BE ELECTRICAL (TELECOMMUNICATION)

thunderclingAI and Robotics

Nov 13, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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BE ELECTRICAL

(TELECOMMUNICATION)



ABSTRACTS


FINAL YEAR DESIGN PROJECTS

2012





DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING

MILITARY COLLEGE
OF SIGNALS


AIR INTERFACE FOR LTE RADIO: AN UPLINK PHYSICAL LAYER DESIGN

There's a bandwidth explosion taking place in mobile communications. The rapid growth
of mobile communications has driven the number and diversity of wireless
communications standards over the last 15 years. The industry has adopted GSM, W
-
CDMA, the CDMA20
00 family as well as other parallel communications standards such
as WiMAX. The wireless players are now converging on one set of standards: LTE
(long
-
term evolution). This unprecedented convergence will eventually lead to "LTE
Advanced," a true 4G standar
d. But first we must complete the transition to LTE, which
will provide significantly increased data rates, improved spectral efficiency using OFDM
(orthogonal frequency
-
division multiplexing) and MIMO (multiple
-
input and multiple
-
output), scalable bandwid
th (1.25 MHz to 20 MHz), support for single (TDD) and
dual/paired channels (FDD), and an "all IP network" (AIPN) that will leverage the IP
ecosystem by transitioning the higher network layers to IP protocol.

This project aims at designing the transceiver
chain of a system based on SC
-
FDM and
OFDM technology. The work is phrased in the context of the upcoming LTE uplink and
Downlink standard in order to ensure its suitability in a real system. Different academic
and industrial research organizations are eva
luating the performance and suitability of
LTE vis
-
à
-
vis availability of processing and computational hardware. The project will
focus on implementation of physical layer (downlink and uplink) LTE air interface
according to release 8 of 3GPP. The project i
ncorporate the use of LABVIEW (graphical
programming language) and then implementation of these design of uplink and
downlink of LTE(4G) on National instruments PXI module PXI 1045.


Syndicate Members:

Muhammad Sabih Javed

Saad Siddique

Dileep Kumar

Sardar Asfand Yar

Supervisor:

Dr. Arif Wahla






AUTOMATED HOME SYSTEM USING DAS WITH GSM SUPPORT

Living at a safe place and secure house has always been the desire of a human being.
In modern era prevailing insecurity/hazards brought by the modern technology has
made the requirements more challenging and technical. Gone are the days when
people could
afford and employ a watchman to satisfy the safety requirements.
Technological advancement in this field and development of various types of sensors
has rendered the task of automation and securing a house against burglary, fire, or
malfunctioning/non func
tioning of a device possible.

Recently, in the decade of 2K, homeowners could purchase and install their own video
surveillance /video security system. Home security cameras became more readily
available for homeowners and not just the business owners. Af
ter purchasing a security
camera, the homeowner could then view the images on a television, computer, or other
type of receiver. The need for a monthly service or “watchdog” wasn’t needed.

There are many types of home security systems that not only protec
t our property but
most importantly, our family. There are two types of security systems
-

the wired one
and the wireless security system. The technology used in wired and wireless systems
are completely different. Wireless systems do not require wiring th
e house and send
messages through radio signals to a central control panel. Wireless security systems
are easier to install and do not need any of wiring. These wireless systems were once
seen as undependable compared to the wired systems. But with the lat
est technology
and advancements, wireless systems become more reliable, cost effective and hence
more popular.

In our system we will be using sensors which will be controlled through microcontroller,
the whole system will give the house protection against

intruder and fire. Automation
such as water tank will be automated; conservation of energy by automatically
controlling the blinds and lights, and the system will also be configured to be controlled
by a personal computer and remotely full access by cell
phone by integrating the GSM
module into the system.


Syndicate Members:

Muhammad Irfan

Muhammad Taimur

Abdul Saboor

Supervisor:

Asst Prof. Fazal Ahmed






CENTRALIZED ENVIRONMENTAL NETWORK MONITORING AND REPORTING
SYSTEM (CENMARS)

The need for remote monitoring and control system of remote sites has increased
manifolds due to the increase in unmanned sites (especially for Telcos). A survey
indicates that no current Telco in Pakistan is equipped with centralized environmental
monitor
ing system for the un
-
manned sites. This project is based on Client
-
Server
application. Client side is connected with remote environmental and network sensors for
alarm generation. Alarm data is gathered at the centralized server for timely reporting,
effi
cient monitoring and response system.

Due to the recent energy and resource crisis in the country, efficient resource
management is of utmost importance. The project provides a handy tool to the national
industry stake holders such as telecom operators, f
or the control of remote unmanned
sites.

The architecture of CENMaRS is based on sensors, controller and a server. The
sensors monitor the environmental variables continuously and pass the observed
values to the controller. The different types of sensors
are humidity sensor, temperature
sensor and door sensor. Readings from these sensors are filtered on the controller in
order to remove redundant values. The ARM9 development board has been used as
the controller. After processing on the controller, the dat
a is sent to the server through
wired connection using a Client
-
Server model. A database is maintained of the entire
data from the sensors and the filtered data is displayed on the Front
-
end Graphical User
Interface. When the environmental variables exceed

certain defined threshold, the value
in the GUI is highlighted indicating a need for immediate action. Corresponding to this,
alarms are generated as well as the concerned authorities are reported by SMS (which
are sent through GSM module connected at the

server).

An extra feature of our project is the monitoring of the connected devices. This is done
by employing Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) which is an application
layer protocol. It is implemented on the ARM9 development board and is respon
sible for
constantly monitoring the status of the sensors connected. If a device goes down, the
authorities at the server will know of its failure and can apply corrective measurements.


Syndicate Members:

Rabya Mahmood

Javaria Khalid

Muhammad Ahmed Mehmood

Amal Atique

Supervisor:

Engr Asim Rasheed





COMMUNICATION LINK FOR UAV

Modern communication systems are striving to achieve maximum possible capacity of
the channel that comes with robustness. Due to the recent development in technology,
mobile platforms are gaining preferences as communication (Audio, Video or Data)
devices.

Recent trend to use mobile platforms as communication devices impose
supplementary limitation in terms of battery life and quality of communication. The
primary requirement for video transmission from a mobile platform is that it should be
transmitted acc
urately with minimum use of battery life to prolong the time of operation.

In order to fulfill the requirement of prolonged battery life, computationally less complex
encoder is desired which will lower the power requirement of the processing unit. In thi
s
regards, the paradigm of distributed video coding is proposed. It promises to provide the
capability to shift a portion of complexity from encoder to decoder which, otherwise
tends to impose upper limitation on the flight time of the probe. The proposed
scheme is
also beneficial in terms of decoding error robustness, providing improved immunity to
drift errors between encoder and decoder as compared to standardized video
compression techniques. Robustness is ensured by the NLOS capability of OFDM
implemen
tation which also promises adequate bandwidth for video transmission.

The intended objective of our project is to develop a robust and efficient video
compression and transmission module for mobile platforms. This link should include a
compression algorit
hm that promises a computationally less expensive procedure and
the complete system to fulfill our requirement of data rate and robustness.

Our design is to implement motion estimation on decoder side instead of encoder side.
This will give an advantage o
f reduce use of resources on UAV thus saving power
requirement and reducing complexity on UAV end. Our design implements PRISM
(Power
-
efficient, Robust, hIgh
-
compression, Syndrome based Multimedia coding)
architecture proposed in 2002 and redefined in 2007
.


Syndicate Members:

Danish Ilyas

Muhammad Faisal Inayat

Hafiz Muhammad Muneeb

Usman Saeed Raja

Supervisor:

Asst Prof Raja Iqbal






DDC/DUC HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION FOR SDRS

A Software Defined Radio (SDR) has three parts namely RF section, IF section and
Baseband section. The project deals with the IF section. Digital down convertor (DDC)
and Digital up convertor (DUC) are extensively used in the radio systems. They are
more p
opular than their analogue counterparts because of small size, low power
consumption and accurate performance. We have chosen Field
-
Programmable Gate
Array (FPGA) for implementation of design because of their real time and high speed
processing.

The imple
mentation of DDC and DUC was previously done on ASICs (Application
Specific ICs). An ASIC is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use,
rather than intended for general
-
purpose use FPGA are the modern
-
day technology for
building a breadboa
rd or prototype from standard parts. Programmable logic blocks and
programmable interconnects allow the same FPGA to be used in many different
applications. For smaller designs and lower production volumes, FPGAs may be more
cost effective than an ASIC des
ign even in production.

