UNIT TITLE:Further Thermodynamics

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UNIT TITLE:

Further Thermodynamics

CREDIT POINTS: 10

UNIT CODE:
WEM014

FHEQ LEVEL: 5

DELIVERING FACULTY: MarTec

Unit Designation: Traditional

School: Professional Studies

Date validated:
21 March 2012

Date last modified:

Unit delivery model:

PC

Max Student No.: N/A


TOTAL STUDENT WORKLOAD


Students are required to attend and participate in all the formal timetabled sessions for
the unit. Students are also expected to manage their directed learning and independent
study in support of the unit.


Where normal timetabled sessions do not take place, additional directed learning may be
provided, and/or students are expected to undertake additional independent learning.


PREREQUISITES AND CO
-
REQUISITES


None
.


UNIT DESCRIPTION


This unit applies the pr
inciples and methodology applicable to marine thermal plant as
introduced at Level 4. It enables students to achieve the requirements for MCA
exemptions in Applied Heat at both Second and Chief Engineer level and meets the
requirements of the MCA Applied H
eat syllabus.



Modern marine vessels use a wide range of complex thermal plant including turbines,
compressors, reciprocating pumps and engines, boilers, condensers, nozzles, refrigerators
and heat pumps. The efficient operation and management of such pl
ant requires an
understanding of the underlying thermodynamic principles which this unit will provide.


The unit deals with the generation of heat, the transfer of heat and the laws governing
the transformation of heat energy into other forms of energy.

It also covers the effects of
these energy types on substances typically used in marine thermal plant, including air,
water/steam and refrigerant substances. The unit takes the fundamental applied heat
principles and applies them to a range of thermal p
lant, enabling analysis of the plant
cycles and evaluation of the efficiency, performance and how these key indicators can be
improved.




LEARNING OUTCOMES


On successful completion of the unit, students should be able to:


Knowledge and Understanding


K1.

Interpret relevant data, principles and concepts appropriately across the field of
marine thermal plant thermodynamics.


Cognitive Skills


C1.

Independently analyse and evaluate complex theoretically and empirically
-
derived
thermodynamic data relevant

to marine thermal plant.


Transferable and Key Skills


T1.

Interpret and communicate ideas and essential data effectively and present
convincing conclusions/solutions.

T2.

Consistently demonstrate an analytic and diagnostic approach to problem solving.


AREAS OF STUDY


Heat Transfer:

Fourier’s laws, surface heat transfer coefficients and overall heat transfer
coefficient ‘U’, heat transfer through composite thick cylinders, spheres and hemispheres.
Types of heat exchanger, parallel and counter current flo
w, log mean temperature
difference, effectiveness.


Combustion:
Avagadro’s Law, Dalton’s Laws, kg
-
mol, Molar Volume, Combustion equations
by volume, Exhaust gas analysis by mass and volume for Wet and Dry conditions,
Incomplete combustion, mean molecular m
ass, mean specific heat capacity, Dew point,
Heat losses through exhaust products.


Entropy:
Concept of entropy, Temperature


Entropy (T
-
S) relationships for
thermodynamic processes, change of entropy, Use of T
-
S diagrams.


Heat engine cycles
: 2
nd

law of
thermodynamics, theoretical engine cycles: Carnot, Joule,
Otto, Diesel and dual combustion cycle, p
-
V and T
-
s diagrams, thermal efficiency, ASE,
practical engine cycles.


Gas turbines:

open and closed cycle, isentropic efficiency, heat exchanger ‘effective
ness’
and ‘thermal ratio’, improvements, p
-
v and T
-
s diagrams, thermal efficiency, work and
heat transfer.


Reciprocating air compressors:

gas laws applied to air compressors, single and
multistage, p
-
V diagrams, V
C
, V
E
, V
S
, volumetric efficiency, clearance ratio, polytropic and
isothermal work done, multistage intercooling and minimum work, isothermal efficiency,
energy balance, indicated power and brake power.


Steam processes and cycles:

Carnot cycle, Rankine cycle, entro
py H
-
s and T
-
s diagrams,
isentropic efficiency, thermal efficiency, super heating, subcooling, reheating, feed
heating, heat balance, feed pump work, Dalton’s law of partial pressures and steam air
mixtures.


Nozzles and Steam turbines:

equilibrium nozzle flows and velocities, isentropic and
actual enthalpy drops, convergent/ divergent nozzle forms, critical pressure ratio,
choking, mass flow rates and areas, turbine compounding


velocity and pressure, velocity
diagrams for impulse and
reaction types, blade friction and leaving losses, stage
power/diagram efficiency, axial thrust, degree of reaction, blade heights, stage
requirements, blade friction effects


speed ratio.


Refrigeration and heat pumps:

Carnot cycle, entropy, p
-
h and T
-
s
diagrams, super
heating, sub cooling, mass flow, refrigerating effect, capacity, COP, compressor
volumetric efficiency, intermediate liquid cooling, flash chambers.


LEARNING AND TEACHING STRATEGY


This mathematically based unit will be delivered as a seri
es of lectures, interspersed with
small group tutorial sessions during which students are expected to work on tutorial
worksheets covering the relevant topic with limited lecturer guidance and assistance.


The worksheets will consist of mathematical ques
tions to allow the students to put into
practice the application of principles to the solving of simulated problems thus supporting
the lecture material. Students are also expected to complete the worksheets in their own
time, asking for additional guidan
ce from the lecturer as required, thus enabling them to
develop for themselves suitable methodologies for their own learning. The worksheets will
be available on the unit MyCourse page and worked answers will be made available after a
suitable time period.

Students will be responsible for their own learning and maintaining
their progress through the worksheets.


ASSESSMENT STRATEGY


The worksheets provide an ongoing form of formative feedback giving the student and
lecturer a regular means of monitoring pr
ogress. In addition to the tutorial worksheets,
the unit will use a practical laboratory investigation (AE1) to summatively assess the
student’s understanding and ability in a limited subject topic area. Working in small
groups allocated by lecturing staf
f, the students will run items of thermal plant, capturing
and recording appropriate data to complete the investigation. From this they will generate
an individual report. Feedback from this investigation will provide an important formative
aspect, thus p
reparing the student for subsequent learning on the unit.


The unit will also use a written examination (AE2), designed to
provide a more
comprehensive and in
-
depth summative assessment of analytical and evaluative ability
across a broader range of subject

topic areas. This will be achieved by assessing the
remaining elements of the syllabus via a section of compulsory questions and a section of
optional questions.


ASSESSMENT


AE1

weighting:



20%

assessment type:


Practical investigation

anonymous

marking:


Yes


length;




Not applicable

AE2

weighting:



80%

assessment type:


Closed book written examination

length/duration:


2 hours

anonymous marking:


Yes


Aggregation & Re
-
assessment Rules


Marks for the two elements will be aggregated to produce an overall mark for the unit.
Students who have attended the laboratory session but are referred on the assignment
(AE1) will be required to revise and resubmit the report after feedback by the tuto
r. A
copy of the original report will be held by the tutor for comparison after resubmission.
Referral for the examination will consist of a resit paper.



Unit Author:

F. Clark