New Mexico's Education Landscape: Geospatial Data Strategies

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Dec 11, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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New Mexico’s
Education
Landscape: Geospatial Data Strategies
By
Amy
Ballard
1
,
Angelo Gonzales
Ph.D.
1
,
Jason Timm
1
,
Peter Winograd Ph.D.
1
Introduction
Geospatial analysis is
less ubiquitous in education research than other issue
a
reas
with a
socio
-
economic
focus, such as public health and urban planning.
The power of this type of research and data presentation is undeniable, facilitating
visualization of patterns, such as the concentration of poverty or low test
scores in certain parts of a city. Over the past 2 years, the University of New Mexico
Center for Education Policy
Research (CEPR)
has made extensive use of geospatial data
p
resentation
and analysis to
inform legislative
policy decisions, assist local communities in
i
dentifying
their assets and challenges, and help foundations determine whether their
f
unding
strategies are equitable. This poster presents the range of techniques used at
CEPR to
engage and inform
about
education
-
related issues in
our state and the
country.
Data
Education research benefits from a deep
well of
data upon which to draw. Typical data
s
ets
include census
-
based demographic data; education
-
specific data from the National
Center for Education Statistics collected at the county, district and occasionally the school
levels;
federal data such as civil rights reporting information; data collected by groups such
as the Annie E. Casey Foundation, accessible from their Kids Count web page; and local data
collected by the New Mexico Public Education department and other institutions. An
e
xceptionally
rich data source is the
Centers for Disease Control’s
Youth
Risk Behavior
Survey
,
which compiles
student feedback on a range of topics from drug use
to
support of caring
adults. CEPR has relied on a variety of mapping techniques ranging
from simple description to analysis.
Techniques
Description:
Making the data accessible to all audiences
Painting the picture of urgency
Identifying risk, needs, and assets
Analysis:
Making sense of the data
Identifying gaps in resources
Setting priorities
Measuring impact
Action:
Using data for change
Providing a basis for advocacy
Strengthening public engagement
Developing policy
1
University of New Mexico Center for Education Policy
Research. 1 University of New Mexico,
Manzanita Hall, Room 119, MSC05 3040, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131
-
0001.
http://www.cepr.unm.edu
.
Showing Change Across the K
-
12 Continuum:
The Tide of Truancy
Elementary School
Middle School
High School
In the spirit if
Tufte’s
Small Multiples (
Tufte
1990) this series of maps shows truancy moving like a red
tide that engulfs Albuquerque Public Schools students by the time they are in high school. Maps such as
t
hese can lead to rich conversations, including the disparate causes of truancy at different school levels,
and the hidden issues associated with truancy such as dysfunctional reporting systems.
Reference:
Tufte
, Edward
1990 Envisioning Information. Graphics Press, LLC, New Haven
Creating An Index: Child Safety in Albuquerque
The CDC has identified several factors related to high risk for child maltreatment (
CDC,
2013). The following maps show areas where risks for these factors
are
lower and higher in Bernalillo County. The goal is to introduce a possible technique for identifying neighborhoods that may
ben
efit from resources.
The best opportunity for children to grow up without becoming victims of
maltreatment include:

Having
parents with higher education
levels;

Living
in a household with 2
parents;

Living
in a household with income above poverty
level;

Living
in a household with fewer dependent
children;

Living
in neighborhoods with low
unemployment;

Living
in neighborhoods where people have lived at least a year in the same
house;