The DDC converts the signal at the output of analog to digital convertor (ADC), centered
at the intermediate frequency (IF), to complex baseband signal. In addition, DDC also
decimates the baseband signal without affecting its spec
tral characteristics. The
decimated signal, with a lower data rate, is easier to process on a low speed DSP
processor. Similarly, the DUC converts a baseband signal to a passband IF signal.

The developed prototype has been tested on software by simulating

it on the System
Generator of ‘Xilinx ISE design suite 12.3’ and the results were in accordance with the
theoretically calculated ones. The developed code was synthesized using the Xilinx
environment. Synthesized code was tested successfully on FPGA board

using
‘Hardware Co
-
Simulation’. Aim is to implement it on standalone hardware for
commercial purpose.


Syndicate Members:

Syed Jawad Mohsin

Abdul Wahab

Muhammad Bilal Sultan

Hussain Imtiaz Khan

Supervisor:

Dr Adnan Rashdi






DEVELOPMENT OF GSM INTERCEPTOR

Mobile communication is one of the most secure and hard to monitor communication
because of its large subscriber base and secure authentication procedure (Pakistan
having 97.3 million subscribers in April 2010). With such a v
ast number of users the
concept of real time surveillance becomes close to impossible but with the proposed
project we can cut off a small chunk of that 97.3 million and monitor them for
information.

The system is designed to exploit the weakness in the G
SM architecture that is lack of
mutual authentication. The development of GSM interceptor involves the development
of our own GSM network using a software defined radio. The principal goal of the
project is to prove and exploit the weakness in the security

of the GSM standards.

Our system is designed to provide an indigenous solution for GSM interception intended
to equip our law enforcement agencies. The software defined radio is used to create our
own BTS that can spoof the parameters of any mobile netwo
rk operators legitimate
BTS. The USRP (universal software radio peripheral) acts as the RF front end of our
interceptor and hooks up an MS (mobile station) over the Um interface. This scenario
allows us to execute a man in the middle attack on the victim M
S and also perform
dynamic SIM (subscriber identity module) cloning and hence create data on behalf of
the victim.

The GSM interceptor created will be capable of performing an attack on a victim mobile
station and enable us to sniff GSM information such a
s the mobile stations IMEI
(international mobile equipment identity), IMSI (international mobile subscriber identity)
and retrieve SRES (signed response) in response to a RAND (random number) and
then use this information in dynamic SIM cloning to spoof th
e victims data and also
create fake data on behalf of the victim.


Syndicate Members:

Ahthsham Khawaja

Rana Umar Majeed

Muhammad Farrukh

Umer Younas

Supervisor:

Dr Adnan Rashdi






DEVELOPMENT OF JAMMER AGAINST VHF BAND (34
-
176
MHZ) REMOTE
CONTROL IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES

Pakistan is facing a serious social and security threat against national harmony due to
terrorist bombing. Terrorist often use remote control devices such as walike talkie and
cordless phones etc for activat
ion of remote controlled devices. The project will give an
easy and low cost tool for jamming of VHF band remote control devices in a selective
region.

Originally much of the technology associated with jamming was developed for military
purposes.A huge pa
rt of security in the military is data security, Jamming
communications signals locally can prevent the loss of data.Some Law Enforcement
agencies use Jammers to prevent criminals from communicating.Law Enforcement and
military both use Jammers for prevent
ing signals from certain kinds of remote explosive
detonation devices.Jammers originally worked on analog signals eventually Jamming
was necessary on digital networks Newer Jammers will block VHF, HF, AMPS and
GSM networks.

The jammer that has been design
ed isconsisted of three major parts. The power supply,
IF section, RF section. The Jammer is designed to take its power from a source
continuously and convert it into the dc output voltage required to drive the circuitry. The
IF
-
section of the jammer is us
ed to generate the tuning signal required in the RF
-
Section. The main parts of the IF
-
Section are Wave Generator, Noise Generator and
Signal Mixer.The RF
-
section is responsible for generating and transmitting the RF
-
Jamming signal. The main parts are oscil
lator, Power Amplifier, and the Antenna.

A prototype Jammer has been designed that will overflow the VHF frequency used by
wireless phones with radio waves.Enough interference and distortion caused by these
waves will prevent communication between a wirel
ess media and a base tower.


Syndicate Members:

Suleman

Bilal Timimy

Abid Mehmood

Fahad Maqsood

Supervisor:

Engr Syed Muhammad Ali Abidi






HOSPITAL ASSETS, PERSONNEL AND VEHICLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

The industries and organizations of Pakistan are far behind in the area of asset and
personnel tracking. In recent years, numerous companies have been established which
provide vehicle tracking but a comprehensive management system which incorporates
asset

and personnel tracking integrated with vehicle tracking has not been so far
implemented in Pakistan. Most of the organizations rely on old management techniques
which are not at par with the modern standards of the competitive market. There is no
technolo
gy reliance. Most of the tracking techniques employ the use of surveillance
cameras which is not an effective solution for an organization which has a large number
of assets and employees. The RFID technology has not been widely implemented and
is still in

its infancy. Utilizing the full potential of this technology and integrating it with
the existing tracking systems can be a powerful tracking and management tool for
organizations and can help boost productivity of the local industry.

The management syte
m has been designed and implemented which will make use of
the RFID technology for indoor tracking of assets and personnel. A gps/gprs compact
module is used to track outdoor vehicles. This complete system allows the organization
to keep track of all its a
ssets, personnel and vehicles with a single system server. The
authorized personnel will be allowed to monitor their movement and usage statistics.
The information from all the tracking modules will be constantly sent to a centralized
server and a database

will keep records for future use. This complete system will
provide a comprehensive and effective management solution to the large scale
organizations in Pakistan.

A prototype outdoor tracking module has been built which gets coordinates from gps
antenna
, transmits it to server end via gprs where the coordinates for each tracker are
stored in database. Similarly, indoor tracking is achieved through 3 RFID readers placed
strategically around a room containing a few RFID active tags. The process of
trilater
ation is performed using known algorithms and mapping of tag’s location is done
on server side.


Syndicate Members:

Syed Zohaib Hassan

Muhammad Omar Nasir

Ali Usman Shahid

Mariam Tariq

Supervisor:

Dr Adnan Rashdi






IMPLEMENTATION

OF NARROWBAND AND WIDEBAND WAVEFORMS FOR SDR

In today’s fast evolving world the technological growth in the field of Wireless
Communication is extensive. Unfortunately conventional radio devices have limited
cross
-
functionality. Hence the concept of SDR c
ame into being. Software Defined Radio
technology aims to take advantage of programmable hardware modules to build Open
-
architecture based radio system software. This leads to device flexibility, software
portability and system upgradability.

This project

focuses to develop VHF/UHF Narrowband and Wideband waveforms for
existing SDR platforms. The narrowband waveform based on frequency modulation
(FM) designed for audio transmission and OFDM Wideband waveform designed for
data transmission coded in C++ and
Python are implemented on the platform. OFDM is
chosen so as to achieve higher data rate. It is spectrally efficient and is a sensational
technology that has found its way into the most important standards for wireless
communications. In the new generation

called 4G, in which the main standards are the
IEEE 802.16 (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)) and the
3GPP’s Long Term Evolution (LTE).

Amongst the wide choice of commercially available SDR platforms, such as the DSP,
GPP, FPGA, th
e GPP with USRP as the RF frontend is being used in the project. The
General Purpose Processor used in this project is not the computer’s processor but the
Beagleboard
-
xM. The Beagleboard
-
xM is equipped with a Cortex A8 1GHz processor.
The USRP board in co
njunction with a RF daughterboard, a Beagleboard
-
xM and GNU
radio Software is being used.

The project envisions creating a standalone Software Defined Radio device dedicated
to the transmission and reception of the indigenously developed VHF/UHF Narrowban
d
and Wideband waveforms. The project will help to intrinsically maximize the benefits of
SDR by providing waveforms to manufacturers building commercial base stations,
mobiles and small form
-
factor handheld radios to allow them to reap the practical
benef
its of reusable, maintainable code. It will also pave the path for the further
development of the telecommunication and information technology industry in Pakistan,
making them capable to offer system based on latest wireless reconfigurable
technologies.


