CIESIN Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development

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Dec 11, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Day 2 - Working with high resolution global data
Introduction to GRUMP
Global Urban Rural Mapping Project
CIESIN Workshop on Geospatial Analysis
for Attaining the Millennium Development
Goals and Sustainable Development
Location:
Center for Remote Sensing of Land
Surfaces (ZFL),
University of Bonn, April 20-24 2009
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Global Urban-Rural Mapping Project (GRUMP)
Project Leader: Deborah Balk, formerly
CIESIN now City University of New
York
Institutional Partners:
– CIESIN
– The World Bank
– International Food Policy
Research Institute
– Center for International
Agriculture of the Tropics
Website:
http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/
Status: alpha version available for
download. Beta version ready and
available at request;not yet posted
on the website.
Edwin Adkins
Sonya Ahamed
Bridget Anderson
Melanie Brickman
Greg Booma
Marc Levy
Lisa Lukang
Valentina Mara
Maria Muniz
Francesca Pozzi
Chris Small
Adam Storeygard
Maarten Tromp
Greg Yetman
Jordon Chamberlin, IFPRI
Uwe Deichmann, World Bank
Chris Elvidge, NOAA
Glenn Hyman, CIAT
Andy Nelson, Leeds/JRC
Kate Sebastian, IFPRI
Stan Wood, IFPRI
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
GRUMP vs. United Nations population data
National Statistical Offices report population data to the UN Statistical Division,
yet they are not
responsible with publishing sub national and geospatial data.
GRUMP’s aim: to understand patterns of urbanization that
systematically incorporates spatial and demographic data.
UN Population Division emphasis on cities with 750,000 persons or more, a
small percent of the total number of cities
GRUMP doesn’t use any minimum for settlement size.
UN Population Division publishes data for individual cities over time, reported
at irregular intervals.
GRUMP estimates population to 1990, 1995 and 2000
UN Population Division publishes data in tabular format only.
GRUMP data is available in tabular and spatial format(1km
resolution)
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
GRUMP – basic steps
Find places names with
Population size (no min. size set)
Geographic co-ordinates
Estimate
Population to the target years (1990, 1995, 2000)
Urban boundaries
Aggregate
Population data to urban agglomerates
Derive population grid reallocated to urban areas
Validate with administrative pop data
Calculate “true” population estimate of urban extent
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
GRUMP Input data sources
Population data
CENSUS: published reports or national statistical institutes websites
India:
http://www.censusindia.gov.in
Population: 11,978,450
GRUMP: 11,914,398 (the difference
probably due to provisionary data)
UN: 8,892,076
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
World Gazetteer:
http://www.world-gazetteer.com
GRUMP Input data sources
Population data
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
City Population:
http://www.citypopulation.de/
GRUMP Input data sources
Population data
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development

