Physics I

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Oct 31, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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Ternopil State Technical University






Physics I

Spring 2008


Course Syllabus


Course Overview


In a wide sense, physics is a science
which
describ
es

a
nature. To reveal the laws of
the
nature, physical
science makes use of experiments, theoretical meth
ods and computer modeling. In the course of Physics 1
-
2
-
3 an
account of contemporary physical science will be done. Some of basic physical, already known by you will be
reformulated, an attempt to unite all of physical science to produce an integral descri
ption of nature will be made.
Questions not resolved so far, will be characterized from the point of view of contemporary physical theories.
Emphasis will be made on developing practical skills in building up models of real processes and solving problems
a
nalytically. To improve experimental skills and to illustrate important theoretical questions, parallel laboratory
sessions will be arranged. Note, that completing of the laboratory assignment is mandatory for passing the course.




Course goals


By the e
nd of the 1
st

semester every student will/should be familiar with basic physical phenomena and
laws; master the fundamental physical concepts and classical theories, methods of physical science,
principles of physycal modeling, methods of problem solving,
experimental technics, experimental data
analysis; will develop skills in formulating models of physical features, solving problems on classical
mechanics and thermodynamics.





Recommended Textbooks:

“Fundamentals of Physics” by D.Halliday, R.Resnick an
d J.Walker.

“Light and Matter” by Benjamin Crowell,
www.lightandmatter.com

“Calculus Based Physics” by Jeffrey W.Schnick,
creativecommons.org



Course WebPage
:
http://www.tu.edu.te.ua/kafedra/physics/phys_PK1.htm





Course Structure




М
odule
1



Fundamentals of mechanics


Units

Academic hours*

Lectures

Problem
solving

Laboratory

Independent

work

1

Kinematics

and

dynamics


3

4

2

9

2

Mechanical work and energy
.
Mechanical forces

3

2

2

8

3

Rotational motion of a solid

3

2

2

8

4

Mot
ion in non
-
inertial reference
frames
.
Fundamentals of special
relativity

1



J

S

Total

(
hrs
):

8

8

6

46




М
odule 2



Oscillations and waves. Molecular physics and thermodynamics


Units

Academic hours

Lectures

Problem
solving

Laboratory

Independent

wor
k

1

Mechanical
oscillations and waves

3

2

2

9

2

Ideal gas model.


2

2

2

6

3

Laws of thermodynamics

2

2

2

6

4

Condensed matter

1

2

2

9

Total

(
hrs
):

8

8

8

30




*
Every lecture, class or laboratory work
lasts 1 hour and 20 min what
is equal to two acad
emic hours




1
semester


Lectures

-

16

Problem solving

-

16

Laboratory sessions

-

16

Total workload

(
academic hours
)

-

48


Independent work

-

82



2.1
. Lectures


Topics


1.

Introduction. Methods of physical science
.
Metric

system

of

units. Basic notions of
dynamics: space, time, motion. Reference systems. Physical quantities,

vectors in physics
.


2.

Kinematics of translational and rotational motion
.


3.

Newtonian dynamics of a mechanical system
.
Center of mass and its equation of motion.
Conversation of momentum.


4.

Fundamental interactions. Gravitational forces. Weight an
d imponderability. Elastic
deformations and Hooke’s law. Friction of rigid bodies and fluid.


5.

Mechanical work. Power. Kinetic and potential energy. Physical fields. Conservative and
dissipative forces. Relation between potential energy and force. Condi
tions of equilibrium.
Energy of a strained body. Energy of gravitational interaction. Energy conservation.

Motion of an ideal liquid. Bernoulli equation.


6.

Dynamics of rotational motion. Kinetic energy and work in rotational motion.
Conservation of an
gular momentum. Giroscopes.


7.

Motion in non
-
inertial frames of reference. Forces of inertia.


8.

Special relativity. Postulates of special relativity. Lorentz transformations. Relativistic
effects. Fundamentals of relativistic dynamics. Relation betwee
n mass and energy. Basics
of general relativity.


9.

Free harmonic oscillations. Simple pendulum, physical pendulum, mass
-
spring system.
Energy in harmonic motion. Superposition of oscillations. Damped oscillations. Forced
oscillations. Resonance.

10.

Tr
ansverse and longitudinal waves in elastic continuum
.
Wave equation
.
Wave energy
.
The principle of wave superposition. Wave packet
.
Wave interferention and diffraction.
Standing waves. Sound and its perception
.

11.

Statistical

and

thermodynamic

methods. F
undamentals of molecular kinetic theory. Ideal
gas model. Heat capacity of ideal gas
.
Maxwell

distribution

of

molecule

velocities
.
Barometric

formula
.
Boltzmann

distribution

for

particles

in

external

potential field
.
Mean

free

path

of

molecules
.
Diffusion
,

thermal

transport
,
internal friction in a fluid
.

12.

1
st

law of thermodynamics and its applications to iso
-
processes in gases. Adiabatic
processes. Work in iso
-
processes
.

13.


Reversible and irreversible processes
.
Cycles
.
Heat engines and refrigeratin
g plants.

Carnot

cycle

and

its

thermal

efficiency
.
2
nd

law of thermodynamics
.
Free energy and
entropy
.

14.

Deviations from ideal gas laws. Models of intermolecular interaction.

Van
-
der
-
Waals
equation. Critical state of a matter.

Gases liquefaction
.

15.

Characteristics of liqiuds.

Viscosity and superfluidity
.
Structure and thermal properties of
solid state.

Defects in crystals
.

16.