Syndicate Members:

Sarah Shahid Sahibzada

Aatqa Hussain

Qurat
-
ul
-
Ain

Midhat Javaid

Supervisor:

Dr Adnan Rashidi




MICROWAVE BEAMFORMER RECEIVER FRONT END

In recent years, the growing interest in low cost Wireless Networks and to fulfill the
requirements of increasing number of users and high bandwidth, antenna beam
-
forming
approach has become very popular. In beam
-
forming, each user’s signal is multiplied
w
ith complex weights that adjust the magnitude and phase of the signal to and from
each antenna. This causes the output from the array of antennas to form a
transmit/receive beam in the desired direction and minimizes the output in other
directions.

Beam
-
f
orming is a signal processing technique used in sensor arrays for directional
signal transmission or reception. This is achieved by combining elements in the array in
such a way that signals at particular angle experience constructive interference while
ot
hers experience destructive interference. Beam
-
forming using Smart antenna
technology offers a significantly improved solution to reduce interference levels and
improve the system capacity. With this technology, each user’s signal is transmitted and
receiv
ed by the base station only in the direction of that particular user. This drastically
reduces the overall interference in the system and saves transmit power. Beam
-
forming
can be used at both the transmitter and receiver side to achieve spatial selectivit
y. The
Microwave Sampling Beam
-
former structure controls both phase shift and attenuation in
one simple RF block with the same control signal. In addition, it has the potential for
high resolution weightings.

In this project, an array of four patch antenn
as is used to receive the signal. The
combined signal of these four antennas is used to form a beam. PIN diodes are used as
phase shifters to shift the beam at various angles. A new technique for amplitude and
phase weighting in microwave domain is impleme
nted. The design consists of complete
microwave hardware and control circuitry. A new compact switch design is implemented
and utilized in the structure. The received RF signal is then down
-
converted so that it
can be processed by a Digital Signal Processo
r.

The system is developed to operate at a frequency range of 5
-
6 GHz. Narrow band
patch antennas are used to limit the noise. The system consists of RF front end, the
control circuitry and the down
-
converter part. The output of the system can be fed to
a
ny Digital Signal Processor for further processing. The structure can be used to steer
the beam to the desired angle.





Syndicate Members:

Muhammad Saad Zia

Muhammad Faizan

Hassaan Ahmad

Jawad Ullah

Supervisor:

Dr. Farooq Ahmad Bhatti


ON MOVE DYNAMIC LOCATION DETECTION WITHOUT GPS IN VANET

Owing to the increase in the number of road accidents, road safety has been a major
concern for people around the world. There is a need for a set up that will match
detected objects

to static ones and allow for improved positioning and detection of
unknown possibly hazardous objects in the environment. Such system should detect, in
advance, potentially dangerous situations and extend “in space and time”, drivers’
awareness of the sur
rounding environment.

At present, VANET or Vehicular ad hoc networking is introduced as a way of
communication between automobiles in the vicinity of each other. Apart from the packet
transmission made possible with this technique, vehicles can update the
ir peers about
the change of events taking place. This allows for vulnerable road user detection,
congestion detection and accident avoidance. Apart from safety for others, the system
can give speed alerts and lane change warning.

The system has been desi
gned, based on the phenomenon of directivity and distance.
Using the predefined coordinates of a static road side unit (RSU), the car in its vicinity
calculates its own coordinates using a simple triangular property. For this, the distance
of the car from
the RSU is calculated using a path loss model and MUSIC (Multiple
Signal Classification) algorithm implemented on a DSP kit. Using MUSIC, the angle of
arrival of the received signal (from a nearby car) is calculated. This is then, used to
evaluate the dist
ance between the two entities. An array antenna operating in MHz
frequency is used for transmission and reception. The coordinates at the end, are
updated on the Local Dynamic Map, introduced in each participating vehicle.

The Coordinates calculation and
updating system, capable of maintaining its own local
dynamic map has been designed. The vehicles within a distance of 250m are tested
over various speeds and location updating is rightly observed.


Syndicate Members:

Anum Ahmed Pirkani

Zil
-
e
-
Huma

Usmaan Rasul

Zeehan Shahid

Supervisor:

Engr Muhammad Asim Rasheed






RFID BASED MULTIPURPOSE SYSTEM

Our idea is based on the fact that RFID chips and receivers are rapidly becoming
popular and have been implemented in various environments. It has been predicted that
these systems would completely replace the ‘bar code’ systems till 2030. The primary
focu
s of this system is the design and implementation of a cost
-
effective system as
commercial systems are very expensive and also RFID readers are not locally
available.

Our system is designed on the basic principle of Radio Frequency Identification. The
sys
tem consists of three main parts namely RFID reader, passive RFID tags and a
desktop application. The RFID reader consists of an RFID IC, PIC microcontroller with
LCD display, an external antenna and a USB interface to the host system. Passive tags
are pow
ered up by the radio signal transmitted by the reader antenna whenever the tag
is in the vicinity of the antenna. Now the activated tag sends its unique identification
number to the antenna which is passed on to the RFID IC. The RFID IC, after
performing n
ecessary adjustments to the received code, communicates it to the PIC
microcontroller. The USB module in PIC transfers this data to the host system where a
desktop application is used to read this data and upload it to a MySql Database. An
RFID user portal

is designed to provide real time access to database through the web.

The distinguished feature of the system is that it is using ISO18000
-
6C standard which
is being used globally for RFID applications and all codes and algorithms are proprietary
and sold

for thousands of dollars. We have developed the same algorithms as free
-
ware. The available ISM band for this standard is 860MHz
-
960MHz and the read range
of the system is 5
-
6 metres.

The prototype RFID system has been designed and built which is capable

of asset
management in the library. With few modifications, this system can be implemented for
lab security, attendance and vehicle identification.


Syndicate Members:

Javeriah Iftikhar Abbasir

Naumana Ayub

Saad Riaz Qazi

Moeed Bin Shafiq

Superviso
r:

Asst Prof. Zaka
-
ul
-
Mustafa






SIMULATION OF VIRTUAL SENSORS OVER INTERNET

Movement replication via simulation of virtual sensors over the internet allows the
movement of a human arm to be replicated on a remote site using internet as a medium
of communication through a robotic counterpart.

There could be numerous dangerous situ
ations in which human presence can be
replicated by robots to perform specific tasks thus saving precious lives. Examples of
these situations include battlefields, bomb disposals and areas with radioactive and
poisonous gas leaks where some kind of operati
on is essential. This is a partial list of
situations where human presence is required but it could be either too dangerous for
them to be there or it may be altogether impossible. Hence an alternate system is
required with which experts can operate in suc
h areas without having to be physically
present there.

Such a solution can help soldiers stay away from unnecessary exposure to dangers yet
performing the given tasks, medical supervision available to countless patients via
remote assistance, and radioact
ive material handled by non
-
human counterparts where
needed.

At present, systems employing movement replication are limited to surgical purposes.
The DaVinci system by Intuitive Surgical USA and ZEUS Robotic Surgical System by
Computer Motion are two such

examples. However, these systems are very costly and
cannot be used for other purposes due to their large size and weight. The principle goal
of the project is to provide a general purpose product which can be used in multiple
situations, not just for med
ical purposes.

The project uses a potentiometer based exo
-
skeleton that translates the movements of
a human arm into potential differences. These potential differences are digitized using a
PIC based ADC and then sent to a computer via USB. This digital s
equence is
transmitted to the remote system using internet, which when received, is transformed
into corresponding PWM signals. These PWM signals are fed to the corresponding
servos of the robotic arm to perform the movement.


Syndicate Members:

Salman M
ahmood

Muhammad Wasif Arshad

Imran Khan

Omar Ali

Supervisor:

Dr. Adil Masood





SPEECH SCRAMBLING MODULE

Security is very important for civil and military communication. The aim of this project is
to provide high level speech security by scrambling in digital domain and transmitting
the signal in analog domain for narrowband wireless communication.

Most of t
he traditional scramblers require frame synchronization. This complicates the
implementation and also makes transmission sensitive to the channel conditions. Digital
encryption provides very high security however it is usually unsuitable for wireless
appli
cations particularly due its fundamental requirement of much wider bandwidth
along with stringent synchronization both at frame and bit level. On the other hand
analog scrambling technique provides relatively lower security but bandwidth is
preserved.

Thi
s project aims at developing and implementing a high security digital scrambling
scheme over narrow
-
band analog HF radio set with typical audio baseband of 4 KHz or
less. This is possible by using an innovative synchronization
-
free signal processing and
co
mmunication technique. This technique is computationally intensive in nature and
theoretically established about two decades ago. However, it has become possible to
implement it now courtesy of high speed DSP processors available in world market.

The syst
em has been designed to take input speech signal sampled at 8000 Hz.

