2200 - Pages through the Ages

tomatoedgeBiotechnology

Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

414 views

Food Science and Technology 201

The Science of Food

Autumn

2012

Course meeting time: T&R
12
:
45
-
2
:
05



Instructor



Karen Elekes


Mike Mangino

Office



313 Parker Hall


315 Parker Hall

Phone



292
-
3928


292
-
7769


Email




elekes.8@osu.edu





Mangino.2@osu.edu


Office Hrs.



T,R

9:30
-
11:30


M,W 1
-
3



Prerequisites:

Biology 101 or 113

Overall Course Objectives

Students completing the course should be able to:

1. Critically read/listen to popular
press reports about food and nutrition or other biological
phenomena and be able to identify probable misinformation.

2. Identify the factors important for microbial growth, along with the major organisms that
present a public health hazard with regards to

food and to understand the positive role of
microorganisms in food.

3. List the names and functions of the essential nutrients for humans as well as relate the course
material on essential nutrients to their individual diets through completion of a food
chart. In
addition, the student will be able to specify foods that are major contributors of these nutrients in
their diets.

4. Interpret the relationships between diet and disease as expressed through discussion of
scientific studies and discuss the contr
oversies surrounding these relationships.

5.

Explain the advances in biology that affect the food supply.

6. Utilize course material on major topics (diet and weight loss, eating disorders, biotechnology,
etc...) with respect to making changes in their ind
ividual diets/lifestyle if desired.


GEC Goals/Rationale

This course also satisfies a GEC science requirement as an additional science course.


As such it
has another set of educational goals. Courses in natural sciences foster an understanding of the
prin
ciples, theories and methods of modern science, the relationship between science and
technology, and the effects of science and technology on the environment.

GEC Learning Objectives

1.


Students understand the basic facts, principles, theories and metho
ds of modern science.

2.


Students learn key events in the history of science.

3.


Students provide examples of the inter
-
dependence of scientific and technological
developments.



4.


Students discuss social and philosophical implications of scienti
fic discoveries and
understand the potential of science and technology to address problems of the contemporary
world.


GRADING POLICIES

Points Distribution

First Exam



100 points

Second Exa
m

100

points

Final Exam


100 points

Quizzes 10@5



50 points

Article critiques 2@10


20 points

Food Chart




50 points

Supermarket Survey

30 points





Grading Scale

(rounded up)

A


4
50
-
419



C+


359
-
347

A
-

418
-
405



C

3
46
-
329

B+

404
-
392



C
-

328
-
315

B

3
91
-
374



D+

314
-
302

B
-

3
73
-
360



D

301
-
2
7
0





.........


E

Below 2
7
0

1. Students are responsible for taking exams at the scheduled
times. Exceptions may be made for
good cause if arrangements are made in advance.


2. Should you miss an exam, a makeup is possible. All makeup examinations
must

be scheduled
at a definite time and completed within 1 week of the regularly scheduled exam.


If you miss the
time scheduled for a makeup without an extremely good reason a score of 0 will be recorded.

Examination Dates

All e
xams are

48

min. and held in the regular classroom at 1
2
:
45
-
1:3
3



1st exam


Sept. 20



1
2
:
45
-
1:
33

2nd exam


Oct.
23






1
2
:
45
-
1
:
33

Final Exam


WED
.

Dec. 12




2:00
-
2:48

The final exam will have 13 questions cut and paste from exam 1 and 13 question
s

cut and paste
from exam 2.

The remaining 24 questions will be over new material.

This is our way of trying to
reinforce some of this material.


If you have questions, please feel free to contact us.

TEXTS/READING MATERIAL

There is no required text for this course. However, on Carmen, you will find course readings for
course topics
. Th
e course readings serve as a
study guide
with que
stions at the end of each topic
and will help reinforce posted lecture slides.

In addition, you will find relevant research and
news articles on most topics under Food in the News on the Carmen website.

