

4
5

3

Total







15