After passing through a low pass filter speech samples are stored in a buffer. These
samples are transferred to processor where windowing operation takes place. The
technique is based on

OLA (Overlap and Add) Method to achieve synchronization free
transmission. Fast Fourier Transform of windowed samples is taken. Bands of
frequency containing maximum information are permuted to achieve desired
scrambling. Signal is converted back into tim
e domain and transmitted on the wireless
medium over the analog channel. On the receiver side same procedure is followed with
descrambling algorithm.

The ultimate product will be a standalone hardware which can be interfaced with any
standard professional

narrowband analog HF wireless equipment (both military and
professional types) to provide high security secure speech communication.


Syndicate Members:

Sarmad Nadeem

Zarrar Ali Khan

Khawar Hussain

Supervisor:

Dr. Ashraf Masood




SUN / MICROWAVE ENERGY HARVESTING RESOURCE INITIATIVE (SUNEHRI)

The industrial development and population increase has created an enormous increase
in the global demand for energy. SUNEHRI (SUN Energy Harvesting Resource
Initiative) is a work for renewable

energy. It aims to produce electricity from
sun/microwave energy, create cooling systems that can cool down buildings without
electricity consumption, eliminate electricity shortfall and provide a green solution with
no waste products.

In this era of ene
rgy crisis of the country, misery increases due to usage of electrical
and electronic home appliances, which provide comfort while putting heavy burden on
the utility budget. Effective and cheap ways of power generation are the need of the
hour. There are
abundant radiations with high energy in them, available in the
atmosphere, mostly originating from the sun and few available due to manmade
microwave sources i.e. Radios, mobiles, satellites. After detailed research and available
nano technologies, Infrare
d has been considered to be most suitable to create cooling
effect and to generate electricity in aid with microwaves. The principle aim of the project
is to resolve the energy crisis and reduce country’s dependency on oil by making heat
absorbing IR surfa
ces and converting Microwave energy to DC power using antenna
technology with the improved efficiency and relatively less expensive level.

The project comprises of two parts; the first part focuses on capturing abundant
microwave on an ultra wide band (UW
B) antenna array and capturing IR (heat) band of
solar spectrum on nano UWB terahertz antennas arrays. The collected heat radiations
would reduce the temperature of the surroundings, thus resulting in cooling effect
without consuming electricity. The secon
d part involves converting the received
microwave energy into minor home usage electricity through rectification methods. This
is done by combining the output of UWB Microwave antenna arrays by UWB Wilkinson
Power Combiner designed in the range 1
-
13 GHz an
d then rectifying their combined
output using Schottky diodes to get DC as an output.

A prototype UWB antenna array and power combiner has been designed, simulated,
fabricated and tested which is capable of capturing microwave energy from 1
-
30 GHz.


Synd
icate Members:

Ali Anjum

Jawad Khalid

Sidrah Javed

Mehreen Rehman

Supervisor:

Dr Naveed Iqbal







UHF COMMUNICATION LINK FOR MIMO
-
SDR


MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)
-

OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing) is the requirement for 4g technologies to start off with. It is a basic
standard of LTE, the releases of which promise that data rate to be increased up to 100
Mbps.
MIMO utilizes a multiple antenna system to take advantage of the multi
-
path
effect. it provides substantially more reliable signal quality and greater bandwidth.
These systems will provide a platform to be a step closer to the enhancement of
telecommunicat
ion industry.

MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) and OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing) technologies are gaining interest in modern communications systems.
These technologies provide a powerful tool for enhancing the wireless link with a
n
emphasis on increased spectral efficiency and reduced ISI (Inter Symbol Interference)
due to OFDM technique. ZF VBLAST will be used for better detection, automatically
involving equalization process.

Vertical Bell Labs Layered Space
-
Time (V
-
BLAST) was p
roposed to achieve the very
high spectral efficiency promised by the multiple
-
antenna system. In the original V
-
BLAST system, parallel data streams are simultaneously transmitted through multiple
antennas in the same frequency band, and decoded at the rece
iver with the Zero
-
Forcing Successive Interference Cancellation (ZF
-
SIC) detector, which helps to achieve
the high spectral efficiency with reasonable decoding complexity. Due to these
advantages, ZF
-
SIC V
-
BLAST has gained lots of research attention in the

past few
years

One of the goals of this project is to achieve real
-
time video transmission over wireless
system employing MIMO transmission which enables high data rate. The basic idea is
that the input video sequence is divided into frames. Each frame i
s then converted to bit
stream. The resulted bit stream is processed to be transmitted over the MIMO link.


Syndicate Members:

Noman Akbar

Faizan Qasim But

Muhammad Salman Saleem

Sadia Riffat

Supervisor:

Asst Prof Raja Iqbal






VANET FLEET MANAGEMENT

VANET is a next big thing in the field of telecom, based on vehicle to vehicle
communication. VANET is mainly designed for safety critical applications, followed by
traffic Management and Infotainment. A vehicular user may have multiple interfaces
such as
communication interfaces like, Wimax, GPRS etc.

The project will be based on upcoming VANET technology. The project will involve
deployment of VANET architecture, integration of VANET hardware and its integration
with different sensors. The project also i
nvolves use of different existing technologies,
such as GSM/EDGE with VANET for broader backend connectivity. There are
applications which have been built in this project. Such applications include text chat,
voice chat and security alerts

Our project con
sists of Hardware and software parts Hardware part consist of OBU (on
board unit) Arm 11 OK6410 has been used as On board unit for the project
implementation by using this board we will shift our application on to a compact and
efficient OBU into vehicles
/nodes Our application has been designed to connect the
moving vehicles/nodes into an adhoc network and thus provide features of private and
public chat In addition to that the vehicles can do voice chat, text chat and view own
location on a local dynamic
map which in addition to its own location plots the
coordinates of other vehicles The adhoc network in our project carries out relay
operation for out of range vehicles.

Our project will propose a system which shall assist long convoy / Fleet holders, suc
h
as Defense organization, Bus Systems and Logistics Transport holders for location
update and internal messaging on dynamic maps. The companies shall be aware of
their vehicles’ location 24/7 and shall be able to determine any hook ups during travel.
Arri
val timings can also be judged accordingly. The project will involve understanding of
client server network models for VANET, computer network based application
development, use of Dynamic maps and integration of different sensors with application.


Syndi
cate Members:

Haleemah Zia

WardaNaim

UmairHadi

FarhanNazir

Supervisor:

Engr Muhammad Asim Rasheed




WIRELESS MULTIMEDIA SENSOR NETWORK USING MICAZ MOTES

Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network employs multimedia gathering devices connected
to a low power, low bandwidth sensor network. The development of low power,
inexpensive hardware such as CMOS cameras has enabled such networks to be widely
studied and devel
oped. A network of wirelessly interconnected devices is employed to
capture, process, and store, retrieve and provide multimedia information about any
geographical area.

The Multimedia Wireless Sensor Networks can support a lot of diverse applications but

for the project a prototype is designed to support traffic monitoring and control. The
methodology to dynamically change the duration of the traffic signals is the intended
solution to regulating and managing traffic.

Over the last few years, there has b
een a tremendous increase in the road traffic
density. The upshot of this is a significant loss of human resources, significantly
increased inefficiencies, reduced quality of life, and a greater environmental impact at a
critical time. A significant amount

of time is spent waiting in traffic. A paramount amount
of fuel is lost while waiting in traffic jams every day. The monetary loss and the loss of
man
-
hours affect individuals, families, companies and the government. It is impractical
to expand the entire

road network, the Traffic Police has its own drawbacks, latency and
irregularity being the most complained about.

Images are captured at a traffic signal intersection to sense the traffic volume; they are
communicated wirelessly using the wireless transc
eivers, the micaZ motes, to a sink
computer where image processing techniques will be employed to determine the traffic
condition. Furthermore, decision algorithms will prioritize the duration of the traffic lights.
This will be communicated back to the tr
affic lights through a traffic light controlling
circuitry.

Such a network of wirelessly networked traffic monitoring cameras should have a
transformative impact on a city’s congestion and management of traffic situations. It is
intended to reduce and hop
es to eliminate traffic congestion. Automation of the system
will achieve a lower time delay and deliver round the hour smart control.


Syndicate Members:

Hamna Anwar

Hamza Tariq Khan

Supervisor:

Obaid Ullah Khalid





BLUE AUDIO

The current system used for wireless audio transfer through microphones is radio
transmission. It has very poor audio quality. Another drawback is the glitches during
transmission which can seriously affect the quality of audio. Security is another issue
w
ith the conventional radio transmission systems, the data (audio) being transmitted
can easily be sniffed once the frequency is known.