At t
imes during the
semester, you may be asked to read a specific article and be prepared to discuss it during class.

Assignment Calendar

Assignments should be turned in via the Carmen drop box by midnight o
n

the date due

preferably

using a Microsoft Word

fil
e.

For the food chart you will have two files: an Excel
spreadsheet and a Word file. See instructions for Food chart.


The
exception

is the supermarket
survey. The survey is due
prior

to the start of class on
Nov.1
. You

can find information about
assignmen
ts under section III. Assignments
. This tab is

located in the course content tab

on
Carmen. You should get a confirmation from Carmen if your submission to the drop box was
successful.

Sept. 4

1st Critique due


10 points

Sept. 20

Exam 1

100 points

Sept.
25

Food Chart due


50 points

Oct. 9

2nd Critique due


10 points

Oct.
23

Exam 2

100 points

Nov. 1

Supermarket Survey due


30 points

Dec 12

Final examination


㈺〰
J
㈺㐸

㄰〠灯楮1s


Quizzes

There are 10 multiple
-
choice quizzes which you will take on Carmen.


Each has 5 questions
worth 1 point.


Quizzes 1 through 3
must

be taken
prior to exam 1

(Sept. 20).

Q
uizzes 4 through
7

must be taken

prior to exam 2

(
Oct. 23
)

and

quizzes

8 through 10

mus
t be taken

prior
to

the
final exam

(
Dec
.

12
).
It is expected that the quizzes will serve as a review and study mechanism
and will help you prepare for the exams. The quizzes will
NOT

be available on Carmen past the
dates listed above.

When you finish the
quiz it will be instantly graded and the correct answers displayed.


You may
take each quiz up to 3 times.


Each time you will be presented with 5 different questions.


The
highest score will be the one that is recorded.



Suggested Quiz schedule

Week 1



Why do we eat?


Week 2




RDA




Digestion




Quiz 1

Week 3



Carbohydrates



Proteins



Read material for Food Chart with emphasis on BMR and activity calculations.


Likely

on exam 1.



Week 4




Lipids



Quiz 2



Fat soluble vitamins


Week 5




Water soluble
vitamins



Quiz 3



Exam 1
Sept. 20




Week 6




Guest lecture: Wine



Minerals



Food Chart
Sept. 25

Week 7




Supplements. Nutritional Labeling



Quiz 4



Weight loss




Eating Disorders



Week 8




Fast Food



Microbiology




Quiz 5

Week 9




Food poisoning





Quiz 6



Preservation



Quiz 7

Week 10





Exam 2

Oct. 23



Additives


Week 11




Guest lecture



Specific Food additives. SMS




Week 12




Organic. Natural



Cheese & Ice cream



Quiz 8


Week 13




Biotechnology




Immune response



Quiz 9

Week
14




Allergies


Week 15




Diet and Cancer.



Phytochemicals



Week 16



Chocolate



Quiz 10

Final Exam

Dec. 12


LECTURE CALENDAR

Bold

indicates an assignment due or an exam.

Lecture

Dat
e

Topic







1

Aug. 23

Course introduction, assignment expectations, critique 1


thy⁤漠睥
ea琿†呡獴攠sc瑩癩vy.

2

䅵A′

o䑁⸠䅲潭愠oc瑩癩vy.


3

䅵A″

䑩ae獴s潮
.
†††

4

pe灴⸠p

Ca牢潨yd牡瑥献

Critique 1 due


5

Sept. 6

Demonstrate entering data for food chart.
Proteins. Soy milk sampling.


6

Sept. 11

Lipids
.
BMR calculation.
Discuss critique 1.

7

Sept. 13

Fat soluble vitamins.

8

Sept. 18

Water soluble vitamins
-

Review for exam 1

9

Sept.
20

Exam 1

10

Sept. 25

Guest lecture:
Wine.

Food chart due.




11

Sept. 27

Minerals.

