APPLIED MECHANICSx

tickbitewryMechanics

Oct 30, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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APPLIED MECHANICS


Q.1

Define mechanics. What is the importance and necessity of mechanics?


Q.2

State and explain Varignon’s Theorem.

The French mathematician Varignon

(1654


1722) gave the following theorem which is also
known as the principles of moments.

Theorem



The algebraic sum of the moments of a system of forces about a moment centre is equal to the
moment of their resultant force about the same moment centr
e.

Actually, Varignon stated it in the context of coplanar forces and proved it. However, it can be
generalised to two or three dimensional problems. Vector proof of the theorem is quite simple.

Proof



Let
F
1

and
F
2
be the component forces and F be the r
esultant force. Let O be a point on the line of
action of the force.

M
O

=
r
OA

×
F

=
r
OA

× (
F
1

×
F
2
), since
F
1

and
F
2

are the components of
F
.

Using the distributive law of cross product,



M
O

=
r
OA

×
F
1

+
r
OA

×
F
2




=
M
1

+
M
2


where M
1

and M
2

are moments of the component forces F
1

and F
2

about O.

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Q.3

What is the concept of friction? Write down the lanes of solid friction
.

Concept

Friction is the force that resists motion when the surface of one object comes into contact with
the surface of another. In a machine, friction reduces the mechanical advantage, or the ratio of
output to input: an automobile, for instance, uses one
-
quarter

of its energy on reducing friction.
Yet, it is also friction in the tires that allows the car to stay on the road, and friction in the
clutch

that makes it possible to drive at all. From matches to machines to molecular structures, friction
is one of the most significant phenomena in the physical world

Einstein and Debye models of specific heat, thermal conductivity, effect of imperfections;
el
ectron states, electron in a periodic potential and the Bloch theorem, the free electron and tight
binding approximations, energy bands and band structure of solids, band width, energy gap and
Fermi surface; density of states and the total number of states
, effective mass, electrons and
holes, semimetal; free electron gas in three dimensions, specific heat, Sommerfeld theory of
electrical conductivity, Wiedemann
-
Franz law, Hall effect, superconductivity, Meissner effect,
type I and type II superconductors,
heat capacity, London equation and penetration of magnetic
field, Cooper pairs and the B C S ground state (qualitative).

Cold equation of state below neutron drip: Harrison
-
Wheeler, BPS, equation of state above
neutron drip: BBP, many body theory, Hartree

Fock, Bethe
-
Johnson, delta resonance, pion
condensation, quark stars. Neutron star & white dwarf models: masses and radii. Cooling:
structure of the surface layers of the white dwarf and cooling, free neutron decay, URCA rate,
neutrino transparency , neut
ron star cooling. Superfluidity in neutron stars, pulsar glitches.

1. C.Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (8th Ed.),Wiley, 2004.

2. A.J.Dekker, Solid State Physics, Macmillan, 1958.

3. Ashcroft N.W. & Mermin N.D. Mermin, Solid State Physics, Rine
hart and Winston, New
York, 1976.

4. Shapiro S. & Teukolsky, S., Black Holes, White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars, John Wiley, 1983.

5. Glendenning, Physics of Neutron Star Interiors, Springer, 2001.


Q.4

Determine the centre of gravity of a plane figure by the

method of moments.

Q.5

Derive the force equation from second low of motion.

Newton's laws of motion

are three
physical laws

that form the basis for
classical mechanics
.
They describe the relationship between the
forces

acting on a body and its
motion

due to those
forces. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries,
[2]

and can
be summarized as follows:

1.

First law
: The
velocity

of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an
external force.
[3]
[4]
[5]

2.

S
econd law
: The
acceleration

a

of a body is
parallel

and directly proportional to the net
force

F

and inversely proportional to the
mass

m
, i.e.,
F

=

m
a
.

3.

Third law
: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal,
opposite
and collinear.

The three laws of motion were first compiled by
Sir Isaac Newton

in his work
Philosophiæ
Naturalis Principia Mathematica
, first published in 1687.
[6]

Newton used them to explain an
d
investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems.
[7]

For example, in the third volume
of the text, Newton showed that these laws of motion, combined
with his
law of universal
gravitation
, explained
Kepler's laws of planetary motion
.


Q.6

Define a unit force, Newton and dyne. What is the relationship between
Newton and dyne?

unit

of measurement

-

any division of quantity accepted as a standard of measurement or
exchange; "the dollar is the United States unit of currency"; "a unit of wheat is a bushel";
"change per unit volume"

dyne

-

a unit of force equal to the force that imparts an acceleration of 1 cm/sec/sec to a mass of
1 gram

newton
,
N

-

a unit of force equal to the f
orce that imparts an acceleration of 1 m/sec/sec to a
mass of 1 kilogram; equal to 100,000 dynes

sthene

-

a unit of force equal to 1000 newtons

pdl
,
poundal

-

a unit of force equal to the force that imparts an acceleration of 1 foot/sec/sec to a
mass of 1 pound; equal to 0.1382 newtons

lbf.
,

pound

-

a nontechnical unit of force equal to the mass of 1 pound with an acceleration of
free fall equal to 32 feet/sec/sec

pounder

-

(used on
ly in combination) something weighing a given number of pounds; "the
fisherman caught a 10
-
pounder"; "their linemen are all 300
-
pounders"

g
-
force
,
gee
,
g

-

a unit of force equal to the force exerted by gravity; used to indicate the force to
which a body is subjected when it is accelerated

pound

-

a unit of apothecary weight equal to 12 ounces troy

Definition: Newton

In physics, the newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force, named
after Sir Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical
mechanics. It was first used around 1904, but not until 1948 was it
officially adopted by the General Conference on Weights and
Measures (CGPM) as the name for the mks unit of force.

