Mixtures and solutions-

tickbitewryMechanics

Oct 30, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Mixtures and solutions
-


Describe methods used to separate the components of mechanical mixtures and solutions. Google
the term and find a definition on the Internet. Then cut and paste the definition. Finally write what
you think the definition
means in your own words. Use the example to assist you.

type

Internet cut/paste

What this means


mechanical sorting

The "mechanical" element is usually an
automated mechanical sorting stage. This
either removes recyclable elements from a
mixed waste stre
am (such as metals, plastics,
glass and paper) or processes them. It typically
involves factory style
conveyors
, industrial
magnets
,
eddy current

separators,
trommels
,
sh
redders

and other tailor made systems, or
the sorting is made by hand. The mechanical
element has a number of similarities to a
materials recovery facility

An automated machine
used to separate the
different parts from one
another

filtration






evaporation







distillation






magnetism






chromatography










Trace the historical development of a technology or process used to separate mixtures (e.g., settling,
sifting, filtering, fusion, distillation, and chromatography).


definition

Historical examples

Settling

Settling

is the process by which
particulates settle to the bottom
of a liquid and form a
sediment
.
Particles that experience a force,
either due to gravity or d
ue to
centrifugal motion

will tend to
move in a uniform manner in the
direction exerted by that force.
For gravity settling, this means
that the particles will tend to fall
to the bott
om of the vessel,
forming a
slurry

at the vessel
base

Settling
tanks

are used for
separating solids and/or oil from
another liqu
id. In
food
processing
, the vegetable is
crushed and placed inside of a
settling tank with water. The oil
floats the top of the water then
is collected. In water and waste
water treatment a
flocculant

is
often added prior to settling to
form larger particles that settle
out quickly in a settling tank
leaving the water with a lower
turbidity
.


-
sewage treatment

Sifting

1.

Put (a fine, loose, or powdery
substance) through a sieve so as
to remove lumps or large
particles.






Filtering

In
chemistry

and common usage,
a
filter

is a device (usually a
membrane or layer) that is
designed to physically block
certain objects or substances
while letting others through.
Filters are often used to remove
solid

substances
suspended

in
fluids
, for example to remove
air
p
ollution
, to make water
drinkable, and to prepare
coffee
.
Some devices that are called
filters may also carry out other
processes, such as waste
treatment, (e.g.
biofilter
).





Fusion


In
nuclear physics
,
nuclear
chemistry

and
astrophysics

nuclear fusion

is the process by
which two or more
atomic nuclei

join together, or "fuse", to form
a single h
eavier nucleus. This is
usually accompanied by the
release or absorption of large
quantities of
energy
. Large
-
scale
thermonuclear fusion processes,
involving many nuclei fusing at
once, must occur in matt
er at
very high
densities

and
temperatures
.



Distillaion

Distillation

is a method of
separating

mixtures

based on
differences in their
volatilities

in
a boiling liquid mixture.
Distillation is a
unit operation
, or
a physical separation proce
ss,
and not a
chemical reaction
.



chromatography

Chromatography

is the collective
term for a set of
laboratory
techniques

for the
separation of
mixtures
. It involves passing a
mixture dissolved in a "mobile
phase" through a
stationary
phase
, which separates the
analyte

to be measured from
other molecules in the mixture
based on differential partitioning
between the mobile and
stationary phases. Subtle
differences in a compound's
partition coefficient

result in
differential retention on the
stationary phase and thus
changing

the separation.







Describe common household examples of technologies that are used to separate components of
mechanical mixtures or solutions (e.g., kitchen strainer, oil and air filters).

Take a digital camera and find at least 10 examples of household technologies that a
re used to
separate components of mechanical mixtures or solutions.

Put the pictures on a key and bring to school. Turn the pictures into a slide show (like the example
given)

We will create criteria on what is needed and you will be evaluated by MABE.





























Describe the scientific principles underlying a past or present industrial technology designed to
separate mixtures (e.g., petroleum refining, sewage treatment plant, recycling station, combine, and
cream separator).

Choose one of

the following technologies to research



petroleum refining,



sewage treatment plant,



recycling station,



combine,



cream separator

Find out the following

a)

who invented it and when

b)

what does it separate

c)

how the separation occurs

d)

changes over time (if
possible)

e)

reason why this technology is important today

f)

connection to Carnduff

g)

Each topic will be in an individual paragraph

h)

Picture of separator


Meeting

Approaching

Beginning

Experiencing
Difficulty

The vi sual, multimedia, oral,
or wri tten composition is
clear and straightforward
.



(Product i s fully developed
and appropriate to purpose
and audience. The student
control s the language
el ements and techniques
effectively. Pl anning is
evi dent and the
composition
i s complete. The few
mechanical errors do not
i mpede communication.)

The vi sual, multimedia, oral,
or wri tten composition is
adequate but may be
unrefined
.


(Product i s understandable
but l i mited in i ts
development. It maintains
the purpose b
ut may not
show awareness of audience.
The student shows some
control over the language
el ements and techniques.
Li mi ted planning results in
i nconsistent development.
Some errors in mechanics
may i mpede understanding.)

The vi sual, multimedia, oral,
or w
ri tten composition is
limited and unclear
.



(Product i s limited and
uncl ear i n i ts development.
Purpose is unclear and there
i s no awareness of audience.
The composition shows an
uncertain grasp of the basic
l anguage elements relative
to the purpose. I
nadequate
pl anning results i n
i nconsistent development.
Frequent mechanical errors
and/or structural errors
i mpede understanding.)

The vi sual, multimedia, oral,
or wri tten composition is
unfocused and unclear
.



(Product i s i ncomprehensible.
Evi dence of
planning is
absent. Mechanical and
structural errors impede
understanding.)