Bluetooth addresses these problems in a much better way. The specialized profiles
ensure error free and high quality of audio transmission. Other mechanisms like
frequency hopping make sure that security is not compromised. These advantages give
it an edge

over radio infrared systems which are more commonly employed for audio
transmission.The aim of our project is transmission of high quality stereo audio using
Bluetooth technology. This will be accomplished by digitizing the analog audio signal
from an aud
io source and then interfacing it with a suitable Bluetooth module.

For this purpose we have designed a prototype transceiver pair capable of wireless
transmission of audio in real time with any supported Bluetooth device. It involves
conversion of audio
signals to Bluetooth, Bluetooth transmission and reception at the
other end, and conversion back from Bluetooth to audio at amplifier side. Automatic
handshaking and connectivity is also addressed in our project.

The Finished product of our project is a h
andheld device capable of pairing with diverse
Bluetooth devices. User has the option to select, on the go, any profile from a multitude
of profiles depending upon the type of information/data to be communicated between
the Bluetooth devices. The profiles
supported by our module are Advanced audio
distribution profile (A2DP), Generic Access Profile (GAP), Serial Port Profile (SPP).
Using these profiles we can transfer real
-
time high quality audio, data/messages and/or
files with supported Bluetooth devices.



Syndicate Members:

Waseem Hassan

Muhammad Abdullah

Muhammad Shaheer Nawaz

Haider Wazir Khan

Supervisor:

Dr. Asif Masood






WIRELESSLY SYNCHRONIZED ROBOTIC ARM (WSRA)

The industrial manufacturing needs some sort of robotic aid to increase its production &
improve quality. Space satellites arealso in need of human like robots that could help
exploration in space stations. Hence the development of a robot with such an int
erface
that could perform in place of a human and can also increase the efficiency of work is
necessary.

At present the robotics being used in the industries are difficult to use because of the
complex nature of the hardware. Also the interface being used

is not so efficient. This
sort of work is being done in atomic industries where radiation material is needed to be
handled.

The project will allow us to develop a very easy interface between humans and
machines.The system is designed on the basis of sens
ing network. The sensing
network will sense human motion. The sensed signals are being encoded for the
wireless transmission purpose. On the robotic end the signals are then decoded and
accordingly the robot is going to perform the movement.

The system co
nsists of a bend sensor system attached to the human user and a
teleoperated robotic arm that mimics the user’s casual motion. The robotic arm is
designed to be lifelike but simplified. User motions are sensed by bend sensors,
processed by a central microc
ontroller, and replicated by servomotors on the robotic
arm.

The prototype developedcould perform the same set of actions as done by a person on
a remote site through a wireless medium, & both the sites are also linked by wireless
video connection. Hence
the interfaces will me more efficient than the other robots
being used currently in industries.


Syndicate Members:

Saad Qaisar

Hammad Hassan

M.Adeel

Abdul Moiz Jadoon

Supervisor:

Obaid Ullah Khalid




GAIT RECOGNITION SYSTEM

The demand for a reliable and robust personal identification system arises as
technology advances and develops. A biometric system is the key to provide a more
secure and reliable personal identification system. A biometric system verifies user
identity by

comparing the behavioral or physiological trait possessed by the user to a
previously stored sample of the trait.

Among them, Gait recognition system is gaining popularity and has emerged as new
technology. Human identification at a distance has recently

gained enormous interest
among computer vision researchers. Gait recognition aims essentially to address this
problem by recognizing people based on the way they walk.

The objective of the project proposed is to provide a Gait biometric identification sy
stem
which is prone to data theft and is cost effective as compared to other biometric
systems. The proposed system is evaluated using gait databases and the
experimentation on outdoor video sequences demonstrates that the proposed algorithm
achieves a ple
asing recognition performance.

With mounting demands for visual surveillance systems, human identification at a
distance has recently emerged as an area of significant interest. Gait is being
considered as an impending behavioral feature and many allied s
tudies have illustrated
that it can be used as a valuable biometric feature for human recognition. The
development of computer vision techniques has also assured that vision based
automatic gait analysis can be gradually achieved. The proposed system has b
een
tested on the gait databases and, the extensive experimental results on outdoor image
sequences demonstrated that the proposed system possesses a pleasing recognition
performance.


Syndicate Members:

Muneeb Ullah Khan

Muneeb Ilyas Bhatti

Saleh Muhammad

Supervisor:

Dr Adil Masood Siddiqi




GROUND PENETRATING RADAR

This project aims to design and implement a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system
to examine the subsurface. This non
-
destructive method uses microwave radiation and
detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures. The objective is to probe “the
g
round” (low loss dielectric material). The existence of numerous lossy dielectric
material environments combined with the broad radio frequency system leads to a wide
range of GPR applications.

To design prototype ground penetrating radar, the radar signa
l


a Stepped
-
Frequency
-
Continuous
-
Wave (SFCW) pulse


is directed into the ground, using the methodology of
a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The antenna designed was to be preferably
broadband, so as to provide a balance of object resolution and medium p
enetration.
Designs are made of a Vivaldi Antenna and a Pyramidal Horn Antenna, operating on a
range of 2
-
3 GHz. The radar unit consisting of a receiver module and a transmitter
module is a Vector Network Analyzer, which is used to extract backscattered da
ta
reflected from the subsurface. Signal Processing is performed on MATLAB in order to
obtain an image representation of the backscattered data. Further signal processing
techniques are used to focus and remove the noise from the image formed. The
antenna
is mounted on a manufactured robot car which serves the purpose of
performing scans over a given area.

GPR can be a powerful tool in favorable conditions (uniform sandy soils are ideal). Like
other geophysical methods used in archaeology (and unlike excav
ation) it can locate
artifacts and map features without any risk of damaging them. The project has
applications in geology whereby each new day brings challenges to engineers for
probing the subsurface. The potential applications include three
-
dimensional
imaging,
studying bedrock, soils, groundwater, and ice. Engineering applications include non
-
destructive testing (NDT) of structures and pavements, locating buried structures and
utility lines. GPR also finds application in law enforcement and military use
s include
detection of mines, unexploded ordnance, and tunnels.


Syndicate Members:

Arslan Khan

Muhammad Salek Ali

Muhammad Uzair

Haroon Rasheed

Supervisor:

Dr Abdul Ghafoor




DECODING OF LOW
-
DENSITY PARITY CHECK CODES (LDPC) AND
ITS
IMPLEMENTATION IN USRP

The purpose of this project is to study the LDPC codes and then they will be
implemented in MATLAB and USRP. A literature survey on the LDPC will be carried
out. The performance analysis (BER vs SNR) of LDPC codes will be done in MATLAB.
Consequently, the
implementation of LDPC codes in USRP using the python language
will be carried out. Then test under the real world propagation conditions will be carried
out in order to verify the performance of these codes.

The built in MATLAB functions for LDPC generat
ion; encoding and decoding are
successfully tested along with the self made MATLAB codes. The built in MATLAB
functions are only based on the nested if else protocols but in our self made code we
have framed the block length of the message signal and lesso
ned the size of the LDPC
matrix. At the end we take the average of all the frames and calculate the final BER,
and generate the ‘BER vs SNR’ plots for both the (built in MATLAB functions and our
own self made MATLAB codes) as it is necessary for the analys
is of performance
evaluation and both the plots show the same trend. As the signal to noise ratio
increases the bit error rate decreases which was desired.

The MATLAB code is now converted to python since our hardware USRP can be burnt
using python code.
The time complexity of loops in python is much more efficient in
python as compared to that of MATLAB. However we have a drawback of using python,
that python does not handle matrices as conveniently as MATLAB does. The basic four
MATLAB files have been tr
anslated to python. In addition to that, all the built
-
in function
used in those file have also been written in python as they are not available in library
format for python.


Syndicate Members:

Tanveer Ahmad

Rooha Shahid

Naeem Ullah Khan

Muhammad Bil
al Arif

Supervisor:

Dr. Rizwan Ghaffar




SIMULATION AND DESIGN OF HARDWARE CAPABLE OF NOISE REMOVAL AND
ECHO CANCELLATION

Noise removal is a necessary preprocessing step for speech acquisition in computer
telephony and other applications, such as speech
-
assisted human
-
computer interfaces.
Office noise from fans and computers, as well as vehicle noise, not only degrades the
su
bjective speech quality, but it also hinders performance of speech coding and
recognition systems.