12

Oct. 2

Labeling.
Supplements.


13

Oct. 4

Diet and weight.
Discuss Food chart.

14

Oct. 9

Fast food
. Body Fat analyzer
.

Critique 2 due

15

Oct. 11

Microbiology.
ATP swabs


16

Oct. 16

Food Poisoning
. Discuss critique 2.


17

Oct. 18

Preservation. Review for exam 2


18

Oct. 23

Exam 2

19

Oct. 25

Guest lecture: Jeni’s ice cream


20

Oct. 30

Food additive testing


21

Nov. 1

Supermarket survey due
.
Discuss
supermarket survey.

Specific
/intentional

food a
dditives

22

Nov. 6

Organic and natural

foods

23

Nov. 8

Cheese and Ice cream


24

Nov. 13

Biotechnology

25

Nov. 15

Immunity

26

Nov 20

Food allergies

27

Nov. 22

Thanksgiving

Holiday
-
No classes

28

Nov. 27

Diet and cancer

29

Nov. 29

Phytochemicals

30

Dec. 4

Chocolate. Review for final


Dec. 12

Final Exam Wed. 2:00
-
2:48


Article Critiques

You will have 2 of these to do. They are due
Sept. 4

and
Oct. 9

To help you develop into an informed consumer of food
and nutrition information you will be
provided with the opportunity to read/listen/review newspaper articles, news releases or perhaps
videotapes and asked to respond to these.


These responses should be one page or less and
submitted via the Carmen drop b
ox.


Evaluation will be based on the thoroughness and
insightfulness of your response to the following questions below. Critical feedback will be
supplied and the expectation will be that everyone will improve as the quarter progresses.


For both Critiques
, Q
uestions you should respond to include:

a.

What are the main claims stated in the article? Are there any additional claims
implied? And if so, what are they?


b.

What are the weak and strong points of the argument(s)?

c.

What additional questions should be asked

and/or what other information would
you like to know or feel is missing to analyze the accuracy of the reported
information?

d.

Where could you go to find out more information about this topic? Please provide
specific websites if you choose this venue.

PERSO
NAL
FOOD CHART

Assignment Due Date:
Sept. 25

-

Please check out the more detailed in
structions at

FOOD
CHART


Please turn completed assignment (
the

Excel

worksheet: the spreadsheet
calculator
and

answers to the questions as a Word or PDF

document
)

via the

Carmen Drop

box.



The information below should help with the assignment.


Please feel free to contact

us if any of
this is not clear.

The food chart inv
olves keeping track of what you eat for five days.


You need to find the
nutrient content of what you ate and then answer some questions.


For one day you are to keep
track of your physical activity.


Here is an

Example

of what the food composition data might
look like.

There are a number of tools

available to

you to make this assignment easier for you.


You do not
need to use any of these tools, but you do need to do the assignment.


The most important tool is
the

spreadsheet
Calculator
.

Using the Calculator will save you time and work. The calculator
spreadsheet probably contains more tabs than you can see at one time.


(If you only see one tab,
try maximizing the spreadsheet.)

You can use the arrows to the left of the tabs to view mor
e of
them.


You should see five tabs at the extreme left that are labeled day 1 through day 5.


The
following tabs are also present and are necessary to complete the assignment.


They are: weekly
averages, nutrient data, % calories, % daily value, activity

calculator, activities, more activities
and question 8. If you link to the spreadsheet, you may be asked if you want to open it or to save
it to your computer.


Select save.


If you open the document, enter data and then try to save it,
you will need a pa
ssword to save to the web server.


If you have the spreadsheet on your
computer you will not need a password to save or manipulate the data.


More food composition
data can be found
at Composition
.

The spreadsheet begins with 5 tabs labeled days 1 through 5.


For each item you eat, you are to
enter its name, th
e amount you ate, the number of calories it contained and the grams of protein,
fat and carbohydrates in it.