Living
in neighborhoods with a lower density of alcohol outlets.
Education Greater Than AA
Degree
Few Families Living Under
Poverty Level
Few Single Parent
Households
Low Unemployment
Smaller Family Size
Low Residential Mobility
Few Alcohol Licenses
Combined Opportunity Map
Source: Unemployment, family size, single parent household, household
mobility, family poverty model input layers from the U.S. Census Bureau,
2010 Decennial Census, census tract level. Alcohol license data from New
Mexico Community Data Collaborative, compiled by New Mexico
Department of Health.
Centers for Disease Control
2013
Child Maltreatment: Risk and Protective Factors. CDC website
http
://
www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childmaltreatment/riskprotect
ivefactors.html
, retrieved March 2013.
Analyzing Gaps:
Where
Is Home Visiting Needed in New Mexico?
This map displays multiple
variables to
begin looking at needs and
gaps in
home visiting
services,
which provide support designed to prepare New Mexico’s youngest children for
educational success. For example, children with late prenatal care are particularly
vulnerable when it comes to educational preparation.
The polygon color and label
indicate
the
percentage
of
mother
s
who
received late
prenatal
care. The dot’s
location shows
the home office of a
home visiting
provider. Dot size
indicates
the provider’s
capacity. Dot color
indicates whether
the provider is state,
federally,
or
privately funded.
The relationship between opportunity for child safety and race can
b
e further explored by plotting the number of Hispanic children
u
nder the age of 5 on the combined map. A low opportunity
f
or these children is visually apparent.
Source: Truancy data from New Mexico Public Education Department
Website:
http
://www.ped.state.nm.us/it/schoolfactsheets.html
.
Numbers reflect students reported as habitual truants, those with more than 10
unexcused absences a school year. Data used below as well.
The map above shows a district elementary truancy rate of 8.2% for Albuquerque
Public Schools for the 2011
-
2012 school year.
Data Aggregation
Data
aggregation
refers
to
the
spatial
unit
used
to
display
data
and
includes
a
dministrative boundaries such as counties, states and countries. Education
d
ata
are frequently
reported for both districts and schools. In the example below,
using school attendance boundaries as the aggregation unit allows for a more
nuanced look at truancy data and facilitates comparisons between schools
within a district.
This map shows the range of
elementary school truancy
rates, from .4% to 26.2%. We
can also see a spatial pattern of lower truancy rates in the northeast part of the city.
Elementary Truancy
0.4% - 2.8%
2.9% - 6.4%
6.5% - 10.1%
10.2% - 15.1%
15.2% - 26.2%
15.2% - 26.2%
Telling
A Story: The Path To
College Graduation and Career
Albuquerque faces many educational challenges, including successfully graduating students from public high school. This seri
es
of maps tells the story of the
combined impact of outcomes in elementary and middle school, culminating in low high school graduation rates. This pattern c
ont
inues, ultimately reflected
in the many parts of Albuquerque which have low percentages of individuals without bachelor’s degrees. States with low perce
nta
ges of citizens with at least
a bachelor’s degree have been shown to have lower per capita income, worse health outcomes, higher reliance on federal aid wi
th
lower tax income,
and lower
voting rates.
1. Percentage of Albuquerque (APS) 3
rd
grade
s
tudents
proficient or advanced in reading, shown by
elementary school attendance boundaries.
2. Percentage of APS 8th grade
s
tudents proficient or
advanced in math, shown by middle school attendance
boundaries.
3.
Four
-
Year APS
high
s
chool
g
raduation
r
ate
, all
students,
class
of 2012, by high school boundary.
4. University of New Mexico
six
-
year graduation
Rate,
by
s
ending
h
igh school.
5. Percentage of Albuquerque
residents
with a
bachelor’s
d
egree
or
higher
by census tract.
6. Percentage
of Individuals 25
-
64
years
o
f
a
ge
with
a
h
igh
s
chool diploma
o
nly
w
ho
a
re unemployed,
by census tract.
High School Diploma
Unemployment
8.1% - 10%
10.1% - 34.8%
0% - 8% (at or below national average)
10.1% - 34.8%
Source: Prenatal care data from New Mexico Department of Health Indicator Based Information System (IBIS)
website:
http://
ibis.health.state.nm.us/
Home visiting provider data from providers, current as of January 2013.
Sources: Standards Based Assessment data from New Mexico Public Education Department (NMPED) website
http
://
www.ped.state.nm.us/AssessmentAccountability/AcademicGrowth/NMSBA.html
; graduation rate data from NMPED website; University of New
Mexico six
-
year graduation rate from UNM Office of Institutional Analytics; educational attainment and employment data from U.S.
Census Bureau.
Source: Truancy data from New Mexico Public Education Department
Website:
http://www.ped.state.nm.us/it/schoolfactsheets.html
.
.
Family Visits Funded