In telephony system, the received signal by the loudspeaker, is reverberated through
the environment and picked up by the microphone. It is called an echo s
ignal. That is in
the form of time delayed and attenuated image of original speech signal, and causes a
reduction in the quality of the communication.

Voice and sound detection is an important are in industrial sector as well as in the
security agencies’
work. Keeping the importance of such areas the project work will be
sound detection, data acquisition, improving signal to noise ratio via filter and data
processing techniques. Signal acquired through a parabolic microphone is far better in
terms of sound

to noise ratio compared to the signal acquired through a normal
microphone. Once the speech signal has been acquired, noise removal is required to
improve the signal to noise ratio. After this echo cancellation is required so that the
output speech signal

is not picked up by the microphone again.

A parabolic microphone will be used to gather the input speech signal. The noise
removal part comprises of Butterworth filter. Echo cancellation will be achieved by using
adaptive filters. Then the final output w
ill be fed into the speaker circuitry from where
connections to a CRO will also be made for signal comparison.


Syndicate Members:

Nadir Hassan Dogar

Khan Jibran

Rizwan Shah

Supervisor:

Engr Naveed Sarfraz Khattak




CONCEALED WEAPON
DETECTION

Our project is in the form of a walk
-
through gate. We are utilizing the technique of
Inductive Magnetic Field for metal detection in our project. It is further classified into
three categories depending upon the frequency of operation and the input source.

We
are utilizing the Beat Frequency method for metal detection in our project. A certain
frequency is generated by a colpitt’s oscillator which is balanced by another oscillator.
The search coil is the inductor used in the colpitt’s oscillator. When a met
al is brought
near to the search coil its inductance varies and the frequency of colpitt’s oscillator is
changed. The difference of the frequencies is amplified and is used to trigger the
buzzer.

In our project we have used colpitt’s oscillator of frequen
cy 100
-
130 kHz. An
intermediate frequency transformer (IFT) of 450 kHz is used. Its frequency is lowered to
balance the collpit’s oscillator by shunting the coil with a variable capacitor. Six
detection circuits are developed for six of the zones. The sign
al from the detector
circuits is fed into the bar display circuit which identifies the zone and shows the
strength of signal. A waveform matrix displays the difference of frequencies. A
microcontroller part has also been developed in order to classify the
size of detected
metal. It has been interfaced with computer via serial port and displays the size of
detected metal on hyper terminal.

A prototype of the Concealed Weapon Detection Walk
-
Through Gate has been
designed and built. Main gate structure is mad
e of wood. The system consists of
wooden gate, detection circuits, power supplies, bar display circuits, waveform matrix
and the microcontroller hardware.


Syndicate Members:

RizwanZafar

Ramzan Ali

Sarmad Ghafoor

Hammad Sadiq

Supervisor:

Dr. Abdul
Ghafoor




DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF DIGITAL BASEBAND PROCESSING MODULE
FOR VHF/ UHF SDRS

The proposed project will provide an ideal and unique SDR solution for public safety
communication, broadband service providers, mobile operators, law enforcing agencies,
emergency responders and military. The principal goal of the project is to design a
B
aseband Processing Module for SDRs, which is the main component in the SDR
communication system, as it takes a down
-
converted RF Signal, does the baseband
processing efficiently and makes it possible to recover the accurate signal at the
receiving end.

Th
e system has been designed on the principle of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing). OFDM is a multi
-
carrier transmission technique, which divides the
available spectrum into many carriers, each one being modulated by a low rate data
stream. I
n this system, FEC (Forward Error Correction) has been provided using
convolutional encoding and viterbi decoding.The modulation technique being used is
QPSK. 64
-
point FFT and IFFT are employed. Guard insertion and Guard Removal also
are a part of the prot
otype developed.

The approach that we have used is highly efficient as it provides maximum flexibility. It
involves creating a standalone Digital Baseband Processing Module by programming
Xilinx Virtex 5 LX50T using Hardware Description Language (HDL), to

perform all the
functions of digital baseband processing for SDR on hardware level.


Syndicate Members:

Bakhtawar Hasan

Nabila Shahid

Rabeea Suhail

Supervisor:

Dr. Adnan Rashdi




ABABEEL UAV (MINE DETECTOR)

Mine detection using a UAV is a much safer and swifter method as it keeps the person
at a safe distance from the explosives. UAV being equipped with a video transmission
link helps by not only pin pointing the location of the explosives on the field, but a
lso
helps in surveillance when not being used as a metal detector.

Up until now, a lot of work has been on PI metal detectors and quad
-
copters with a
video transmission link separately, but no work as such has been done on combining
the two into a single
module.

The quad copters are inexpensive, dynamically elegant and stable owing to the
symmetry. It is an omnidirectional vehicle, and has almost no constraints on its motion.
It can be flown in tight spaces and does not require large safety distances to o
perate.
Also the size makes it undetectable by radars.

The mine detection module is based on the Pulse Induction Metal Detector. The PI
metal detectors work which works by sending short bursts of current through the coil
which generates a magnetic field w
hich is used to detect the coil.

The video transmission module consists of the IP camera which is captures the images
captures them, and sends them over a network to the station (computer) to which it will
be linked.

A prototype for the UAV has been desi
gned which consists the quad copter as the flying
module on which the mine detection module is mounted for providing a faster, safer and
more efficient detection of mine for their clearance. The quad copter carries a video
transmission link in the form of
an IP camera for providing us with the capability of real
time imagery. All the modules of the prototype had been tested for their functionality


Syndicate Members:

Saad ur Rehman Faiz

Amna Ziauddin

Rashid Mansur

Umar Khalid

Supervisor:

Dr. Adil Ma
sood






DEVELOPMENT OF GSM JAMMER

The widespread usage of Mobile Stations (MS) in Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)
is becoming a common mean of detonated bomb attacks by terrorists, to create
instability and havoc. To prevent such activities from occurring GSM jammers have
acquired grea
t importance.

The principal goal of our project is to ensure the provision of compact, cost effective
mobile GSM jamming devices that are affordable by the general public. These devices
are meant to be handheld and used by the ground forces in the field a
rea or by ordinary
people while moving from place to place.

Devices operating in the mobile GSM range or being operated by mobile devices can be
rendered ineffective if the communication within the specific region, in which the
explosive device is placed,

is hindered. The project focuses on the implementation of
Denial Of service (DoS) Jamming technique whereby the downlink bands of the GSM
900 and GSM 1800 are targeted and jammed respectively because of which the mobile
phones are denied of service. A jam
ming signal, being a noise signal, distorts the
communication signal thus denying the service

A prototype GSM jammer is being designed and built which is capable of jamming both
the GSM 900 and GSM 1800 bands, currently being used in Pakistan. This protot
ype
consists of three parts namely a power supply, a sweep generator and an RF section.


Syndicate Members:

Muaaz Ahmed Bhatti

Ibrahim Hanif Sahaf

Hamza Mehboob Chaudhry

Hassan Irshad

Supervisor:

Asst Prof Raja Iqbal




VIRTUAL
ORTHOGONAL ANTENNA

A compact antenna array with enhanced beam forming capability. At UHF band i.e. 300
-
3000MHz overall size of the antenna is very large. In order to realize multiple degrees of
freedom from multi
-
element antenna array at this frequency, it is optimal to plac
e the
elements d>λ/2 for minimal coupling which makes the overall size of the antenna array
very large. Whereas compact arrays result in increased mutual coupling which severally
affects the efficiency of the available degrees of freedom and for some cases

it result in
loss of degrees of freedom. This would also result in loss of diversity gain normally
stated for multi
-
element antenna array as due to coupling the beam patterns are
correlated and also the impedance mismatching causes the power losses.

A th
ree element antenna array at 2.45 GHz will be fabricated on FR
-
4 substrate with
r
=4.4 placed at reduced distance of d= λ/8. In order to enhance the efficiency of beam
forming capability a matching network will be incorporated. This three port matching
ne
twork will generate orthogonal current vectors on antenna array which decouple the
elements in excitation. This decoupling and matching network will comprise of rat race
hybrid decoupler along with stub matching technique.

A compact array with improved ef
ficiency for beam forming scenario is achieved. This
type of array presents a suitable system for cognitive radio, interference cancellation
and beam directed application. An antenna array system with predefined orthogonal for
maximal diversity performance

and power matching is designed. MIMO systems,
Cognitive Radios, and mobile communications are typical application.