You are also to record iron, calcium, vitamin A, Vitamin C and folic
acid content.


You may get this information from any source you like.

However
,

food
composition tables are provided for you.

You will notice that when you enter data, the
spreadsheet will automatically total the nutrients at the bottom of the page.


The data will also be
transferred to the appropriate place on the weekly average ta
b.


A convenient place to obtain nutritional data is from the table labeled nutrient data.


This
contains data for almost 500 foods.


You can simply cut and paste the information from the
nutrient data tab to the day you are working on.


Data from these ta
bles is in the appropriate
units.


Some food labels express nutrient data as % Daily Value.


This information should not be
entered as such.


There is a tab called % Daily Value that will convert % to the appropriate
amounts and units.


This must be used i
f you have data expressed as percent. There are also links
to much larger databases.


Sometimes you may find it is easier and close enough to substitute a
food that is very similar to one that is hard to find data for.

You can only enter numbers into the
w
orksheet not letters or units such as grams (g).

The tab labeled % Calories takes data from the weekly average tab and automatically calculates
what percentage of your calories were derived from fat, protein and carbohydrates.


It also
graphs the data for
you.


If you prefer, you may perform the calculations yourself.


This data is
the answer to one of the questions.

The activity calculator tab asks for your weight in pounds and asks you to enter a factor of either
11 or 12.


The default setting is a factor

of 12 (indicating a male) and a weight of 200
pounds.


Enter your weight

in cell

B3

and 11 if you are female or 12 if you are male

in cell

F2
.


You then name an activity, a factor

(found in the activity tabs)

and the time in hours you
performed the activi
ty.


For example, if you performed an activity for a half hour
, you would
enter 0.5. You can
not enter letters or units in these cells, only numbers. So, for example, do not
enter 1 hour, enter 1 if you performed the activity for an hour.

The calculator w
ill determine
how many calories you used up and add it to your other activities and to your BMR.


The
concept of BMR is explained more fully in the weight loss lecture.


As is explained in this
lecture, the value you get for BMR by using a single factor is

not very accurate.


It is close
enough for this assignment.


If you want a better estimate you can find one at
BMR Calculator

The factors you need for activities can come from a num
ber of sources.


The spreadsheet has two
tabs labeled activities and more activities.


These contain the factors for about 400 activities.


If
you cannot find the exact activity, chose an activity that is similar and use that factor. More
details on activi
ties are available at
BMR
.

If you are not sure about the factors that affect

BMR and how it is calculated, you should visit
the BM
R file prior to the first exam.

Answer the following questions:


1.


Does your dietary intake meet the RDA for your age group and sex? If not, in what areas
are you lacking? Does failing to meet the

RDA in several categories mean that you are headed
for nutritional disorders? Explain briefly. What foods could you add to your diet to increase your
consumption and bring you up to the RDA?


If you do not meet the RDA for a nutrient,
list

some foods you could add to your diet.

2

What foods

in your diet are the major contributors of
Calories?


Protein?


Carbohydrate?


Calcium?


Iron?


Vitamin A? Folic acid? Vitamin
C?


(
Answer for all of these nutrients
)

3.

What percentage of you
r calories was derived from
each

of the following:


From fat?


From
protein?


From carbohydrate?


This is calculated for you on the % calories tab of the spreadsheet.

4.

If you wanted to lose one pound per week (approximately 3,500 calories), what cha
nges
would you make in your diet?


Do this even if you think you are too thin and do not eat enough
as it is.



HINT



You should provide a
list

of foods and amounts that add up to 3500 calories.
Find (on the average) 500 cal per day from what y
ou eat now and delete it.


You don't really have
to consume the resulting diet.


We want you to see what it would take for you to lose 1 pound per
week by dieting.


You only did the chart for 5 days so you only need to list 2,500 calories.

5.


Using t
he data supplied, approximate your caloric needs for a typical day: BMR +
Activity. (
Show calculations in your report
).