Phase equilibrium condition. The simplest phase diagram. Phase transitions of 1
st

and 2
nd

order. Clapeyron
-
Clausius equatio
n. Matter at extreme conditions
.



2.2.

Problem solving



Topic


1.

Problem solving strategies
.
Kinematics
.


2.

Dynamics

of

translational

motion
.


3.

Forces in dynamics
.
Work and energy
.


4.

Rotational motion of a rigid body
.


5.

Mechanical oscilla
tions and waves. Motion in non
-
inertion reference frames
.

Fundamentals of special relativity
.


6.

Molecular theory of an ideal gas.


7.

Laws of thermodynamics
.


8.

Real gases, liquids and solids.





2.3.
Laboratory sessions



1.
Introductory lection
: safety measures
, physical

measurements, data and error analysis
.
Estimations
.
Experimental

techniques

and

appliances
. (2
hrs
.)


2.
Team work on demo
-
assignment. Application of physical

measurements technics, data and error
analysis in the lab.

(2
hrs
.)


3.
Work

on

individual

assignments

(
12

hrs
.)



Subject of laboratory experiment

Acronym


1.

Demonstration of physical

measurements techniques, data and error analysis

on example of determination of a rigid body density

Lab

1


2.

Study of translational
motion laws with Atwood machine

Lab

2


3.

Study of rotational motion of rigid body on Oberbek pendulum

Lab

3


4.

Determination of a fly
-
wheel moment of inertia and friction torque

Lab

4


5.

Determination of moment of inertia using torsion pendulum

Lab

5


6.

Determination of Young modulus by bending test

of metallic bar

Lab

6


7.

Determination

of

free

fall

acceleration

using

physical

pendulum


Lab

7


8.

Determination

of

logarithmic

decrement

and

damping

coefficient

of

oscillator


Lab

8


9.

Study

of

m
echanical

laws

on example of torsion pendulum

Lab

9

10.

Determination

of

sound velocity by interferention method

Lab

10

11.

Determination

of

liquid

viscosity

by Stockes method

Lab

11

12.

Determination

of

liquid

viscosity

using capillar viscosimeter

Lab

12

13.

Determination

of

mean

free

path

and

effective

diameter

of

molecule

by

measuring

of

air

viscosity

Lab

13

14.

Determination

of

the

rate

of

specific

heats

by Clemand
-
Desormes method

Lab

14

15.

Determination

of

surface tension
coefficient

by

drops

c
omparison

method


Lab

15

16.

Determination

of

surface tension
coefficient

by

a

ring

tearing from a liquid

surface

Lab

16

17.

Determination

of

linear thermal expansion coefficient for a solid

Lab

17






2.4
. Topics for independent work


Topics


1.

Met
ric

system

of

units. Basic notions of dynamics: space, time, motion. Reference
systems. Vector algebra
.


2.

Equations of kinematics for translational and rotational motion and their application to
one
-
dimensional, two
-
dimensional and circular motions
.


3
.

Application of the law of momentum conversation to elastic collisions. Motion of a
system with varying mass
.


4.

Fundamental interactions. Gravitational forces. Weight and imponderability. Elastic
deformations and Hooke’s law. Friction of rigid bodies
and fluid.


5.

Mechanical work. Power. Kinetic and potential energy. Physical fields. Conservative and
dissipative forces. Relation between potential energy and force. Conditions of
equilibrium. Energy of a strained body. Energy of gravitational interacti
on. Energy
conservation.

Motion of an ideal liquid. Bernoulli equation.


6.

Dynamics of rotational motion. Kinetic energy and work in rotational motion.
Conservation of angular momentum. Giroscopes.


7.

Motion in non
-
inertial frames of reference. Force
s of inertia.


8.

Special relativity. Postulates of special relativity. Lorentz transformations. Relativistic
effects. Fundamentals of relativistic dynamics. Relation between mass and energy. Basics
of general relativity.


9.

Free harmonic oscillations.
Simple pendulum, physical pendulum, mass
-
spring system.
Energy in harmonic motion. Superposition of oscillations. Damped oscillations. Forced
oscillations. Resonance.

10.

Transverse and longitudinal waves in elastic continuum
.
Wave equation
.
Wave energy
.
The principle of wave superposition. Wave packet
.
Wave interferention and diffraction.
Standing waves. Sound and its perception
.

11.

Statistical

and

thermodynamic

methods. Fundamentals of molecular kinetic theory. Ideal
gas model. Heat capacity of ideal g
as
.
Maxwell

distribution

of

molecule

velocities
.
Barometric

formula
.
Boltzmann

distribution

for

particles

in

external

potential field
.
Mean

free

path

of

molecules
.
Diffusion
,
thermal

transport
,
internal friction in a fluid
.

12.

1
st

law of thermodynamics a
nd its applications to iso
-
processes in gases. Adiabatic
processes. Work in iso
-
processes
.

13.


Reversible and irreversible processes
.
Cycles
.
Heat engines and refrigerating plants.

Carnot

cycle

and

its

thermal

efficiency
.
2
nd

law of thermodynamics
.
Free

energy and
entropy
.

14.

Deviations from ideal gas laws. Models of intermolecular interaction.

Van
-
der
-
Waals
equation. Critical state of a matter.

Gases liquefaction
.

15.

Characteristics of liqiuds.

Viscosity and superfluidity
.
Structure and thermal properties of
solid state.

Defects in crystals
.

16.

Phase equilibrium condition. The simplest phase diagram. Phase transitions of 1
st

and 2
nd

order. Clapeyron
-
Clausius equation. Matter at extreme conditions
.