››

Definition: Dyne

In physics, the dyne is a unit of force specified in
the centimetre
-
gram
-
second (cgs) system of
units, symbol "dyn". One dyne is equal to exactly 10
-
5 newtons. Further, the dyne can be defined
as "the force required to accelerate a mass of one gram at a rate of one centimetre per second
squared."

The newton
comes from the MKS (kg
-
m
-
s) system

The dyne comes from the CGS (cm
-
g
-
s) system.


This means that:

1N=1 kg*m/s²

1dyn=1 g*cm/s²


And therefore that

1N=10^5 dyn



Q.7

What is pulley? Explain the working the working of third system of pulley
.

Pulley
is used in

the real world to lift large masses onto tall heights. You might have seen the
workers repairing the roof of a house and using the pulley system to lift their tools or materials to
the roof. A pulley is an example of a simple machine.


The pulley system c
onsists of one or more pulleys and a rope or a cable. The number of pulleys
used may increase or decrease the mechanical advantage of the system. Generally, the higher the
mechanical advantage is, the easier it is to lift the object that is being lifted.


Overall, no matter how easy it is to use the pulley system, the system itself is not very efficient
due to the force of friction. For example, one has to pull two meters of rope of cable through the
pulleys in order to lift an object one meter.


The applet

below illustrates just that. Select the number of pulleys and drag the mouse to see the
inefficiency of the system.

Newton created the modern concept of force starting from his insight that all the effects that
govern motion are interactions between two o
bjects: unlike the Aristotelian theory, Newtonian
physics has no phenomena in which an object changes its own motion.

Is one object always the “order
-
giver” and the other the “order
-
follower”? As an example,
consider a batter hitting a baseball. The bat de
finitely exerts a large force on the ball, because the
ball accelerates drastically. But if you have ever hit a baseball, you also know that the ball makes
a force on the bat
---

often with painful results if your technique is as bad as mine!

How does the
ball's force on the bat compare with the bat's force on the ball? The bat's
acceleration is not as spectacular as the ball's, but maybe we shouldn't expect it to be, since the
bat's mass is much greater. In fact, careful measurements of both objects' masse
s and
accelerations would show that
m
ball
a
ball

is very nearly equal to
-
m
bat
a
bat
, which suggests that the
ball's force on the bat is of the same magnitude as the bat's force on the ball, but in the opposite
direction.

Figures
a

and
b

show two somewhat more practical laboratory experiments for investigating this
issue accurately and without too much interference from extraneous forces.

In experiment
a
, a large magnet and a small magnet are weighed separately, and then one magnet
is hung from the pan of the top balance so that it is directly above the other magnet. There is an
attraction between the two magnets, causing the reading on th
e top scale to increase and the
reading on the bottom scale to decrease. The large magnet is more “powerful” in the sense that it
can pick up a heavier paperclip from the same distance, so many people have a strong
expectation that one scale's reading will

change by a far different amount than the other. Instead,
we find that the two changes are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction: the force of the
bottom magnet pulling down on the top one has the same strength as the force of the top one
pulling u
p on the bottom one.

In experiment
b
, two people pull on two spring scales. Regardless of who tries to pull harder, the
two forces as measured on th
e spring scales are equal. Interposing the two spring scales is
necessary in order to measure the forces, but the outcome is not some artificial result of the
scales' interactions with each other. If one person slaps another hard on the hand, the slapper's

hand hurts just as much as the slappee's, and it doesn't matter if the recipient of the slap tries to
be inactive. (Punching someone in the mouth causes just as much force on the fist as on the lips.
It's just that the lips are more delicate. The forces a
re equal, but not the levels of pain and injury.)

Newton, after observing a series of results such as these, decided that there must be a
fundamental law of nature at work:

Forces occur in equal and opposite pairs: whenever object A exerts a force on objec
t B, object B
must also be exerting a force on object A. The two forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in
direction.

In one
-
dimensional situations, we can use plus and minus signs to indicate the directions of
forces, and Newton's third law can be wr
itten succinctly as
.

There is no cause and effect relationship between the two forces in Newton's third law. There is
no “original” force, and neither one is a response to the other. The pair of forces is a relationship,
like marriage, not a back
-
and
-
for
th process like a tennis match. Newton came up with the third
law as a generalization about all the types of forces with which he was familiar, such as frictional
and gravitational forces. When later physicists discovered a new type force, such as the forc
e that
holds atomic nuclei together, they had to check whether it obeyed Newton's third law. So far, no
violation of the third law has ever been discovered, whereas the first and second laws were
shown to have limitations by Einstein and the pioneers of at
omic physics.

The English vocabulary for describing forces is unfortunately rooted in Aristotelianism, and
often implies incorrectly that forces are one
-
way relationships. It is unfortunate that a half
-
truth
such as “the table exerts an upward force on the

book” is so easily expressed, while a more
complete and correct description ends up sounding awkward or strange: “the table and the book
interact via a force,” or “the table and book participate in a force.”

To students, it often sounds as though Newton's

third law implies nothing could ever change its
motion, since the two equal and opposite forces would always cancel. The two forces, however,
are always on two different objects, so it doesn't make sense to add them in the first place
---

we
only add forc
es that are acting on the same object. If two objects are interacting via a force and
no other forces are involved, then
both

objects will accelerate
---

in opposite directions!


f / It doesn't make sense for the man to talk about using the woman's money
to cancel out his bar
tab, because there is no good reason to combine his debts and her assets. Similarly, it doesn't
make sense to refer to the equal and opposite forces of Newton's third law as canceling. It only
makes sense to add up forces that are act
ing on the
same

object, whereas two forces related to
each other by Newton's third law are always acting on two
different

objects.