See

question 5
-
BMR

for more information
-

the
activity calculator does this for you.


You should include things like sitting, watching TV, etc to
get 14 to 20 hours of activity.


Do not including
sleeping
-

BMR is adjusted for this.



6.


How does the value you calculated in question 5 compare to your

average caloric intake for
a day?


If they were not identical, what would happen to your weight if this continued for several
months?


Why

do you t
hink the numbers did not agree?

7.

If you wanted to lose one pound (approximately 3,500 calories) per week, how could you
accomplish this by exercising and not by altering your eating habits?



HINT (
Show calculations
!) This should be a
list

of activities that use 500 cal per day
that will be repeated each day for one week.


The total will equal 3,500 Kcal and will result in
the loss of one pound of fat.

8.


There is much interest in low fat diets today. Put together three meals

with a com
bined total
of

approximately 1800 calories and

that contains 8
-
10% of the calories from fat. You do not need
to have all of the foods have less than 10% of their calories from fat, but the average should be
10% or less. Try to make this something you might

actually consider eating. (
Show data and
calculations)


HINT: Start with your day that has the lowest % of calories from fat and make
substitutions or additions/deletions as needed. You may want to utilize a list of foods sorted by
% calories from fat tha
t is on the webpage.


Remember that grams of fat are not equal to calories
from fat.


You must multiply g of fat by 9 to get calories from fat.


This should be divided by
total calories to get % from fat.


You might

remove foods high in fat and replace wi
th high those
high in carbohydrates.


% Calories from fat is done as in question 3. The total of all must equal
100%.

Multiply g of fat x 9 to get calories from fat, grams of carbs x 4 to get calories from
carbohydrate and grams protein x 4 to get calorie
s from protein.


This gives calories from
each.


Then determine %.


Your answer should contain

a list of foods with their calories and fat
content.


There is a tab called question 8.


If you enter the food along with the protein, fat and
carbohydrate data
it will calculate % calories from fat for you.


You may fill in the appropriate
foods to get a diet with 10% of calories from fat and use this as your answer if you would like.

USDA
data

Calculator

at Composition

BMR


BMR Calculator

USDA Food composition:
http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/


Supermarket Survey
-

Due

Nov. 1

by start of class

Go to your favorite or perhaps the most convenient supermarket

and
answer the
questions below
.
You may work in groups on this if you wish.


If you work in a group (a group is defined as two
or more people):

1.

One person in the group

should submit the actual document via Carmen
and list

who
worked on it. This means there is one survey submitted per group.

2.

The other members of the group
still must submit a document to Carmen

saying
something like: "I worked in a group and ______ (student's name who submitted the
document) submitted the document for the group. This enables us to more easily
navigate Carmen's grading system

Dating

1.

What types of products have dates on them? Wh
at do these dates mean?

2.

As a consumer who realizes that there is a cost associated with everything we require on
a label, what products should be required to have a date on them? Why?

3.

Would you buy a food that was "out of date" at a reduced cost? Why or wh
y not?

Food Safety Information

1.

What messages about food safety and warnings did you find? List at least three different
messages or warnings. More credit for bigger lists.

2.

Rate each of these warnings. Which would you pay more attention to? Which do you
thi
nk are most effective in communicating with average consumers? Least? Why?

Price/Value

1.

What are the five most expensive food items you could find?

2.

Assume that you are in charge of food purchases and health for your living group (i.e.
dorm, apartment, home,

etc…). List 5 foods that you feel are the best values. Explain
your choices in detail.

Products

1.

Look at the ingredient statements on ten products. What types of products have the
longest list of ingredients? The shortest?

2.

Only if you are interested in an
ingredient list,

email it prior to class
and we

will discuss
what is there and why it is used.


3.

If you are interested

in

a product and would like to know how it is made and what is in it,
email

the product or label information
(name, manufacturer, ingredie
nts and preparation
instructions)

prior to class.