Syndicate Members:

Muhammad Asad

Muhammad Haisem Khan

Hassan Sultan Shah

Anse Irteza Butt

Supervisor:

Dr Farooq Ahmed Bhatti




NETWORK CONTROLLED EYE

In the present age man has explored most parts of the world. Geographical,
topographical and environmental information is just a click away. However, there still
are certain areas where human existence is very difficu
lt. These places cannot therefore
be humanly monitored all the time. Additionally, these areas may also pose danger to
precious human life. For many years now various groups and organizations have been
offering different solutions. Many governments monitor

such places using satellites.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have also been used. However, these tools provide
limited view and limited real time information of the area. Under these circumstances we
need a tool that provides us with monitoring capabilit
ies and real time information of
such areas. The above mentioned project aims to develop a tool that will assist us in
monitoring places where human existence is not possible or feasible.

In order to facilitate organizations belonging to various genres of

work such as defense,
wildlife, environmental and topographical data collection, the project aims to develop a
tele
-
operated unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) using a toy car. Due to its small size, the
UGV will be able to monitor and provide real time inform
ation of the sites where mobility
due to weather or some other constraints is limited. This information can be
manipulated according to the needs of the organization employing the UGV.

The project aims to develop a network based unmanned grounded vehicle
(UGV)
equipped with camera(s) for viewing and controlling its movement. Additionally, a GPS
is going to be mounted for location detection. The real time video and location
information collection will be based on the control data coming from the server
appl
ication.

The client side (UGV) consists of a controller board (ARM 11) which is used to control
the camera selection as well as the UGV movement (motor selection etc.), where the
input to the board is coming from the server end. It is interfaced with a mi
crocontroller
circuit controlling the motors. The server side is an application which displays the
movement of the UGV in form of a video as well as its location on a map. It also
includes a control system involving the movement control of the UGV as well
as camera
selection.


Syndicate Members:

Sarah Mahmood

Aqsa Malik

Supervisor:

Engr Muhammad Asim Rasheed




FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF HAND VEIN RECOGNITION SYSTEM

Previously, many biometric systems have been designed but all of them have been
broken. Biggest advantage is that veins of hands don’t change with time neither they
can be altered by some surgery. So a security system defined by recognizing veins of
the in
dividuals will be almost fool proof. This is an improvement in a sense that it can't
be broken into so easily.

The objective of the project proposed is to provide hardware execution hand veins
biometric identification system which is prone to data theft a
nd is cost effective as
compared to other biometric systems

The system involves four stages, namely image acquisition, image pre
-
processing,
feature extraction and image matching. Image acquisition is done through the camera.
In image pre
-
processing the c
aptured image is enhanced and processed before feature
extraction is done. There are nine sub processes in this stage. They are color to median
filtering, canny edge detection, resizing, thresh holding, median filtering 2, opening,
closing and thinning.The

feature extraction technique utilizes the minutiae point
extraction. The minutiae points include bifurcation points and ending points. These
feature points are used as a geometric representation of the shape of vein patterns.
After the successful simulati
on of the project on the software we will try to implement it
on FPGA. Image of the hand vein will be captured by camera which was connected to a
computer.

A model of the system has been executed. Hardware implementation is in progress.
System is being op
timized to provide efficient results with fast execution times and an
effort to increase database is also under consideration.


Syndicate Members:

Ammar Hassan

Ahmad Raza Khan

Umar Farooq

Supervisor:

Dr Adil Masood Siddique




AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR INSPECTION OF DEFECTIVE PRODUCTS

The project utilizes the basic concepts of Automation for the identification of defective
products. Automation is the use of control systems in along with other applications of
information technology to

control industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need
for human intervention. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond
mechanization. Whereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery to
assist them with the muscu
lar requirements of work, automation greatly reduces the
need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Processes and systems can
also be automated.

The field of Image Processing offers a rich, multi
-
disciplinary area of research, in which
a vari
ety of tools and concepts can be employed to address a diverse set of
applications. Automation can be used in a variety of environments due to its versatility.
Once a hardware platform is designed, many applications can be built using it and
further resear
ch can be done to improve the design.

The hardware being used in the project consists of a camera, a robotic arm and a
conveyer belt which would carry a complicated process of synchronization. However,
through a thorough literature survey along with a clo
se association with other research
groups working in this area locally, these issues will be resolved.The beneficiary of this
work can be better utilization of manpower by handing over the load to machinery which
can do it in a much efficient way.


Syndic
ate Members:

Hafiz Asif Khalil

Muhammad Munir

Attique
-
ur
-
Rehman

Dilawar Hussain

Supervisor:

Dr Adil Masood Siddique




BROADBAND TACTICAL ANTENNA

Pakistan Army has purchased the Harris and M3TR radio sets for military purposes to
fulfill the security and ruggedness demands of the battle field. Rhode & Schwarz tactical
radio M3TR has been in use in Pakistan Army for quite some time now. It is particu
larly
used for tactical, ground to air and long range communication. The type of antenna
incorporated by R&S is monopole. The M3TR software defined radio family is a new
generation of high
-
performance digital radios. It represents a revolutionary change, b
oth
technically and economically, in the tactical communications sector. The heart of the
new integrated communications system is the light
-
weight MR300xH/U transceiver (1.5
MHz to 108 MHz or 25 MHz to 512 MHz), which offers solutions for all aspects of
ta
ctical communications as well as uniform and reduced inter service logistics.

Currently R&S are using four different antennas with the radio set M3TR. In field area
where the situation is very fluid requires shifting from one frequency band to another to
cater for ground to ground and ground to air communication. This requires frequent
changing of antennas, due to lack of a single broadband antenna.

So, we endeavor to design a single broadband tactical antenna which will operate from
30 MHz to 512 MHz to
cover the complete range of frequencies of M3TR transceiver.
Hence a locally manufactured antenna at a low cost will be available for complete band
of M3TR, which will save resources and minimize dependency on R&S (Germany).


Syndicate Members:

M Danial
Shafi

Imran Khaliq

Tariq Nazir

Avaiz Khan Jadoon

Supervisor:

Dr. Farooq Ahmed Bhatti




DESIGN & OPTIMIZATION OF ANTENNA ARRAY FOR WIMAX BASE STATION

To increase the capacity and coverage in broadband data communication according to
the IEEE 802.16e WiMAX standard, an intelligent base station antenna with beam
-

and
null steering over a full circle is developed and optimized.

In this report a circular a
ntenna array of 8 vertical dipoles with a feeding network is
described, which provides m beams simultaneously in m directions for m subscribers
with a full coverage of 360°around the base station. By means of optimization
techniques it is either possible t
o provide a null without ambiguity in every direction, or
to optimize the side lobe attenuation by calculating the amplitudes and phases of every
antenna of the array.

With this, detection finding or location based services are also possible.

Conventiona
l base station antennas in existing operational systems are either
omnidirectional or placed in sectors. The greater part of the transmitted signal power is
radiated into directions other than toward the specific user. This causes interference,
reduces eff
iciency and the range of coverage. Especially in new broadband services as
WiMAX, where the user front
-
end is very simple, it becomes necessary to provide every
user with a specific beam offering enough gain to increase the range. It is also important
to r
educe interference by other users or services by means of beam forming in a way,
that either the side lobe attenuation of the base station antenna array as a whole is
optimized or by null steering. In rural areas a whole 360° degrees coverage around the
ba
se station is desired. This leads to the solution introduced here of circular antenna
arrays, a setup which can also be used for direction finding. The antenna array consists
of n vertical dipoles equally spaced on a ring with diameter d. This building blo
ck is
vertically stacked many times to achieve enough gain in the horizontal plane.


Syndicate Members:

Kashif Ehsan

Hafiz Rasheed Ahmed

Ilyas Khan

Supervisor:

Lec. Zeeshan Zahid




DEVELOPMENT OF JAMMER AGAINST CENTRALIZED REMOTE
CONTROL CAR
DOOR LOCKING SYSTEM BASED REMOTE CONTROL IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE
DEVICES

Pakistan is facing the menace of terrorism and terrorists have improved their methods
over time. This improvement has brought up new challenges for security forces. One
new induction among many other methods used by terrorists is the use of RF
-
IED. The
mos
t recent advancement in the RF
-
IEDs is the keyless entry equipment for cars being
used as trigger for IEDs.

The aim of the project is to design a jammer which can effectively jam the car remote
signal and thus provide a reliable solution against the trigg
ering of IED’s using keyless
entry systems. The jammer should provide enough protection radius so that in the event
of a blast taking place outside that area there should not be any significant harm.