World Gazetteer

City Population

Falling Rain

Google Earth
National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA)
GRUMP Input data sources
Goereference data
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Human settlement points
Name Latitude Longitude Admin_name CoordsSource Data Source Pop95 Pop00 Update
ADIEMBRA 6.60 -2.01 AFCities 1335 1470 3
AFLAO 6.12 1.19 VOLTA REGION AFCities 32919 40288 1
AGOGO 6.80 -1.08 ASHANTI REGION AFCities 1984 Population Census of Ghana, Preliminary Report 29596 36220 3
ABOFOUR 7.13 -1.75 ASHANTI REGION NIMA 1984 Population Census of Ghana, Preliminary Report 10445 12784 3
ABURA DUNKWA
5.33 -1.17 CENTRAL NIMA 1984 Population Census of Ghana, Preliminary Report 8230 10072 3
ABURI 6.43 -1.97 EASTERN REGION NIMA 1984 Population Census of Ghana, Preliminary Report 11395 13946 3
ACCRA 5.55 -0.22 GREATER ACCRA REGION NIMA 1984 Population Census of Ghana, Preliminary Report 1360445 1664978 1
ADA-FOAH 5.77 0.63 GREATER ACCRA REGION AFCities 1984 Population Census of Ghana, Preliminary Report 8705 10653 3
AGOMANYA 6.15 0.02 EASTERN REGION NIMA 1984 Population Census of Ghana, Preliminary Report 13769 16851 1
175 settlements
Number of settlements with > 1000
people: 73
Population estimates:
Total population (2000): 21,212,000
Urban Settlements (2000): 6,879,561=
32%
UN estimated proportion urban = 38%
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Exercise 1:
Review your country’s GRUMP human settlements dataset
1.Open ArcMap on your workstation (Start>Programs>ArcGIS>ArcMap).
2.Add your country’s area grid: from the Toolbar’s main menu, Add
Data >Users>GRUMP>”your country’s folder” > %iso%uareag (iso is
country 3 letter ISO code). Change symbology to a lighter color.
3.Add your country’s point file: Click Add Data >Users>GRUMP>”your
country’s folder” > %iso%p
4.Open attribute table to explore the list of cities, and their location
Right click on the points file (%iso%p), and choose to Open attribute
table . How many cities are included in GRUMP?Please write your
comments regarding the validity of this dataset.
5.Zoom in to the city where you are currently residing, or some other
city that you are familiar with. Examine the data inputs: population,
name of the city, coordinates, data source.
6.
Save map as “country name _GRUMP”, and save it to the GRUMP
working folder
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
GRUMP Input data sources - Global Night Time Lights
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
GRUMP Input data sources - Other spatial datasets:
Digital Chart of the World (DCW)’s Populated Places:
An ESRI product originally developed for the US Defense Mapping Agency
(DMA) using DMA data and currently available at 1:1,000,000 scale (1993
version). The “populated places” coverage is available for most countries and
contains depictions of the urbanized areas (built-up areas) of the world that
are represented as polygons at 1:1,000,000 scale.
Tactical Pilotage Charts (TPC):
Standard charts produced by the Australian Defense Imagery and
Geospatial Organization, at a scale of 1:500,000, originally designed to provide
an intermediate scale translation of cultural and terrain features for
pilots/navigators flying at very low altitudes. Each chart contains information
on cultural, drainage/hydrography, relief, distinctive vegetation, roads, sand
ridges, power lines, and topographical features. Settlements are reported both
as polygons and points. Polygons and points were digitized for a
number of countries, especially where lights and DCW data did not adequately
delimit urban areas.
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Urban Extent Dataset
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Assigning population to extents
• Select settlements with 3 km buffer
of the urban extents
• Assign population from settlement
to urban extents
– If multiple points present, the
sum of all the pop. will be
assigned to the extent
• Assign name of city (or biggest city)
to extent
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Predicting areas when only population information is known
• Log-transformed regression to
estimate areal extents for points
not within 3 km buffer
– Based on settlements with
>1,000 and < 100,000 pop.
– Predict area and radius
based on relationship
between area and pop. for
points with known
parameters
• Creation of circles
– Intersecting circles merged
– Adjustments made for
coastal proximity and circles
intersecting lights
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Predicting areas when only population information is known
• Log-transformed regression to estimate areal
extents for points not within 3 km buffer
– Based on settlements with >1,000 and <
100,000 pop.
– Predict area and radius based on
relationship between area and pop. for
points with known parameters
• Creation of circles
– Intersecting circles merged
– Adjustments made for coastal proximity and
circles intersecting lights
• Assemble all the populated urban extents
lights + circles
Human Settlement Mask
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Exercise 2:
Review your country’s GRUMP urban extent dataset
1.Add to the “country name_GRUMP” map the country’s urban mask:
from the Toolbar’s main menu, Add Data >Users>GRUMP>”your
country’s folder” > %iso%mask (iso is country 3 letter ISO code)
2.
Change the map display of urban extents: Right click on the mask
and choose Properties > Symbology, and map Quantities of variable
ES00POP, with gradient brown colors.
3.
Write your comments regarding the urban extents. Are there many
lights without settlement points?
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Reallocating Population for the Population Grid
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Summary of concerns
On the lights
They “bloom”. Footprints are (probably) too large.
Not completely systematic; poor economies have disproportionately fewer
lights
Static. Current data are from 1994/95 data set. New methods may be
necessary to use data for other time periods.
Unclear whether change in lights will reflect change in extents or
simply new sources of wealth/light.
On the settlement points
Lots are missing. About half of the lights globally cannot be matched to
settlements.
Typological confusion.
Equivalency between admin and urban areas not always clear.
Poor institutional structure for collection of this information.
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Urbanization and ecosystems – why do we care?
Population size by ecosystem
Population Estimates (000s)
Ecosystem Total Urban Rural % Urban
Coastal 1,167,894 750,189 417,705 64.2
Cultivated 4,233,490 2,017,148 2,216,342 47.6
Dryland 1,814,689 778,089 1,036,600 42.9
Forest 1,127,767 407,850 719,917 36.2
Inland Water 1,512,754 813,857 698,897 53.8
Mountain 1,141,898 350,434 791,465 30.7
Global 6,084,297 2,910,324 3,173,973 47.8
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Urbanization and ecosystems – why do we care?
Land area by ecosystem
Land Areas (square kilometers)
Ecosystem Total Urban Rural % Urban
Coastal 6,486,960 756,902 5,730,058 11.7
Cultivated 35,424,419 2,877,159 32,547,260 8.1
Dryland 56,598,773 1,587,182 55,011,591 2.8
Forest 41,850,194 1,053,552 40,796,642 2.5
Inland Water 29,014,306 1,149,358 27,864,948 4.0
Mountain 32,045,142 758,142 31,287,000 2.4
Global 130,280,047 4,591,699 125,688,348 3.5
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Urbanization and ecosystems – why do we care?
Population density by ecosystem
Population Density (persons/km
2
)
Ecosystem Total Urban Rural
Coastal 180 991 73
Cultivated 120 701 68
Dryland 32 490 19
Forest 27 387 18
Inland Water 52 708 25
Mountain 36 462 25
Global 47 634 25
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Urbanization and ecosystems – why do we care?
Coasts

Densely settled and appear to have experienced more growth than other
ecological zones (Balk et al, 2008), but expose residents to seaward hazards:
cyclones, erosion, floods, but also climate change.
 Inland water

risk for floods, erosion
 Cultivated areas

More land has been converted to cropland since 1945 than in the 18th and
19th centuries combined.
 Drylands

Water scarcity limits the production of crops, forage, wood, and other
ecosystem provisioning services
 Mountains, forests
• natural forest stock is in decline; as urban settlements size expands, we
need to monitor the human influence on these ecosystems
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Urban population density (2000, persons per km square)
by ecosystem and continent
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Workshop on Geospatial Analysis for Attaining
the Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development
Thank you!