Recently security forces stopped an attempt by terroris
ts and recovered the equipment
being used. That equipment was received by Signals RnD Dept. We carried out lab
testing and data was collected. The devices operate in two ranges i.e. 315 MHz and
433 MHz. On
-
Off Keying is the modulation scheme being used. Th
e maximum received
signal level of these devices is 30 dBm which is almost 1 watt.

Our jammer is operating in both 315 MHz and 433 MHz range with bands of 100 KHz
each. The jammer sweeps both bands at 10 KHz. Basic jamming principal requires that
jamming
signal to normal signal ratio should be 3:1. So our power output is 3 watts. The
protection distance is 15 to 20 meters. The output of both frequency ranges is being
done by a single antenna.


Syndicate Members:

Muhammad Mubeen

Saad Hassan

Haris Ahmed

Abdullah Sarwar

Supervisor:

Engr Asim Rasheed




LNA ASSEMBLY FOR GPS REPEATERS

Global positioning System is a space based satellite navigation system based on24
satellites. It is used to provide position, time and weather information. The idea of GPS
signaling and positioning is based on the constellation of 24 satellites.

The probl
em of GPS signals reception inside the closed buildings is a matter of concern
especially when it comes to military where positioning information can be very difficult
for a soldier in the battle field. To counter this problem there is a need of an LNA
ass
embly which will receive the GPS signals, amplify them and then retransmit them
inside the building so that any GPS receiver can receive those signals.

Our design frequency band is 1.4
-
1.6 GHz which covers the L1 band and GPS
frequency of 1.575 GHz. Our d
esign includes a receiving antenna, a low noise amplifier
assembly and the transmitting antenna. The receiving antenna will receive the mild
inside
-
building GPS signals, the signal will be amplified by the low noise amplifier
assembly and finally the trans
mitting antenna will retransmit those amplified signals
inside the building and any GPS receiver housed inside the building can then receive
those signals efficiently.


Syndicate Members:

Murad Khan

Umair Hassan

Jehangeer Khan

Maryem Tanveer

Supervisor:

Dr Farooq Ahmed Bhatti




HYBRIDIZED SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM

The latest crisis in Pakistan is the electrical power supply throughout the country. While
rolling blackouts or load shedding, as it’s locally known, has always been a staple of
daily life in Pakistan. Studies have shown that this problem has become acute
in the last
couple of years, paralyzing not only industry production but also affecting daily domestic
and commercial life. Pakistan is country blessed with abundance of sun energy.

Our projects deals with harvesting of this solar energy into a battery sy
stem and convert
it into usable electric energy in a way that it is much efficient than any of the available
equipment in the market and used in the industry. Such a solar efficiency is achieved by
using concepts of hybridization of solar energy with main
power supply along with a
pure sine inverter. Under present energy crisis, this system will not only meet the
energy necessities for domestic and commercial purposes in terms of reduced billings,
monetary investment and lasting battery output but will also

meet the power efficiency
and sensitivity energy requirements of the industry.

The system involves the usage of a microcontroller which is programmed to generate
pulses using pulse width modulation. Pulses widths are varied from minimum to
maximum and vi
ce versa. BJTs are used as a driver circuit for MOSFETS. MOSFETS
being efficient electronic switches perform the necessary current amplification required
to generate output of desired wattage. Ahead of MOSFETS is a centre tapped
transformer behaving as a h
alf bridge giving a near to sine wave at the output which is
filtered by a low pass filter. Hybridization, which is in fact dealing with charging of the
battery both with Solar and AC Main supply simultaneously in real time. This is achieved
by using Opera
tional Amplifiers.

The simulation for the desired work has been completed and the prototype has been
designed which is giving an output of near to sine wave. Presently work is in progress
on the correct filtering of the output of the pure sine inverter an
d also on the
hybridization section which is dealing with the charging of the battery.


Syndicate Members:

Hamza Ishtiaq

Zahid ul Islam

Waqas Ahmed

Asad Ahmed

Supervisor:

Birg(R) Muhammad Khan






UWB RF FRONT END SYSTEM

For a satellite free
coordinate location system for UAVs a relay system of UAVs is
eminent. The project is to design a beam steering array antenna for UAV to UAV relay
system. The project consists of high antenna array with beam steering facility and
Direction of Arrival (DOA)

Algorithm. The aim of this project is to design a UWB Front
End system for multi standard purposes. In this project we will design an UWB patch
antenna for 3 to 13 GHz band. Then three band pass filters tuned at standard wireless
bands will be designed. B
oth antenna and filters will be implemented on the same PCB.

Using one antenna for each individual band is costly, complex and space taking.
Instead we will design RF front end system for multiple bands where different bands will
be separated using microwa
ve filters. In this project we will design a UWB patch
antenna for 3 to 13 GHz band, this antenna will have constant gain of 4 dB or more over
entire and it will have nearly omni directional radiation pattern. Then we will divide the
received power of ante
nna by means of Wilkinson power divider. The operating range of
Wilkinson power divider will be same as UWB patch antenna.

Output ports of Wilkinson power divider are fed to band pass filters of desired
specification. Hence we are making a system which wil
l be for multi purposes as by
using single antenna we will receive WLAN band, Satellite C band, down link of x
-
band
satellite communication, MVDDS band simultaneously.

Project work will include:

• Analytical calculations, simulations in HFSS and ADS

• Ante
nna design

• Microwave Engineering

• Analog
Electronics






Syndicate Members:

Tariq Mahmood

Mudassir Khan

Asghar Mirza

Usman tariq

Supervisor:

Lec. Zeeshan Zahid



HANDY TOOL FOR IDENTIFICATION & TRACKING ON OPERATIONAL CANVAS

Identification &

tracking of objects, goods and people within any open or closed
environment is a very important issue which has a number of applications such as
tracking of goods & people, toll collection & in disaster management. The same is
equally important in the def
ense sector situations such as secure & rescue operations
where identification & tracking of soldiers & equipment is imperative.

HOCTAC is based on Zigbee networking technology; Zigbee is a specification for a
suite of high level communication protocols u
sing small, low power, cheap digital radios
based on an IEEE 802 standard for personal area networks.

In our scenario each participant of an operation will be equipped with unique ID based
Zigbee device, some Zigbee devices called Cluster Heads will have
GPS receivers to
get location and external antennas to enhance transmission range up to maximum 1
Km, other are end devices which will be communicating through the rest of network
through cluster heads. End devices won’t be equipped with GPS and external a
ntenna.
On generation of Stimulus from a base station, all the devices will transmit their
response to the base station in multihop fashion, the response message will comprise of

• Device EUI64 Unique Number (64 bytes)

• Role in Network (Coordinator (Clu
ster Head) ,End Device)

• Location Received by GPS

As stated before only Cluster Head devices will have GPS, so we will calculate the End
Device Location with respect to its Signal Strength Drop from Cluster Head.

On reception of response from all devic
es, base station will store all devices EUI64
number along with its Location. EUI64 number is mapped to a specific personal record
from database, and is plotted on to GOOGLE MAP.


Syndicate Members:

Umair Ali

Zain Javed

Muhammad Awais

Supervisor:

Dr Faisal Bashir







LIVE STREAM BOX

Previously there is little work done in the field of streaming video over low bandwidth
networks like EDGE and especially for hand devices i.e. mobiles. There are number of
groups running this idea for high bandwidth networks i.e. DSL, WIFI. There are IP
c
ameras and computer integrated cameras working for this purpose which allow user to
make account on streaming websites and then share live videos. Moreover many
commercial applications and products like QIK, Ustream.tv, LiveStream etc exist in the
industry

which provide live video streaming through IP based high quality cameras.

Our project Live StreamBox deals with streaming of videos over low bandwidth network
EDGE and only using android mobiles. This is a new self
-
contained product. While
mobiles device

can easily be kept in pocket and any time anyone can start capturing
video, which can be streamed to worldwide only using mobile internet facility over the
mobile network which is also available easily. Goal of this project is same as of IP
cameras but it

will provide ease of portability as very limited area can be covered with
DSL or WIFI networks.

This application will capture video output of the cell phone camera and upload it live to
the streaming server on the internet providing real time streaming.
Open source
streaming server based on REAL time streaming protocols of RTSP and RTP will be
configured for establishing and handling live streaming sessions. Web server will then
categorizes the video according to tags and any user from the world can acces
s any
video directly from the streaming server using our website.

It comprises Android Mobile Application development, Understanding the configuration
and architecture of streaming servers, Networking and session handling (RTSP, RTCP,
RTP protocols), Web
Development, Database management.


Syndicate Members:

Farhat Zaman

Nimrah Ashfaq

Zafar Mehmood

Supervisor: